Profiting From Pizza Toppings


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A complete guide to pizza toppings and their impact on operations — trends, tastes, cost, usage and marketing.

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Profiting From Pizza Toppings

  1. 1. A guide from PizzaMarketplace.comProfiting with Pizza Toppings A complete guide to pizza toppings and their impact on operations — trends, tastes, cost, usage and marketing. Developed and published by Sponsored by
  2. 2. Contents Profiting with Pizza Toppings Page 3 About the sponsors Page 4 Introduction | Toppings make the bottom line Page 5 Chapter 1 | Trends: Focusing on the numbers Page 11 Chapter 2 | Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits Weighty matters In a pinch Page 16 Chapter 3 | Marketing: As important as what is being sold Order taking Social media Widening the margin It’s what is being sold, too Page 21 Chapter 4 | Safe handling: As important as taste Not fail-safe, but close Page 24 Chapter 5 | Meats: Still the top toppings Be specific Cost controls Page 31 Chapter 6 | Vegetables and fruits: A healthy alternative Ship it or shape it? Heat-seeking customers Moisture mess Page 36 Chapter 7 | Seafood: Gaining popularity For the shell of it Handle with care Page 40 Chapter 8 | Healthful pizza: New dough and toppings Piling on the veggies Base case Profitable positioning Page 44 Chapter 9 | Multitasking: Salads, appetizers and entrées Finding the marketing benefit Looks matter Page 49 Chapter 10 | Organic and sustainable: The new buzzwords Frequent deliveries a key© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 2
  3. 3. About the sponsors Burke Corporation manufactures and markets fully cooked meat products that can be used as ingredients in pizza, entrées and appetiz- ers prepared by restaurants, foodservice establishments and manu- facturers of prepared foods. Product lines range from traditional pizza toppings such as pepperoni and Italian sausage to other popular fully cooked meats, including beef crumbles, meatballs, Mexican fillings and breakfast meats. is the world’s first and only website devoted to publishing fresh, original news and in-depth articles centered on the pizza industry. Launched in November 2001, the website has quickly become a leader in electronic publishing for the foodservice industry. Its content, updated every business day, is free to site visitors and read by industry professionals worldwide. Published by NetWorld Alliance LLC. © 2011 NetWorld Alliance Written by Steve Coomes, contributor, Updated by Richard Slawsky, contributing editor, Dick Good, CEO Tom Harper, president Andrew Davis, executive vice president Joseph Grove, vice president and executive editor© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 3
  4. 4. Introduction Toppings make the bottom line W elcome to the latest edition of This guide is a tool for the business By Steve Coomes “Profiting with Pizza Toppings.” side of pizza. Chapter 2 provides Contributing writer , At, simple, mathematical instructions on we constantly strive to provide readers standardizing toppings amounts for Updated by Richard Slawsky with the most accurate and up-to-date every size of pizza, while Chapter 4 Contributing editor, information; therefore, we revisit our covers safe food handling. Chapter special publications annually to make 5 outlines USDA specifications sure they continue to provide the highest for different meats and their possible level of value. composition, while Chapter 10 provides tips and techniques for incorporating In this guide, there are several updates and organic and sustainable products into a a host of new information. pizzeria menu. To make a good pizza, it’s necessary to Yes, toppings exist to add taste, but that have dough, sauce and cheese. But to taste can’t be taken to the bank unless make a pizzeria a success, great toppings an operator knows how to use and sell are needed. Unlike the past, when toppings effectively. pepperoni, sausage, mushroom and green peppers were the only choices, today’s Bottom line: This guide is an information toppings reflect the cultural diversity that tool for operators. It tracks today’s characterizes the United States. These toppings trends and examines their history. days, pizzas are regularly topped with It details the ingredients of authentic everything from Latin-American chorizo Italian sausage and looks at whether fully sausage to Asian-influenced teriyaki cooked or raw toppings are best for an chicken. operation. In essence, it provides the same things toppings provide to customers: Franchising grew the pizza industry options, which lead to decisions and and delivery made it unique. Over dollars. the years, pizza has evolved into the ultimate customizable food, and today’s would like to thank pizzeria can transform dough, sauce, Burke Corp., a fully cooked toppings cheese and a dozen or so topping choices manufacturer in Nevada, Iowa, for into innumerable dining options, with sponsoring this guide. The company’s something on the menu to please nearly generosity brings this guide to you at no any palate. cost. While most customers still cling to the tried-and-true choices of old, operators are Unlike the past, when pepperoni, sausage, demonstrating that when offered variety, mushroom and green peppers were the only customers will try something new. Unique choices, today’s toppings reflect the cultural toppings generate a buzz in customers’ diversity that characterizes the United States. mouths and in their conversations. In other words, give them something tasty, and they’ll talk about it.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 4
  5. 5. Chapter 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers R According to the National Restaurant estaurants, like almost every other type of business in the United Association’s Expectations Index, 42 percent of States, have struggled in the face of restaurant operators expect to see higher sales in economic uncertainty over the past several years. Cash-strapped consumers have cut the first six months of 2011, while only 14 percent back on dining out, and many of those expect to see sales volumes decline compared to who continue to patronize restaurants are the same period in 2010. trading down to lower-priced alternatives. The worst, however, could be behind us. dipped slightly in the 2010 third quarter, but the company is projecting North Restaurant operators began seeing American same-store sales to increase increases in same-store sales and from 1.5 percent to 2.5 percent and customer traffic counts in the latter international same-store sales to increase half of 2010. The National Restaurant as much as 30 percent in 2011. Association’s Restaurant Performance Index, a monthly composite index that And it’s not just the big three pizza chains tracks the health of and outlook for the that are seeing improvements. Even U.S. restaurant industry, hit a three-year medium-sized chains report an increase high in November 2010. Fifty-one percent in revenue, with Pizza Inn reporting sales of restaurants reported an increase in increases of 20 percent in company-owned same-store sales, and 41 percent reported restaurants. increased traffic (up from 38 percent the previous month). Still, there are some challenges ahead. It’s a likely bet that menu labeling laws will And the outlook continues to improve. eventually be enacted around the country. According to the National Restaurant With literally dozens of variations possible Association’s Expectations Index, 42 for even the simplest of pizzeria menus, no percent of restaurant operators expect to one is completely sure how menu labeling see higher sales in the first six months of will affect the industry. 2011, while only 14 percent expect to see sales volumes decline compared to the Following are some of the top trends same period in 2010. likely to affect pizzeria operators as a new decade opens. By many estimates, pizzeria operators are especially poised to take advantage Fluctuating commodity costs: After of improvements to the economic dropping to near-record lows in 2010, environment. At Domino’s, same-store cheese prices rebounded in the fall of 2010 sales increased 11.7 percent in the third before dropping at the end of the year. Still, quarter of 2010, compared with flat even at their highest levels, cheese prices same-store sales for the same period in were nowhere near the levels they reached 2009. Pizza Hut saw its U.S. same-store in 2008. As of the beginning of 2011, sales increase 8 percent in the 2010 third cheese prices on the Chicago Mercantile quarter. Papa John’s same-store sales Exchange hovered around $1.47 per© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 5
