4 communication levels


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4 communication levels

  1. 1. Communication Levels Dr. Eduardo Bustos Farías
  2. 2. Communication Levels <ul><li>Intrapersonal (internal conversations; talking to yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>>Working together (task goal) </li></ul><ul><li>>Strengthening relations (maintenance goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Group/Team to achieve greater output </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>>Groups and teams working together within supporting structure </li></ul><ul><li>>The organization addressing its internal audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul><ul><li>>The organization addressing its external audiences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Formal and Informal Communication <ul><li>Formal: Organization chart </li></ul><ul><li>Communication flows along structure designed to support goal achievement </li></ul><ul><li>More vertical than horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>More controlled, but slower and less flexible; often trusted less </li></ul><ul><li>Informal: Uncharted </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to flow horizontally within management layers </li></ul><ul><li>Geometrically fast (ripples in a pond), but uncontrolled and often inaccurate (the grapevine and rumor) </li></ul><ul><li>Channels can be charted with periodic communication audits </li></ul><ul><li>Harness both with corporate culture, openness, controlled input, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is language so difficult? <ul><li>Chomsky’s hierarchy of languages </li></ul>Type of grammar Theoretical machine Type 0: All formal languages <ul><ul><li>Turing machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1: Context-sensitive </li></ul></ul>Bounded Turing machine Type 2: Context-free Non-deterministic push-down automaton Type 3: Regular languages Finite state machine
  5. 5. FACTOID The average employee receives about 190 communications a day by paper, voicemail, email, phone, etc. from a Pitney-Bowes survey
  6. 6. Communication Within Organizations <ul><li>Organizational communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of communication at the organizational level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose is to facilitate achievement of organizational goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the use of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Communication Networks Adapted from Exhibit 9-2: Communication Networks Y Network Wheel Network All Connected Network Circle Network Centralized Networks Decentralized Networks
  8. 8. Direction of Organizational Communication <ul><li>Downward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From supervisor to subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information on organization policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inform associates about the organization’s goals and changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Direction of Organizational Communication <ul><li>Upward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From subordinate to supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grievance procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Departmental meetings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward communication may be necessary to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the effectiveness of decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain associate morale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that jobs are being done properly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Direction of Organizational Communication <ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between associates at the same level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates coordination among organizational units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May arise from integrating positions (boundary-spanning positions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360-degree performance feedback </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal vs. informal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal includes spontaneous interactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal may reach more associates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal can help build cohesion and friendship among associates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal may include untrue rumors and gossip </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Communication Media <ul><li>Effective managers use richer media when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message becomes more equivocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message is more important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They need to present a positive self-image </li></ul></ul>Face-to-face Formal numerical text Formal written text Personal written text Electronic messaging Telephone Do you know which media are richer? Least rich Richest
  13. 13. Communication <ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal – face to face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. FACE-TO-FACE <ul><li>Most people prefer to get information face-to-face, especially from their immediate supervisor </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Benefits (face-to-face) <ul><li>Opens two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for immediate response to questions, misinterpretations, feedback, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of voice and body language </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Challenges ( face-to-face ) <ul><li>Use in-person communication when you have to share information that will affect the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Use for performance evaluations and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use when the information being communicated needs immediate attention </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to answer questions directly and immediately </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Do’s and Don’ts (face-to-face) <ul><li>DO -- give people your undivided attention -- listen, really listen, give full attention </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- give people honest, direct and comprehensive information </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- treat people’s ideas and concerns as critical and serious - EMPOWER THEM </li></ul>
  18. 18. Face-to-Face cont….. <ul><li>DON’T -- tell people “what”, tell them “why, how, and the larger picture” </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- make the conversation one-way. Invite responses -- discuss and debate </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- answer the phone or take a call when someone is in your office </li></ul>