  6. 6. CHAPTER 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers pound, off from a high of $1.75 per pound in October 2010. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is projecting prices in the high $1.50 range for the rest of 2011. And flour prices are likely to rise in 2011 as well, thanks to rising demand and diminished harvests. A drought ruined wheat fields in Russia, while excessive rain hurt harvests in Canada. Still, wheat prices are about one-third of what they were in 2008. Lower corn harvests are likely to boost expenses for meat companies as livestock feed prices rise. That in turn will affect the price of meat toppings. According to USDA data, meat costs as much as 12 percent more than last year. Apps on smartphones are becoming an integral part of pizza sales. Beef tenderloin has risen in cost by $2 per pound in recent months, while pork has gone up approximately $1 per pound. Hyperlocal coupons also are playing a role The cost of fuel is likely to be the top in the online world. Sites such as Groupon commodity story of 2011. Oil prices and Living Social offer users the ability approached $100 a barrel near the end to purchase items at a discounted price, of 2010, and some experts are predicting encouraging visits to restaurants who offer gasoline prices to top $4 a gallon in the the sales. upcoming year. New technologies. “The app” is one of Importance of connecting online. Social the latest phrases to become part of the networking applications such as Facebook American vocabulary, and there are few and Twitter continue to play an important people who don’t know that apps are an role in the restaurant industry. With the essential element of the iPhone. Although increasing prevalence of smartphones the Apple product continues to dominate and their accompanying applications, the mobile phone market, there are plenty restaurants are likely to become so of up-and-coming smartphone contenders. interconnected to location-based Ordering apps, restaurant locator services networking that any restaurant could and mobile coupons are all likely to become a success — or a failure — merely become another weapon in the pizzeria by connecting with the right platform. operator’s arsenal.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers The Internet also has become a prime the top menu trends for next year will be ordering channel for pizzeria customers. locally sourced meats and seafood, locally Domino’s surpassed $1 billion in online grown produce, sustainability as a culinary sales in February 2010, while Pizza Hut theme, hyperlocal items and children’s topped $2 billion in online sales a few nutrition as a culinary theme. months later. Papa John’s hit the $2 billion milestone in May 2010. Diet-specific recipes. Of particular concern to pizzeria operators is the Keeping it close to home. Healthy, local increasing demand for gluten-free crusts. and sustainable continue to be hot topics One out of every 100 Americans suffers for restaurant operators. from celiac disease and gluten intolerance, and their dining choices are likely to affect According to the National Restaurant where the rest of their family goes to eat. Association’s “What’s Hot in 2011” survey, Failing to incorporate gluten-free offerings TACO PIZZA INGREDIENTS 12" PIZZA 14" - 16" PIZZA PROCEDURE Refried beans 1/4 cup (2 oz.) 1/3 cup (3 oz.) Mix refried beans taco sauce and (packed) (packed) pizza sauce together in small bowl. Taco sauce, mild, bottled 2/3 cup (5 oz.) 1 cup (8 oz.) Pizza sauce, canned 2/3 cup (5 oz.) 1 cup (8 oz.) Place crust on pizza pan and top or restaurant’s recipe with pizza sauce, spreading evenly over pizza surface. Pizza crust 1 each (12 oz.) 1 each (1 lb.) Tezzata Beef Mexican 2 cups (8 oz.) 3 cups (12 oz.) Spread meat and mozzarella cheese Meat (3395) evenly over crust. Place in preheated pizza oven at 425˚ degrees. Bake 17- Mozzarella cheese, 1 1/5 cups (6 oz.) 2 1/4 cups (9 oz.) 20 minutes or until pizza is golden on the edges and crisp underneath. Let pizza cool 2-3 minutes. Cut into Tomatoes, diced 1 cup (5 oz.) 1 1/2 cups (8 oz.) slices, then sprinkle with lettuce, tomatoes, olives and cheddar cheese Lettuce, chopped 2 cups (2 1/2 oz.) 3 cups (4 oz.) in layers to create a taco appearance. Black olives, sliced 1/4 cup (1 oz.) 1/3 cup (1 1/2 oz.) To prevent sogginess, add chips immediately before eating. Garnish Tortilla chips with more tomatoes and olives as desired. CHEF’S NOTE: Quantities and cooking times may differ from above, depending on variations in ingredients and ovens. For spicier pizza, use medium or hot taco sauce. Recipe courtesy of Burke Corp.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 7
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers could have a significant impact on an operator’s business. Diverse populations. According to the Pew Research Center, the population of the United States is projected to rise to 438 million in 2050, from 310 million today. More than 80 percent of the increase will be due to immigrants arriving from 2005 to 2050 and their U.S.-born descendants. The Latino population will make up the bulk of that population increase. Hispanics are projected to make up 29 percent of the U.S. population in 2050, compared with just 14 percent in 2005. If anyone doubts the potential of the Latino market, they need look no further than Pizza Patrón, which markets itself as the “premier Latino pizza brand,” building stores in primarily Spanish- speaking neighborhoods. The Dallas- based company, which operates 100 stores around the country, has recorded several years of double-digit same-store sales increases. proved to be so popular it has become a permanent fixture at the chain. “Our entire brand is strategically designed to fill a huge void we saw in the In what was perhaps a nod to the marketplace,” said Andrew Gamm, director increasing diversity in the United States, of brand development for Pizza Patrón. Pizza Patrón announced plans to begin “Obviously, there is no shortage of pizza targeting English-speaking customers in outlets in the United States, but no one addition to its Spanish-speaking base. was specifically geared to serve the Latino- According to a story in the Wall Street Hispano customer. That’s our niche.” Journal, the company noticed that a growing number of younger Hispanics The company garnered widespread were bilingual and bicultural. attention, along with a few death threats, in 2007 when officials announced Beyond the simple influence of population restaurants would accept pesos along with changes, demographic diversity is U.S. currency as payment for pizzas. The increasing interest in ethnic flavor profiles Pizza por Pesos program, as it was known, among mainstream consumers as well.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers Innovating to differentiate: Staying one step ahead of trends By Liz Hertz, marketing director, Burke Corp. 2. Accessibility Attempting to stay one step ahead of consumer Making restaurant dining more convenient to use trends and a changing industry, operators are using innovation to create a point of Identified trends: differentiation. But for established pizzerias, do they really have an opportunity to innovate and ¾ Opening earlier, closing later or expanding to differentiate? 24-hour service Four trends provide a perfect starting point for ¾ Ordering via the Internet, text messages and pizzerias seeking to set themselves apart from the apps for smartphones competition. ¾ Multiple format concepts, partnering 1. Flexibility traditional casual dining operations with fast- casual restaurants Offering new dining options to meet ever- expanding consumer demand for flexibility and Pizzerias and accessibility: choice. To increase accessibility, operators should first Identified trends: evaluate their customer base to determine their needs. Successful expansion of store hours into ¾ Portion sizes the breakfast or late-night dayparts requires the ability to bring in traffic at these new times. ¾ Customization 3. Individuality ¾ Dayparts Promoting signature or unique dining ¾ Classic menu items alongside upgraded items experiences and products ¾ Side-by-side better-for-you and indulgent items Identified trends: Pizzerias and flexibility: ¾ Specialty pizzas: Chicago-style, nontraditional, natural/organic or flavored The opportunity for flexibility on pizza menus crusts goes beyond size and topping options. Innovative pizzerias are testing even more options on their ¾ Gourmet burgers: Specialty toppings and menus — breakfast, premium and better-for- unique proteins, such as buffalo you pizzas. Flexibility may also mean enhancing ¾ Local foods and beverages: Farmers’ market the non-pizza portion of the menu with entrée produce salads, soups, sandwiches and calzones.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1 Trends: Focusing on the numbers Pizzerias and individuality: ¾ Meeting religious dietary requirements, such as halal (Islamic) and kosher (Jewish) Pizzerias have a long history of signature pizzas that create a point of differentiation. ¾ Featuring menu items based on hallmark Limited-time offer specialty items are a great local cuisine way to test new signature pizzas and other ¾ Creating a “third place,” away from menu items that create individuality for the home and work, with a warm, inviting brand. environment 4. Hospitality Pizzerias and hospitality: Taking care of patrons in a way that addresses While hospitality comes naturally to the very specific needs or delivers a “wow” foodservice industry, sometimes it needs experience fine-tuning. Operators that are in touch with their customer base will see opportunities to Identified trends: better meet the needs of those customers — whether it be halal or heart-healthy or a home- ¾ Meeting special dietary needs, such as like atmosphere. Pizzerias and pizza are the food allergies, weight loss, heart healthy, perfect place and product to implement these diabetic and low-sodium guidelines innovations.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 10
  11. 11. Chapter 2 Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits C “If you’re going to replicate something hoosing the right topping isn’t as simple as selecting the one the hundreds of times a week, you need a tool operator thinks tastes best. The to do that. The two eyes God gave you aren’t consumer must like it, and it must fit a predetermined cost parameter that meets accurate enough, unless they’re bionic.” profit-margin goals. — Dave Ostrander, pizza restaurant consultant According to Dave Ostrander, a former operator turned consultant, four tipping points influence an operator’s toppings Weighty matters choice: product quality, ease of use, market Years ago Ostrander learned to build demands and price point. consistent pizzas with an electronic scale and a 14-inch corrugated pizza circle (the Just as important in toppings selection is size of his most popular pizza). Using a portion control. Figuring out how much marker, he drew a line on the circle to is needed on each pizza — as well as represent the pizza crust edge, where no getting the staff to put the same amount sauce or toppings should fall. on every time — is a must in establishing consistency in the finished product and in He placed the circle on a scale, zeroed it food cost. (typically done by hitting the “tare” button) and applied the desired amount of sauce, John Gani, director of operations for which, in the case of Big Dave’s, was six Seagle Pizza Inc., a 21-store Domino’s ounces for a 14-inch pizza. Pizza franchisee based in Bowling Green, Ky., said his cooks train with a scale to He then took another corrugated circle, “develop a good eye for what we use” but drew the same crust line and weighed out then assemble pizzas without it during business hours. “We don’t pre-portion, either,” Gani said, regarding pepperoni and sausage use. Ostrander believes operators need to go further, however, to ensure consistency. He stresses the use of measuring tools (such as an electronic scale, ladles, spoodles and cups) and a calculator. “If you’re going to replicate something hundreds of times a week, you need a tool to do that,” said Ostrander. “The two eyes God gave you aren’t accurate enough, unless they’re bionic.” Figuring out how much is needed on each pizza — plus getting the staff to put the same amount on every time — is a must in establishing consistency in the finished product and in food cost.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 11
  12. 12. CHAPTER 2 Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 12
  13. 13. CHAPTER 2 Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 2 Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits the desired amount of cheese (10 ounces), Knowing that allowed Ostrander to adapt brushed the cheese off, and placed on the his portion controls easily to whatever size desired number of pepperoni slices (25 to pie was ordered. 30, which weighed two ounces), sausage (four ounces), bell peppers (two ounces) “Now I can accurately say that if I’m using and so forth. six ounces of sauce on a 14, then I’ll need three ounces on a 10. If I’m using 10 Once the weights were recorded, ounces of cheese on a 14, I’ll use five on a Ostrander devised ways to pre-portion all 10. Two ounces of pepperoni on a 14, one toppings quickly. A level ice-cream scoop ounce on a 10. It works out perfectly.” of sausage, for example, portioned out four ounces, which he then pressed into patties For his least-ordered pies, 12-inchers, his placed between sheets of waxed paper. cooks eyeballed a 75-percent-share of the Pepperoni slices were weighed and placed toppings needed for 14s. For example, in waxed paper, and cheese was weighed since the sausage patties he prepped for and placed in plastic cups. Two scoops 14-inch pizzas weighed four ounces, the from a two-ounce liquid-measure spoodle amount needed for a 12-inch pie was yielded two ounces of peppers and so on. three-fourths of that. But the real key to his portion-control “Visualize that sausage patty I talked about: system, Ostrander said, came from his I used a whole one for a 14-inch, a half for grade-school math lessons on finding the a 10-inch, and 3/4 for a 12-inch,” he said. area of a circle. By applying the formula pi (or π, which represents 3.14) times the Leftover pieces were used on other pizzas. radius squared, Ostrander figured out the area of his 14-inch pizza, and saw how In a pinch to convert toppings portions easily and While there are still some operators willing quickly for every size of pizza he sold. (See to gamble on raw pizza toppings, Chuck tables on pages 12 and 13 for multiple Thorp, CEO of DoubleDave’s Pizzaworks examples.) in Austin, Texas, said the need for speed weighed more heavily in that company’s “Pizza is made by the square inch, but sold selection of a fully cooked sausage and by the diameter,” he said. “So use pi times other toppings. the radius squared (πr2), to get the area of a 14-inch pizza (3.14 x 7 x 7 = 154 square inches). “Then if you drop down to a 10-inch (3.14 x 5 x 5 = 78.5 square inches), you see you’re at almost exactly half the area of a 14-inch pizza. If you do the same for a 12-inch pizza (3.14 x 6 x 6 = 113 square inches), you’re 25 percent smaller than a 14 inch, Performance in the oven is the real test for all meat toppings. Customers expect meats and 25 percent larger than a 10 inch.” to look better coming out of the oven than when they went in.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 14