  19. 19. Face-to-Face cont... <ul><li>DON’T -- wait too long to ask for (or to give) feedback, gather information immediately </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- hold back bad news. Treat people as intelligent adults, they want to hear the truth </li></ul>
  20. 20. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Communication that takes place without using language, such as facial expressions or body language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language (kinesics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of hands, arms, legs and posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralanguage (How something is said) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tone and pitch of voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of silence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrugging one’s shoulders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal communication provides information about the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person’s attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behavior may support or conflict with a person’s verbal communication </li></ul>
  22. 22. What is Business Communication? <ul><li>Something you think you already know how to do. Therefore, you are preparing yourself for 14 weeks of boredom….. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Communication and Organizations <ul><li>Communication is not a secondary or derived aspect of organizations--it is not a “helper” </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is an intrinsic, inherent, defining feature of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>“ No human relationship could be maintained, no organizational objective achieved, no activities coordinated and no decisions reached without communication.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unique Perspectives on Communication in Organizations <ul><li>Downward communication (superior to subordinate) </li></ul><ul><li>Upward communication (subordinate to superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal communication (among colleagues) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal communication (the grapevine) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Communication Flows <ul><li>Organizational communication flows downward, upward and sideways (rock-in-a-pond, 360 degrees) </li></ul><ul><li>Downward </li></ul><ul><li>> Often policy or goal statement designed to spark plans, processes feedback and action </li></ul><ul><li>> Also requests for information or action </li></ul><ul><li>> Grows as it flows because each level clarifies content or combats distortion </li></ul>
  26. 26. Communication Flows <ul><li>Upward </li></ul><ul><li>> Generally feedback, resource requests or reports of results </li></ul><ul><li>> Danger of diffidence leads to lack of full disclosure (“Tell him what he wants to hear.”) </li></ul><ul><li>> Effective only if lower levels trust upper levels </li></ul><ul><li>> Can lead to disastrous decision-making when not open and honest </li></ul>
  27. 27. Communication Flows <ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>> This breaks down barriers and provides the coordination that enables a company to function successfully </li></ul><ul><li>> The foundation of cross-functional teamwork (like an assembly line) </li></ul><ul><li>> The single most important element in successfully implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Strategic Forces Influence Communication <ul><li>Legal and Ethical Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>> International, federal and state laws and regulations prohibit certain communications in certain circumstances (what you can ask in job interviews and applications, stockholder information, Sarbanes-Oxley, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>> Corporate and personal ethical considerations also set limits and boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>> Violating these considerations put Enron, Mitsubishi, WorldCom and Andersen accounting into deep trouble or out of business </li></ul><ul><li>> Pressure will fall on you to protect the company’s reputation and your own. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Examples <ul><li>Angry at an adverse performance review, an employee leaks confidential product information to a friend at a competitor </li></ul><ul><li>You are pressured by your boss to falsify sales to meet unrealistic “stretch” goals </li></ul><ul><li>You report excessive company-car mileage to make up for personal, on-the-road calls the company won’t reimburse </li></ul><ul><li>To help meet budget, you have a software program installed in 50 department computers when you paid the developer for only one copy </li></ul><ul><li>You and your fellow corporate officers withhold information on adverse company performance to avoid negatively affecting the stock price </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why Does It Happen? <ul><li>Unrealistic corporate expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Misplaced corporate loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Self-interest (greed) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking you can get away with it </li></ul><ul><li>Bad examples at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to take a stand (no spine) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Framework for Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas <ul><li>Illegal and Unethical: Usually obvious, but beware in unfamiliar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal, but Ethical: May be tempted to break a law you disagree with, but beware of penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Legal, but Unethical: Legal or not, would you want this action in the newspaper with your name attached to it? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Legal and Ethical The Pagano Model <ul><li>Legal and Ethical: This one looks simple, but use the Pagano Model to make sure. </li></ul><ul><li>> Is it legal? </li></ul><ul><li>> What benefits/costs for people involved? </li></ul><ul><li>> Would you want this as a universal standard? </li></ul><ul><li>> Does it pass the red-face test? </li></ul><ul><li>> Does it pass the golden-rule test? </li></ul><ul><li>> Does it pass the ventilation (wise friend) test? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Diversity Challenges <ul><li>Diversity challenges communication because it requires sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Toyota advertising diversity panel </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s “flag” mistake in UK for World Cup Soccer matches (Koran in the trash) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural faux pas are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Do your homework. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Culture and Communication <ul><li>Culture affects values and perceptions which can, in turn, create barriers to communication. </li></ul><ul><li>> Ethnocentrism: mentally imposing your cultural norms on other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>> Stereotypes: r epresentative of a class, not an individual; ROWG (Rich Old White Guy) What do you perceive? </li></ul><ul><li>> Chronemics: t he value of time; “Time is money.” </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cross-Culture Communication <ul><li>Personal Space: What approachability limits do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesics: Different gestures and postures may mean different things in different cultures (“Okay” sign means zero in France, money in Japan, and ---- in Brazil) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Lack: two, three, one </li></ul>