  15. 15. CHAPTER 2 Cost and use analysis: Toppings profits “It’s just simpler to use, and I think it’s the offers a number of resources, including best-tasting sausage out there,” said Thorp. an online calculator for analyzing the true cost of using raw meat (www.BurkeCorp. The price also met DoubleDave’s food cost com/TrueCostofRaw). parameters, making it “a pretty logical choice for us,” he said. To manage the cost of pepperoni, it’s critical for operators to be able to know Liz Hertz, marketing director at a true piece count along with the weight Nevada, Iowa-based Burke Corp., said of the product package in order to new technology has allowed Burke to accurately calculate costs. A true piece offer Hand-Pinched-Style toppings, a count pepperoni can be a valuable tool for trademarked product line that allows portion control. operators to combine the labor-friendly aspect of fully cooked toppings with the No cost analysis is complete without appearance and texture of raw sausage that looking at quality. Slaughter said was pinched directly onto the pizza. performance in the oven is the real test for all meat toppings. Customers expect meats Julian Angelone, owner of 16-store Ronzio to look better coming out of the oven than Pizza, agreed. Fully cooked meats simplify when they went in. “the whole operation. I don’t want the potential problems you can run into with “It can’t be greasy or charred when it grease in the exhaust hood. If you don’t comes out the other end of the oven; it have to, why bother?” he asked. should be nicely browned,” he said. Mark Slaughter, foodservice director of And properly shaped, in the case of sales for Sugardale Foods in Massillon, pepperoni, said Angelone. Ohio, said make line “handle-ability” of fully cooked toppings is an added labor “If we have cupping, that means we have savings over using raw product. a problem with the pepperoni, because we don’t want that,” he said. “We do put “You’ve got to have a product that’s easy pepperoni above the cheese to get that to work with on a Friday or Saturday browning we like, though. It gives it a good night when you’re doing a large volume of flavor.” business,” said Slaughter. “With our bacon, you don’t have to separate the pieces; they But for others, a cupping pepperoni is just can be dealt on top of the pizza easily.” the look that the pizzeria wants to achieve. While some believe that fully cooked The bottom line is that operators now have toppings are more expensive, the operator the choices available to find the products must take into consideration shrinkage and that are the right blend of aesthetic labor costs to analyze the true cost of using characteristics, convenience and price to raw products. The Burke Corp. website fit their needs.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 15
  16. 16. Chapter 3 Marketing: As important as what is being sold I In the span of a brief phone call, good order-takers n a phone-order-driven business like pizza, operators have frequent can grab a buck or two extra from customers. And opportunities to drive incremental over the course of days, weeks and months, those sales or add-ons, and pizza toppings are a great example of these. incremental sales can add up to significant profits. In the span of a brief phone call, good order-takers can grab a buck or two extra from customers. And over the course of need to be both quick and courteous when days, weeks and months, those incremental upselling, Karington said. sales can add up to significant profits. “You’ve got to work hard to find that Kamron Karington, a Las Vegas-based balance between upselling them at every marketing consultant, knows that opportunity and not driving them crazy,” suggestive selling works well when it’s done he said. “And let’s face it, you’ve probably right. After several years of operating two got other customers wanting to order, pizzerias and later selling them, Karington and you don’t want the phones tied up compiled his best pizzeria marketing any longer than they have to be. So pick tips in “The Black Book: Your Complete a limited number of things you want to Guide to Staggering Profits in Your Pizza upsell, stick with those for a time and then Business.” The key to upselling, he said, is try some others.” asking persuasive questions. Online ordering also increases the ability “On the phone, you don’t just say, ‘Would to upsell. Unlike over-the-phone or face- you like extra cheese on that?’ You say to-face encounters, a website will never instead, ‘Extra cheese on that?’” said forget to upsell. Also, because it’s not Karington, who also consults with large a personal interaction, people feel less corporations outside the foodservice pressure, and are, conversely, more likely industry. to agree to order more. As mentioned above, however, it’s important to word the Suggestive sales pitches also hinge on well- upsell offer carefully, to ensure maximum placed voice inflections. participation. “Say you’ve got a one-topping pizza special, and you’ve got them on the Social media phone; tell them, ‘I can make that a triple With the growing popularity of social pepperoni for only $2 more,’” Karington media sites such as Twitter and Facebook, said. “That changes the emphasis and is operators now have an additional much better than, ‘Would you like extra opportunity to market high-margin items. pepperoni?’” Hideaway, a nine-unit chain based in But whether those suggestions are made Stillwater, Okla., solicited entries of pizza on the phone or face to face, order-takers ideas from the more than 1,600 people© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 16
  17. 17. CHAPTER 3 Marketing: As important as what is being sold who follow them on Twitter. The winning pizza, selected from more than 100 entries, was dubbed the “Tweetza.” “We have always had a pizza contest with our employees where they come up with their own pizza, so we thought we’d try it on Twitter as an experiment to see how Social media offers operators additional people would respond,” said Janie Harris, marketing opportunities. Hideaway Pizza’s marketing director. “The winning pizza is going to end up in our menu insert where we would normally put Widening the margin our employee’s winning pizzas, and if it holds its own it will make it to our regular Toppings equal increased value and thus menu.” offer high-margin potential when sold incrementally and in combinations. Sales New Orleans-based Naked Pizza, which strategies include encouraging additional advertises its Twitter feed on a billboard in toppings (i.e., two-, three- or four-topping front of the restaurant, has been tracking pizzas), giving specialty pizzas prime the amount of sales generated by its tweets. positioning on the menu and offering According to co-founder Jeff Leach, a premium-quality toppings at a premium Twitter-only promotion the restaurant ran price. in May 2009 generated about 15 percent of the store’s business the day it ran. While higher quality and upscale toppings — seafood, game meats and roasted The company ran a second Twitter-only vegetables, for example — may initially promotion later that month and asked seem to drive up food costs, they also offer customers to reference Twitter when great opportunities to increase margins. placing their order. To Leach’s amazement, the store set an overall one-day sales record the day the promotion ran. “A whopping 68.6 percent of total dollar sales came from customers who said ‘I’m calling from Twitter,’” Leach said. “Of the 26 new customers who had never been in the store before, 22 of them were from Twitter. All in all, ‘Twitter Friday’ was an eye-opener for us.” Multiple-topping specialty pizzas can be highly profitable not only because of their higher price points but also because fewer toppings are required to cover each pie.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 17
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 Marketing: As important as what is being sold A $7.99 one-topping special, for example, got on the menu or suggest some toppings has a decent margin built in. But every that go well together,” said Olivier. additional topping only builds on that margin, since all the other components of And, whenever those customized or the pizza are paid for in the original $7.99. predefined specialty pizzas include premium ingredients, the price should Multiple-topping specialty pizzas — most reflect the added value. Savvy pizza shop of which typically have an attractive name, operators quickly learn which toppings such as The Supreme or The Works — can customers perceive to be worthy of a be highly profitable not only because of higher cost — while realizing the higher their higher price points but also because margin they bring as well. fewer toppings are required to cover each pie. For instance, while it may take four Online calculators on the Burke website ounces of any single topping to cover ( can help the a 14-inch pizza, a three-topping pizza operator conduct a cost-benefit analysis won’t require twelve ounces of toppings to of higher quality ingredients, as well as appear full. Adding the full amount of all assess the profit potential of the addition of three — let’s say, sausage, pepperoni and “gourmet” or specialty items to the menu. mushroom — could overwhelm the crust and not bake out fully or in the same time The flip side — using basic toppings— as the crust and cheese. works just as well to increase margins. For example, if an operator wants to increase “I learned to back off about 25 percent the coverage of the standard sausage of each topping when somebody wanted topping without increasing the actual three or four on there,” said pizza industry portion size, a finer crumbled sausage (or consultant Ostrander. “It’s just too much to ground beef or diced pepperoni) can be put on there all at once.” used. The result is better coverage and improved value perception (i.e., sausage Several operators said posting a toppings in every bite), without increasing the food list separately, either on a menu board or cost. on table menus, encourages customers to search for interesting offerings and then customize their pizzas. It’s what is being sold, too David Yudkin has two kinds of pepperoni Howard Olivier, owner of Flying Pie on the menu at Hot Lips Pizza in Portland, Pizzaria in Boise, Idaho, does just that. But Ore.: a standard manufactured variety and he also trains his counter workers to lead his own “house-made pepperoni.” customers to combinations of toppings — be they premade or a la carte — that are “I’m making 100 pounds of it every best for them. other week now,” said Yudkin, who also makes his own prosciutto. “It’s incredibly “We first try to get a sense of what they like popular.” and then lead them to a pizza we’ve already© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 18
  19. 19. CHAPTER 3 Marketing: As important as what is being sold The sky’s the limit on limited-time offers By Liz Hertz, marketing director, Burke Corp. ¾ Start with the ingredients. Guidelines for ingredient selection include: There’s nothing limiting about limited- time offers (LTOs). They offer operators • Pair on-trend items with familiar an opportunity not only for menu ingredients that are already found experimentation and creativity but also for on the menu (andouille with more increased sales. And yet a successful LTO is traditional meat toppings, for not as simple as featuring the latest recipe example) development idea coming from a creative chef. When operators do due diligence on • Choose ingredients that are idea development, operational execution and traditionally paired together (steak marketing support, the sky’s the limit on the and potatoes, beef and bacon) success of LTOs. • Showcase seasonal or regional favorites (locally grown fresh Idea development tomatoes, Texas or Kansas City BBQ) ¾ Listen. Regardless of how great the • Experiment with cheese (regional idea sounds, success requires a good cheeses or trendy cheeses found on fit with the customer base. So always other local menus). start by listening to the customer, and then augment that with information Operational execution from employees, suppliers and other industry resources. One way to find ¾ Plan. Whether it’s a single operation or interesting combinations that appeal to a large multi-unit, take time for adequate consumers in the area is to look at menus planning and include individuals with in other segments, such as fine dining or responsibility for all functional areas. sandwich shops. R&D, marketing, purchasing, operations, training and finance all play an important ¾ Find a fit. The most successful menu role in the success of the LTO. ideas provide a good fit with the restaurant concept. For example, when ¾ Train employees. Successful execution Stone Hearth Pizza in Sudbury, Mass., of an LTO requires training. Back-of-the- a Neapolitan-style pizzeria, added a house employees need to know how to barbecue chicken pizza, the recipe prepare the new menu item, while front- featured other ingredients that are of-the-house staff must be able to tell the regularly used in the restaurant, such customer about the new menu offering. as white beans, broccoli rapini and artichokes.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER 3 Marketing: As important as what is being sold Not only does his pepperoni “taste like has a weekly Gourmet Night, when cooks nothing else I’ve had,” it’s made from 100 experiment with new ideas for a pizza percent organically raised pork, something buffet. Those that sell well often make it to highly eco-conscious Portlanders the menu. appreciate. Yudkin also is well-known in the community for his support of local But perhaps his best attention-getter is farmers, and those efforts have garnered Flying Pie’s annual habañero festival in Hot Lips the kiss of endorsement from a July, when the ultra-hot red and orange dedicated following. peppers are in season and flown in fresh from Mexico. The festival draws people “The really big benefit of something (like from as far away as 200 miles, Olivier said, the house-made pepperoni) is that it but in the process, Flying Pie gains repeat creates a buzz. People are talking about it, customers. and that’s great P.R.,” said Yudkin. “It’s also fun for me to do it, though it’s very labor “It’s interesting to see the (long-term) intensive.” impact of something as simple as a pepper topping,” he said. “It shows that While Olivier said customers still love different things, now and then, get people’s meat toppings more than anything, he said attention. It keeps things fresh.” they also like occasional variety. Flying Pie© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 20