  36. 36. Legal and Ethical Implications of Technology <ul><li>Technology is Seductive </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of privacy issues </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright of “net” information </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns customer information? </li></ul><ul><li>Keystroke or site monitoring of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating data from multiple sources without permission </li></ul><ul><li>76% of Americans believe they have lost all control of their personal information </li></ul>
  37. 37. Communication Types <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicators; Intentionally orienting toward each other; As both subject and object; Embodying each other’s perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender transmitting to large, diverse, heterogeneous, anonymous, geographically dispersed, and socially distant audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of interpersonal or mass communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies based on group not individual </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Interpersonal vs. Mass Communication <ul><li>Is multimedia a form of interpersonal communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans have programmed most of a computer’s response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single person typically uses a multimedia presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, there is a development team, and a perhaps wider audience of users </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Relationship Aspect in Communication <ul><li>Relationship between the sender and receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two friends talking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ a Mother’s kiss” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reading a news paper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using a dictionary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With changes in technology, perhaps “mass” communication is not necessarily impersonal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online agents that can learn about individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., chat room “robots” </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Changes in Audience Sizes <ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing to reach smaller, more defined audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal profiles for online news </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing to reach broader, more diverse audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal web pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online discussion groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Traditional Dimensions: Available Information & Control <ul><li>Available Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological information about the other party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus cultural & sociological information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural & sociological information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of control over message content with both sender & receiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., when you are talking to someone, you can control what you want to hear, to a degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver has low degree of control over message content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. More Borders Falling <ul><li>Traditionally, the following dimensions have distinguished between mass and interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of feedback & interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social distance (social barriers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous vs. nonsynchronous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>See also Table 5.1 on page 285 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Aside: Do Computers Reduce Costs? <ul><li>“ with the addition of new graphics and other multimedia systems, the cost of producing mass communications may be even greater” (p. 283) </li></ul><ul><li>Another example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries used to have physical card catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At that time the question was: Is it cost effective to put the card catalogs online? </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Assumption - 1 <ul><li>“ a multimedia producer should attempt to simulate interpersonal communication as closely as possible” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the assumption? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Assumption - 2 <ul><li>Mass communication = bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Less effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal = good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., More effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailoring to the learning style of an individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a more personalized product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, lessons from mass media can be applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., attention grabbing & holding, entertainment </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Levels of Interactivity <ul><li>Broadcast TV </li></ul><ul><li>Cable TV </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control activity with keyboard, joystick, game paddle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical interaction: responses to situations, answers to questions, user directives issued </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia productions </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face communication </li></ul>
  47. 47. Interactivity <ul><li>Interpersonal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects: mutual discourse, exchangeable roles, control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ degree to which participants in a communication process have control over, and can exchange roles in, their mutual discourse” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity tends to be higher with one-on-one communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Key ingredients”: immediacy of response, nonsequential access to information, adaptability, feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Optimal interactivity occurs when there is a balance of control between the human learner and the computer” </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. “ Key Ingredients” Applied to Multimedia - 1 <ul><li>Immediacy of response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed with which program replies to user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The closer to instantaneous the response rate can be, the less artificial a multimedia interaction seems to a user, that is, the more ‘transparent’ the medium appears” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response rates over two seconds distract user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus more on computer rather than task </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. “ Key Ingredients” Applied to Multimedia - 2 <ul><li>Nonsequential access to information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic shifts in conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia should allow access to information in a user defined order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One order of access may not be suitable for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still: Would like a level of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailoring messages to interests, abilities, goals of user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., options for user interface; profiles for the user </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. “ Key Ingredients” Applied to Multimedia - 3 <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information provided from user to program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal material (spoken, typed), positional information, timing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Conversational Management - 1 <ul><li>The fine grain detail of body language (“kenesics”), vocal behaviors, and also verbal aspects regulating one-on-one communication </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration, pauses, pitch, intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants generally match and reciprocate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ presently, all such programs are oriented primarily toward content recognition and analysis, not toward vocal behavior” (In research, this is not true!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See KISMET at MIT; Infanoid at CRL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirability in programs? Cost-effectiveness?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the use of vocal behavior change the quality of human-computer interaction? </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Conversational Management - 2 <ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a systematic study of the relationship between nonlinguistic body motions (as blushes, shrugs, or eye movement) and communication” (Merriam-Webster Online; with audio pronunciation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language: eye gaze, proximity, facial expressions, hand gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of decreased proximity between conversational partners include: decreasing eye gaze by second party, changes in body orientation, decreases in response duration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In a multimedia production, it is not possible for a computer to move closer to a user or to exhibit body language”, except </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanoid robotics & related research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanoid graphical surrogates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Aside: What is a Computer? <ul><li>Is a computer incapable of motion? </li></ul><ul><li>Modern personal computers have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejectable devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a robot? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Conversational Management - 3 <ul><li>Verbal Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words, phrases uttered & meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity in self-disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language choice, dialect, pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps a program can assess vocabulary choice of the user? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could be spoken, typing, or action-based </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Goals of Interaction in Multimedia <ul><li>“ interpersonal communication is often thought of as the ultimate form of [human] communication interactivity” </li></ul><ul><li>Mutuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A multimedia developer should not consider a user as passive; people are active! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic, changing, mutual interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User should not be simply the recipient of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should have an unfolding dialog </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Another Definition of Interactivity: Steuer (1992) <ul><li>“ the degree to which users of a medium can influence the form or content of the mediated environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of different elements under viewer control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent to which the elements can be varied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which input can be assimilated into mediated environment & responses can be presented to user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of relating actions of user to those of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must reflect user field of experience </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Speed & Related Terms <ul><li>“ transparency” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree to which input & output components of a multimedia system tend to ‘disappear’ (be forgotten by the user) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ immediacy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ involvement with the task … rather than [distraction] by the equipment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(What is the “task”?) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Telepresence as a Metaphor for Interactivity <ul><li>Telepresence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., tele-operation of robots, distance education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ the experience of presence in an environment by means of a communication medium … the mediated perception of an environment” (p. 295) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia may be measured through it’s ability to mediate perception of an “environment” </li></ul>