  21. 21. Chapter 4 Safe handling: As important as taste W hile the proliferation of fully cooked topping varieties and Fully cooked pizza sausage their ease of use made them attractive choices two decades ago, food Industry Industry Typical Burke safety concerns — especially in the wake of parameter standard count many raw-meat-related E. coli poisonings — fuel their popularity today. Aerobic plate count <20,000/gm <100/gm “You can do all the (temperature Coliforms <100/gm <10/gm maintenance) of raw products just right Generic E. coli <10/gm <10/gm and still face cross-contamination,” said Salmonella Negative Negative Casey Frye, vice president of research and Listeria Negative Negative development at Burke Corp. “You’ve still got people topping pizzas, taking money Raw pizza sausage and touching everything; spreading those pathogens is just that easy.” Parameter Typical result Seagle Pizza’s Gani said his company Aerobic plate count 10,000 to 1,000,000 /gm abandoned raw meat toppings years ago. Coliforms 100 to 5,000 /gm Generic E. coli 100 to 5,000 /gm “Our founder, Tom Monaghan, used raw Salmonella May be positive (up to 33 sausage when he started, but the company percent in pork, up to 10 stopped it for safety issues,” he said. “It’s percent in beef ) just not worth the risk to us.” Listeria May be positive (about 1 to 5 percent) Not fail-safe, but close While no topping or sanitation system is foolproof, combining the best safety president of technical services and quality information with the safest products assurance, said even pizza cooks who use available, Frye said, dramatically reduces fully cooked toppings must be mindful of the risk of food poisoning. where they put their hands at all times. He supplied the table included in this guide “You still have to be concerned about to illustrate the difference in microbial where those hands were before they counts between raw pizza sausage and fully handled the product,” he said. “But if that cooked pizza sausage. As striking as those product is fully cooked, at least it should differences are, John Olson, Burke’s vice have a low microbe count.”© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 21
  22. 22. CHAPTER 4 Safe handling: As important as taste Advantages of fully cooked meats There are many advantages of using fully 3. Convenience cooked meat toppings and fillings. Here are the top four: Using fully cooked meat toppings and fillings is much more convenient than using uncooked meat products. Right 1. Food safety after cooking, Burke fully cooked meat toppings and fillings are individually Stories of contamination problems and quick frozen, locking in freshness. food-borne illnesses due to uncooked Consequently, the meat nuggets and or undercooked meats, or cross- crumbles can be kept frozen until contamination of raw meat to fully needed and are pourable in the frozen prepared foods, appear on television state. In fact, they can be placed on and in print news almost weekly. In the pizza while still in the frozen state. some instances, the severity of illnesses However, frozen raw meats must be led to death. Raw meat contains high thawed before using, creating purge loss amounts of bacteria, but proper cooking (moisture runoff ), reduced freshness, destroys the bacteria that cause food- risk of bacterial growth and cross- borne illness and food spoilage. Using contamination, and reduced “in-process” fully cooked meats reduces the risk inventory. And with the convenience of of introducing microbial dangers and fully cooked meats, pies are assembled cross-contamination problems into the more quickly, resulting in quicker operation. throughput and faster table turns. 2. Product stability 4. No waste Fully cooked meats have a longer shelf With fully cooked meats, the operator life than raw meats due to the slower uses just what is needed; the rest remains oxidation rate occurring in cooked meats. in the freezer for another day. An In addition, while raw sausage products additional benefit is the lack of waste or are often frozen to increase shelf life, the grease. And there is no excessive grease product stability and flavor deteriorates on top of the pizza or make table. since raw sausage takes much longer to freeze than fully cooked toppings. Courtesy of Burke Corp.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 22
  23. 23. CHAPTER 4 Safe handling: As important as taste Frightening food-borne pathogens The U.S. Public Health Service has Salmonella: Most common cause of identified several microorganisms food-borne deaths. Responsible for as being the biggest culprits in food- millions of cases of food-borne illness borne illness. Here’s a short list of what annually. Sources: raw and undercooked could result from poorly handled pizza eggs, undercooked poultry and meat, toppings. dairy products, seafood, fruits and vegetables. Campylobacter: Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the United States. Staphylococcus aureus: This bacterium Sources: raw and undercooked meat and produces a toxin that causes vomiting poultry, raw milk and untreated water. shortly after ingestion. Sources: cooked foods high in protein, such as meats, as E. coli 0157: A bacterium that can well as salads, bakery products and dairy produce a deadly toxin that causes products. approximately 73,000 cases of food-borne illness each year in the United States. Shigella: Causes an estimated 300,000 Sources: meat, especially undercooked or cases of diarrhea-related illnesses. raw hamburger; produce and raw milk. Sources: salads (potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni and chicken), raw vegetables, Listeria monocytogenes: Causes milk and dairy products and poultry, listeriosis, a serious disease for pregnant as well as poor hygiene, which passes women, newborns and adults with shigella from person to person. weakened immune systems. Sources: soil and water. Found in dairy products, raw Vibrio vulnificus: Causes gastroenteritis and undercooked meat, poultry, seafood or a syndrome known as primary and produce. septicemia. People with liver diseases are especially at high risk. Sources: raw or undercooked seafood.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 23
  24. 24. Chapter 5 Meats: Still the top toppings W hen operators are asked what somewhere to think, “I’ll bet this (fill in the toppings sell the best, meat blank) would taste good on a pie.” toppings are it. In the decades since, pork sausage, ground When asked beef and pepperoni have become the pizzeria operators which topping was the standards for pizza toppings. Beyond most popular among their customers, the the also-popular mushroom, demand for answer was pepperoni. According to the nearly all other toppings is much smaller. 2010 Pizza State of the Industry report, almost 200 pizzeria executives surveyed “Pepperoni, sausage and mushrooms,” for the study ranked pepperoni as their wrote Steve Wollmershauser, owner most popular topping. of Antonio’s Pizza in San Antonio, in an e-mail asking for the most popular Though the birthplace of pizza is credited toppings at his restaurant. But that doesn’t to Italy, according to Evelyne Slomon, mean he’s not serving more adventurous meat toppings are America’s contribution. meat toppings. Along with Antonio’s Taco Slomon’s doctoral thesis focused on the Pizza (taco meat is seasoned heavily with history of pizza and eventually became the seminal work The Pizza Book. “You look at wherever pizza is, and what’s on it is what the people there eat most,” said Slomon. “Italians aren’t the meat- eaters we are here in the U.S., so you see pretty simple toppings there: basil, good cheese, some seafood and occasionally a little meat.” Slomon said she hasn’t been able to pinpoint when pepperoni first appeared on pizza, but she believes it was sometime between 1930 and 1950. During that time, pizza’s popularity began a westward crawl from East Coast cities heavily populated with Italian immigrants to Midwestern cities where it had never been served before. Near those cities were vast herds of livestock, and in the cities were slaughterhouses and food production plants churning out large quantities of meat. Pork sausage, ground beef and pepperoni are the standards for As far as anyone can tell, such abundance pizza toppings. Demand for nearly all other toppings is much eventually inspired a pizza maker smaller.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 24