  59. 59. Dimensions of Interactivity <ul><li>Choice and Selectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>greater choice & selections leads to greater interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More work by user  greater interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of action taken by computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking a users input (e.g., to create a profile) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Addition of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of Interpersonal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., email, voice mail, teleconferencing </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Relationship to Instructional Design <ul><li>Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Innovative Applications <ul><li>Use innovative technology to allow the learner to select the type of media, use interactive design, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of new technology – 3D word maps in the visual thesaurus, see: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.visualthesaurus.com/index.jsp </li></ul>
  62. 62. Types of Meetings <ul><li>Executive Briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with a Sponsor (e.g. Site Visit) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Team-building </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Others... </li></ul>Let’s Meet patrocinador
  63. 63. Why Meet? <ul><li>The primary reason for meetings are to share or brainstorm information or to develop action steps toward accomplishing a goal </li></ul>
  64. 64. Making Meetings Work <ul><li>1. Make an agenda and stick to it. Send it out before the meeting, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be clear about the reasons for and goals of the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have a facilitator -- either a professional or ask someone at the meeting to step into this role </li></ul>
  65. 65. Making Meetings Work cont.… <ul><li>4. Watch the time -- do not overrun -- keep the agenda flowing </li></ul><ul><li>5. Add humor, allow for laughter, have fun -- it makes for a much more productive meeting </li></ul><ul><li>6. Allow for conflict but deal with it immediately </li></ul>M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías
  66. 66. Making Meetings Work cont…. <ul><li>7. Maintain control of the meeting at all times. Don’t get off track </li></ul><ul><li>8. Eliminate attendees’ behaviors that are disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>9. Allow for questions, be prepared to answer them </li></ul><ul><li>10. Wrap the meeting up with what was accomplished and action items </li></ul>
  67. 67. Meeting “Killers” -- why they fail <ul><li>Poor Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Poor time management </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of participation </li></ul><ul><li>Strong personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of humor and fun </li></ul><ul><li>No/poor closing </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>The only thing worse than a bad meeting is a great presentation that could have been sent as a memo </li></ul>
  69. 69. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>MEMOS </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>BULLETINS </li></ul><ul><li>LETTERS </li></ul><ul><li>NEWSLETTERS </li></ul><ul><li>HANDWRITTEN NOTES </li></ul>
  70. 70. The Benefits (written) <ul><li>Creates a permanent record </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to store information for future reference </li></ul><ul><li>Easily distributed </li></ul><ul><li>All recipients receive the same information </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for legal and binding documentation </li></ul>
  71. 71. The Challenges (written) <ul><li>May seem extremely formal -- use handwritten notes when it is to be personalized </li></ul><ul><li>Must be well written, straightforward and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Written communications are usually not read right away </li></ul>sincero
  72. 72. DO’s and DON’Ts (written) <ul><li>DO -- realize it is not read as soon as it is received </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- make sure that there is enough time to prepare and send, and for the recipient to receive and digest </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- assess writing skills, if poor -- get help </li></ul>
  73. 73. Do’s and Don’ts… (written) cont... <ul><li>DO -- outline key points before producing a draft </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- always draft a written piece and then reduce all unnecessary language -- be brief </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- proof-read very carefully before any document is distributed </li></ul>
  74. 74. Do’s and Don’ts (written) cont... <ul><li>DON’T -- use this form of communication if writing is full of errors -- this reflects poorly on the writer </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- use if communication is time sensitive. If immediate feedback is necessary -- use email </li></ul>
  75. 75. Is it clear? Have you hit your target? <ul><li>In written communication most confusion & frustration are caused by failing to be specific ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it clear, brief and concise….. </li></ul>
  76. 76. THE PROBLEM WITH COMMUNICATION IS “the illusion that it has been accomplished” George Bernard Shaw
  77. 77. EMAIL <ul><li>Email is now the dominant method of communicating in business. It is quick, inexpensive, flexible and convenient </li></ul>
  78. 78. But it could be a time-bomb USE WITH CARE….
  79. 79. The Benefits (email) <ul><li>Can be sent and received any time </li></ul><ul><li>Very time effective, can be sent and received within seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective -- no paper, no stamps, no costs -- yet(?) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for direct access to others </li></ul><ul><li>Messages can be saved and stored </li></ul>
  80. 80.
  81. 81. The Benefits (email) cont ... <ul><li>Convenient for communicating with people in different places and different time zones </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to communicate with people who understand written English but don’t speak it well </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent mechanism for follow-up or action items after a meeting </li></ul>
  82. 82. The Challenges (email) <ul><li>Not everyone has an email account or access to email at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Email etiquette -- no standards -- people make up own styles, can be very confusing </li></ul><ul><li>Email is not confidential -- emails can be obtained from central network even if deleted from personal computers </li></ul>
  83. 83. The Challenges (email) cont... <ul><li>Email is too often used to distribute inappropriate material, such as racial and gender jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Email is too often used to avoid confrontation and can be easily misinterpreted </li></ul>
  84. 84. The Challenges (email) cont... <ul><li>Email is often sent out without re-reading, proof-reading and other standards applied to written communications. We press the send button too soon… </li></ul><ul><li>Emails can be forwarded and sent to others without the author’s approval or knowledge </li></ul>