  25. 25. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings cumin and chili powder), he offers gyro While sausage has reigned as the most (pronounced “eeyro”), a Greek favorite favored pork topping, Sugardale Foods’ made from heavily seasoned minced lamb Slaughter said bacon has become the that’s roasted on a spit and sliced off in fastest-growing meat topping category in strips. the past 10 years. The company produces fully cooked toppings, such as diced bacon. Over the past decade, chicken toppings have taken off as well. At DoubleDave’s “We cut it so it looks like somebody fried Pizzaworks in Austin, Texas, barbecue it up in the back room and chopped it up chicken pizza is a strong seller, and garlic with a knife; it’s got a natural look to it, not chicken strips sell well on pies at Shotgun a cookie-cutter look,” he said. Dan’s in Sherwood, Ark. Many customers are drawn to chicken as a perceived Pizza toppings have taken an ethnic turn in “healthier” topping. recent years as well. Hispanic-influenced sausages such as chorizo have become Chicken is currently the third most popular pizza toppings, according to the popular pizza topping, according to the Pizza State of the Industry study, as have 2010 Pizza State of the Industry report, up Italian-inspired meats such as salami and from fifth place in the 2007 study. prosciutto. But as the general manager of the three- store Shotgun Dan’s points out, winged Be specific toppings will never fly like those made of Choice and customization of fully beef and pork. cooked meat toppings has changed the industry significantly over the past 25 “We’re kind of known for the amount of years, said Burke’s Hertz. What began as toppings we pile on here,” said Gary King, a move toward convenience has become Shotgun Dan’s general manager. “We put an opportunity for operators to ensure our toppings above the cheese and below it. There’s just a lot on there.” Meat topping preferences by region The Federal Hill pizza sold at Ronzio Pizza in Lincoln, R.I., gets a heaping helping of By Liz Hertz, marketing director, Burke Corp. bias-cut Italian sausage links. According to owner Angelone, the sliced links reflect It’s no surprise that pepperoni is the favorite meat pizza the Italian restaurant heritage of the topping of the U.S. consumer and that sausage comes in Providence neighborhood after which the as a clear second. However, this is not the whole story, pizza is named. as preferences for meat toppings vary regionally. Visit the Burke Corporation website at www.BurkeCorp. “Our other sausage comes in pretty good- com/trends to find a summary of some of the findings size chunks, but (the bias-cut links) are from The Pizza Consumer Trend Report, conducted something we think adults here like,” by Technomic Inc., revealing national and regional Angelone said. “It’s sort of traditional.” consumer pizza-topping preferences.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 25
  26. 26. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings consistency and “dial in” their exact taste, texture, color and performance preferences. No longer are manufactured meat toppings one-size-fits-all. “The operator has hundreds of options when it comes to toppings,” Hertz said. “Especially with something like sausage … flavor, shape, size, color, look, you name it, it’s done today.” Indeed, the company’s sausage, pork and beef toppings line alone provides an array of flavors and textures. The company also offers pepperoni, meatballs, Canadian- style bacon, salami, chicken strips, beef strips, Mexican-style meats and more. “You can’t come to a toppings company any longer and just say you want the Italian sausage,” said Hertz. “When selecting fully cooked toppings, operators need to think about what flavor profile and product characteristics best suit their needs.” Cost controls Recipe courtesy of Burke Corp. For operators who are looking for a way to reduce topping costs, the addition of “They really can drive down costs,” said extenders such as soy-protein products can Frye, adding that a large number of Burke be a possible solution. customers request extenders. “Extenders also allow for the addition of water, which According to Burke’s Frye, three basic helps moisture retention. And if you extenders are used in pizza toppings: reduce that loss, you get a greater cooked soy flour (about 50 percent protein), soy yield.” concentrate (about 65 percent protein) and soy isolate (about 90 percent protein). Taking time to understand extenders, as well as all-meat products, will help The trick in using extenders, Frye said, operators in both purchasing and naming is to replicate the meat texture as closely their toppings. The USDA’s standards of as possible without adding too much soy identity define products such as sausage, flavor. and strict adherence to ingredients© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings Standards of identity Bacon: Describes the cured belly of a swine that pork sirloin hips are included or that carcass. If meat from other portions of the the product is made entirely from pork carcass is used, the product name must be sirloin hips, e.g., “Canadian-style bacon — qualified to identify the portions, e.g., “pork includes pork sirloin hips” or “Canadian- shoulder bacon.” style bacon—made from pork sirloin hips.” A sweet curing ingredient, such as sugar, Barbecued meats: Barbecued meats, may be used. such as product labeled “beef barbecue” or “barbecued pork,” must be cooked by Ham shank roll: A lower-cost alternative the direct action of dry heat resulting to Canadian-style bacon using ham shank from burning hard wood or hot coals for muscles. a sufficient period to assume the usual characteristics of a barbecued item, Capaccollo, cooked (also known as including a brown crust on the surface and capicola, capocolla, capacola, capicollo, the rendering of surface fat. The product cappicola, capacolo): Boneless pork may be basted with a sauce during the shoulder butts cured and then cooked. cooking process. The weight of barbecued The curing process may be dry curing, meat cannot exceed 70 percent of the immersion curing or pump curing. The weight of the fresh, uncooked meat. cured product is coated with spices and paprika before cooking. This product must Canadian-style bacon (from the United be labeled with “cooked” as part of the States): Canadian-style bacon is made product name. from a trimmed boneless pork loin. The tenderloin and the flesh overlying the Chorizo: Can be used for any type of blade bone are excluded. The surface fat chorizo sausage that is cooked, dry, (and false lean when necessary) must be semidry, cured and fresh, without further trimmed. A sweet curing ingredient, such product name qualification. Other as sugar, may be used. requirements for various types of chorizo apply, including the sausage standard. It is Canadian-style bacon made with or from seasoned with Spanish pimento and red pork sirloin hips: The sirloin is obtained pepper. Partially defatted pork fatty tissue by removing a short section of the pork is acceptable in chorizo. loin immediately in front of the hip or pelvic bone. The sirloin hip is obtained Extenders/binders/soy protein products: by removing the half of the sirloin, which Whenever extenders such as soy flour, comprises the posterior end of the pork defatted soy grits, soy protein concentrate, loin. The tenderloin is not included. The isolated soy protein and similar products labeling must bear a qualifying statement, are used as ingredients in meat and poultry adjacent to the product name, clarifying products, they must be called by their© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 27
  28. 28. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings common or usual name (e.g., soy flour, considered the equivalent to 12 percent soy protein isolate, etc.). According to of the other binders or extenders). The the classification or standard for these permitted binders and extenders include, items, soy flour is considered to have but are not limited to, cereal, breadcrumbs, approximately 50 percent protein; soy cracker meal, soy flour, soy protein protein concentrate contains a minimum of concentrate, isolated soy protein and TVP. 65 percent protein moisture-free basis; and Seasonings vary widely but commonly soy protein isolate contains a minimum of include herbs, garlic, onions and pepper. 90 percent protein moisture-free basis. Two percent isolated soy protein is equivalent Ground beef: Beef of skeletal origin used to 3.5 percent binders. If soy extenders in the preparation of chopped beef, ground products are textured, then “textured” beef or hamburger. Heart meat and tongue should also be included in the name. Use meat as organ meats are not acceptable of the term “textured vegetable protein” ingredients in chopped beef, ground beef (TVP) is acceptable when the textured soy or hamburger. May not contain added fat. products are mixed with spices, colorings, Maximum total fat is 30 percent. No level enrichments, etc., and the ingredients of seasoning or extension is allowed in of the TVP are listed parenthetically. ground beef. “Vegetable protein product” (VPP) is an acceptable declaration for a soy product Pepperoni: A dry sausage prepared from fortified in accordance with USDA Food pork or pork and beef. Combinations and Nutrition Service regulations. The containing more than 55 percent beef are ingredients of the VPP must be listed labeled pork and beef pepperoni. Pepperoni parenthetically, however. One other made exclusively with beef must be called extender commonly used in low-cost ham beef pepperoni. Extenders and binders products is carrageenan, which is made are not permitted in pepperoni. Hearts, from seaweed. tongues and other byproducts are not acceptable ingredients. Typically seasoned Ham: Fresh ham that has been cured and with black pepper, red pepper, garlic and may be either smoked or unsmoked. paprika (the seasoning that gives it its rich, red and recognizable color). Parma ham/prosciutto di Parma: Ham, when labeled “Parma ham” and/ Pepperoni with poultry: Poultry may be or “prosciutto di Parma,” can only be that added to pepperoni if properly labeled. If which is produced in the region of Parma, the meat block contains 20 percent or less Italy, in accordance with Italian law. poultry, the product is labeled “pepperoni with turkey (kind) added.” When poultry Meatballs: Uncooked or cooked pork, beef, over 20 percent of the meat and poultry veal and lamb, and other ingredients in a block product is labeled “pork and turkey ball form. Product must contain at least 65 (kind) pepperoni,“ an MPR of 1.6:1 is percent meat. Binders and extenders are applied. If the amount of poultry exceeds limited to 12 percent of the total product that of the meat, the product label reads (6.8 percent of isolated soy protein is “turkey and pork pepperoni.“ This would carry a poultry legend.© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 28
  29. 29. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings Salami, beef: A cooked, smoked sausage, ingredients: spices (including paprika) usually mildly flavored, in a large casing, and flavorings, water or ice, red or green containing coarsely ground beef. Cereals peppers, dehydrated or fresh onions, garlic, and extenders are permitted. May contain parsley, sugar, dextrose, corn syrup, corn fat. Product does not have to be labeled syrup solids, glucose syrup, monosodium cooked. glutamate and antioxidants. According to Frye, one quick way to determine how an Salami, Italian: A dry salami that is typical Italian sausage may taste is by looking at of the San Francisco area. Traditionally its color. If it’s greenish-gray, it’s typically it was distinguished by its covering of a sweet and seasoned with anise and fennel. white mold, but this is not required. This If it’s largely brown, the predominant salami consists of about 80 percent finely seasonings will be pepper and garlic. If it chopped pork, to which a small amount bears a red tint, it is likely seasoned with of pork fat may be added. Nonfat dry milk paprika, possibly red pepper and garlic. can comprise 3.5 percent of the finished product. The remainder consists of Pork sausage: Product identified as pork chopped beef, seasoning, salt and curing sausage does not include the use of pork agent. cheeks. When such an item is offered as “whole hog,” tongues, hearts and cheeks Sausage, fresh: Made of fresh, uncured may be used in the natural proportion as meat, generally cuts of fresh pork and found in the hog carcass. “Fresh” is used in sometimes beef. Its taste, texture, the name when the product is not cured, tenderness and color are related to the ratio cooked and/or smoked. Can contain no of fat to lean. Trimmings from primal cuts, more than 50 percent fat. This sausage may e.g., pork, loin, ham and shoulders, are also be labeled as breakfast sausage. often used. Typically seasoned with black pepper, sage, sometimes red pepper for Sausage, whole hog: Prepared with fresh spicier preferences and occasionally ginger. and/or frozen meat from swine. The Dextrose may be added to assist browning. finished product cannot contain more than 50 percent fat. To facilitate chopping Sausage, Italian: Italian sausage products or mixing, water or ice may be used in an are cured or uncured sausages containing amount not to exceed 3 percent of the total at least 85 percent meat, or combination ingredients used. of meat (beef, veal and/or pork) and fat, with the total fat content constituting * Sources: USDA Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book; Burke Corporation, Food Lover’s Companion not more than 35 percent of the finished (second edition), by Sharon Tyler Herbst; “Meat product. Such products shall contain salt, Processing News,” Kansas State University Agricultural black pepper and either fennel or anise, Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service or a combination of fennel and anise. May contain any or all of the following optional© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 29
  30. 30. CHAPTER 5 Meats: Still the top toppings guidelines is mandatory (see related loin only. If any other cut of meat is used, “Standards of identity” table on pages 27 it must be declared, such as Canadian-style through 29). bacon made with or from sirloin hips. For example, aside from approved To add to the misunderstanding, said seasonings and water, Italian sausage is Hertz, a product called ham shank roll is an all-meat product. Once an extender also often billed on menus as Canadian is added, the product would be called bacon. “cooked Italian-style pork topping.” Even if only the meat-to-fat ratio is altered, it may “A good way to tell whether it’s the real no longer be called Italian sausage. thing is to see what they’re charging for their pizzas,” she said. “Real Canadian- The confusion of naming conventions style bacon is a premium product in both goes beyond sausage. According to Hertz, quality and cost; alternatives are typically one of the pizza industry’s most misused cheaper.” topping terms is Canadian-style bacon. By the USDA’s rules, Canadian-style bacon must be made from trimmed boneless pork© 2011 NetWorld Alliance LLC | Sponsored by Burke Corporation 30