  85. 85. The Challenges (email) cont... <ul><li>Emails are often casual and informal -- this can create a potential hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Senders often assume that email is read immediately which can create problems </li></ul>
  86. 86. Do’s and Don’ts (email) <ul><li>DO -- always begin your email with a salutation and the person’s name -- a date is a good idea as well </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- always close the email with a closing sentence and your name </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- in the subject line write a brief and clear reference to your topic </li></ul>
  87. 87. Do’s and Don’ts (email) cont... <ul><li>DO -- consider the order of the recipients -- be sensitive to organizational hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- limit the number of attachments </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- consider the purpose of the email -- why is it being written in the first place? </li></ul><ul><li>DO -- consider alternatives -- phone, voice mail, note, etc. can be more appropriate </li></ul>
  88. 88. Do’s and Don’ts (email) cont... <ul><li>DON’T -- Send the entire email when replying. Only send the part that is essential </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- Be too blunt -- email is the coldest form of communications. Watch the tone. Be friendly but polite </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- Write an email longer than two screens -- it probably won’t be read </li></ul>
  89. 89. Do’s and Don’ts (email) cont... <ul><li>DON’T -- use “CAPS” for emphasis in the body of the email. It looks and “sounds” angry </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T -- use an automatic signature with every email. Use only in your initial email, not when replying to a message </li></ul>
  90. 90. The biggest difference in the quality of your email messages is made by you
  91. 91. Telephone and Voicemail <ul><li>Most employees have access to a phone (and voicemail) </li></ul><ul><li>Using a telephone can be spontaneous and often friendly </li></ul>
  92. 92. Benefits (telephone/voicemail) <ul><li>Immediate access to audience </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is direct and timely </li></ul><ul><li>Takes advantage of tone of voice and language </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for immediate response to questions, feedback, etc. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Challenges (telephone/voicemail) <ul><li>Too spontaneous, might not be ready to have a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Not prepared when a call is received but take it anyway </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t reach party in time to relay information </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone has voicemail </li></ul>
  94. 94. Tips for telephone & voicemail <ul><li>Let your voicemail speak for you (don’t have someone else record your message) </li></ul><ul><li>Record a daily greeting - let callers know when you are available </li></ul><ul><li>When leaving a voicemail message tell the person what you want and how they should reply to you </li></ul>
  95. 95. Tips (telephone/voicemail) cont... <ul><li>Leave your name and phone number at the beginning of the voicemail message not at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Before placing a call write down key points you want to cover </li></ul><ul><li>Give undivided attention when speaking on the phone </li></ul>
  96. 96. Tips (telephone/voicemail) cont... <ul><li>Try to return calls immediately, if someone is calling -- it must be important to them </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid calling when angry, be friendly and helpful </li></ul>
  97. 97. FACTOID <ul><li>55% of what people perceive of others comes from body language and facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>38% comes from tone of voice </li></ul><ul><li>7% is based on the actual words people use </li></ul>
  98. 98. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Speed and feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message. </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías Interpersonal Communication Options
  100. 100. Communication <ul><li>Druckers’ Fundamentals of Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and information are different and largely opposite, yet interdependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: Peter F. Drucker, ‘Management’, Pan, 1977) </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Skills and Best Practices: Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills <ul><li>Maintain eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Nod your head to convey that you are listening or that you agree. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile and show interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Lean forward to show the speaker you are interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a tone of voice that matches your message </li></ul>Positive Nonverbal Actions Include:
  102. 102. Advice to Improve Nonverbal Communication Skills (cont) <ul><li>Avoiding eye contact and looking away from the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Closing your eyes or tensing your facial muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive yawning. </li></ul><ul><li>Using body language that conveys indecisiveness or lack of confidence (e.g., slumped shoulders, head down, flat tones, inaudible voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking too fast or too slow. </li></ul>Negative Nonverbal Actions Include:
  103. 103. Communication Rights and Responsibilities <ul><li>RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>1. You have the right to be treated with respect. </li></ul><ul><li>2. You have the right to have and express your own opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>3. You have the right to ask for what you need and want in order to be effective. </li></ul><ul><li>4. You have the right to set reasonable limits. </li></ul>RESPONSIBILITIES 1. You have the responsibility to treat others with respect. 2. You have the responsibility to listen to the opinions of others. 3. You have the responsibility to acknowledge and address the needs of others. 4. You have the responsibility to respect the limits and boundaries of others.
  104. 104. Grapevine <ul><li>Grapevine Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal, not controlled by management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for information about important situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions that cause anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Listening Styles Results-style: Interested in the bottom line or result of a message. Reasons-style: Interested in hearing the rationale behind a message. Process-style: Likes to discuss issues in detail.
  106. 106. “ Harry always was a poor listener.”
  107. 107. The Keys to Effective Listening M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías Sources: Derived from N Skinner, “Communication Skills,” Selling Power, July/August 1999, pp 32-34; and G Manning, K Curtis, and S McMillen, Building the Human Side of Work Community (Cincinnati, OH: Thomson Executive Press, 1996), pp 127-54. Keys to Effective Listening The Bad Listener The Good Listener 1. Capitalize on thought speed Tends to daydream Stays with the speaker, mentally summarizes the speaker, weighs evidence, and listens between the lines 2. Listen for ideas Listens for facts Listens for central or overall ideas 3. Find an area of interest Tunes out dry speakers or subjects Listens for any useful information 4. Judge content, not delivery Tunes out dry monotone speakers Assesses content by listening to entire message before making judgments 5. Hold your fire Gets too emotional or worked up by something said by the speaker and enters into an argument Withholds judgment until comprehension is complete
  108. 108. The Keys to Effective Listening (cont) Keys to Effective Listening The Bad Listener The Good Listener 6. Work at listening Does not expend energy on listening Gives the speaker full attention 7. Resist Distractions Is easily distracted Fights distractions and concentrates on the speaker 8. Hear what is said Shuts our or denies unfavorable information Listens to both favorable and unfavorable information 9. Challenge yourself Resists listening to presentations of difficult subject manner Treats complex presentations as exercises for the mind 10. Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids Does not take notes or pay attention to visual aids Takes notes as required and uses visual aids to enhance understanding of the presentation
  109. 109. Selecting Communication Media Low Lean Richness of Communication Medium Rich Complexity of Problem/Situation High Zone of effective communication Overload zone (medium provides more information than necessary) Oversimplification zone (medium does not provide necessary information) Impersonal static media Personal static media Interactive media Face-to-face
  110. 110. Key Terms Associated with Information Technology <ul><li>Internet: a global network of computer networks </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet: an organization’s private internet that uses firewalls to block outside internet users from accessing confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>Extranet: an extended intranet that connects internal employees with customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Mail: uses the internet/intranet to send computer-generated text and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing : uses video and audio links to connect people at different locations </li></ul>Organizations are increasingly using information technology to improve productivity and customer satisfaction.
  111. 111. Key Terms Associated with Information Technology (continued) <ul><li>Collaborative Computing: uses computer software and hardware to link people across a room or across the globe - Collaborative applications include e-mail, calendar management, video conferencing, computer teleconferencing, and computer aided decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting: involves receiving and sending work from home to the office by using the phone and a computer link </li></ul><ul><li>For class discussion: What are the managerial challenges associated with managing the growing number of employees who telecommute? </li></ul>
  112. 112. Body language <ul><li>Nonverbal communication, known as “body language” sends strong positive and negative signals. This is how much it influences any message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words 8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone of voice 34% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-verbal cues 58% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message 100% </li></ul></ul>
  113. 113. Body language includes… <ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Figure </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>
  114. 114. Body language - face <ul><li>Face includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your smile or lack thereof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt of the head; e.g., if your head is tilted to one side, it usually indicates you are interested in what someone is saying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if someone is presenting a new idea and you are frowning? </li></ul></ul>
  115. 115. Body language - figure <ul><li>Figure includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your demeanor and gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your clothes and accessories such as jewelry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if you are dressed casually at an important meeting? </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Body language - focus <ul><li>Focus is your eye contact with others </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of eye contact differs by culture. For most Americans… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staring makes other people uncomfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of eye contact can make you appear weak or not trustworthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasses may interfere or enhance eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if you are looking at other things and people in a room when someone is speaking to you? </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Body language - territory <ul><li>Territory focuses on how you use space. It is also called proxemics. </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of territory differs by culture. Most Americans are comfortable with an individual space that is about an arm’s length in diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if you keep moving closer to a person who is backing away from you? </li></ul></ul>
  118. 118. Body language - tone <ul><li>Tone is a factor of your voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch is the highness or lowness of voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume is how loud your voice is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is your inflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if during a disagreement you start speaking very loudly? </li></ul></ul>
  119. 119. Body language - time <ul><li>Time focuses on how you use time. It is also called chronemics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace is how quickly you speak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response is how quickly you move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuality is your timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What message are you sending if you are consistently late for meetings? </li></ul></ul>