Globalization Agriculture-food systems changes Changes in food quantity, type, cost and desirability Changes in food access and availability through changes in food production, procurement & distribution Changes in food culture Changes in dietary patterns & nutritional status varying by socioeconomic status Hawkes, 2006
Globalization <ul><li>Trade liberalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Import quotas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price supports/subsidies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free trade agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign direct investment (FDI) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Greater integration of products, production and markets </li></ul>
Potential Sustainable Food System Effects <ul><li>Can lead to more mono-cultures of particular crops such as corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on local farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raising of cash crops rather than feeding families and community and loss of local habitat, soil, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>There tend to be greater advantages of free trade and globalization for industrialized countries than for developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Role of finite quantity of renewable and non-renewable resources </li></ul>
Potential Sustainable Food System Effects <ul><li>Increased imports – developed and less developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Short vs. long food chains-traditional food chains typically short--we are trying to re-gain some of this, but less developed countries are losing the local, seasonal aspects of their food chain-increased use of ‘value added’ processed foods </li></ul><ul><li>Far more food company sales from FDI in less developed countries than from exports – about 5 times more </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Direct Investment has led to global spread of supermarkets </li></ul>
Impact of Market Integration on Dietary Patterns <ul><li>Three processes: </li></ul><ul><li>The production and exchange of goods through agricultural production and trade; </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of investment across borders through foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing, and </li></ul><ul><li>The global communication of ‘information’ in the form of promotional food marketing. </li></ul>Hawkes, 2006
Globalization Process of Food Marketing <ul><li>The globalization of transnational food companies and the foods they promote. </li></ul><ul><li>The globalization of advertising and marketing companies so that there are just a few large ones. </li></ul><ul><li>The globalization of communication technologies-advertising on mobile phones, email ads, etc. </li></ul>
Success of Walmart (Walmex) in Mexico <ul><li>Walmex is the largest retailer, with 420 supermarkets and discount stores, 290 restaurants in 79 cities </li></ul><ul><li>Walmex sells food and general merchandise (general merchandise accounts for more total sales in dollars). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 663 million consumer transactions in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Walmex continues to grow, in 2004 investing $625 million to open 77 new stores. </li></ul><ul><li>The company employs more people than any other company in Mexico (n > 109,000). </li></ul><ul><li>Walmex’s success has seriously challenged Mexico’s three other supermarket chains, and contributed to the French Carrefour chain to withdraw from Mexico in 2005. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Shift in dietary and activity patterns along with body composition as groups move from a Receding Famine pattern to one with predominantly Nutrition Related Chronic Diseases </li></ul>Nutrition Transition
<ul><li>About 60% of all deaths worldwide are due to chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Documented increases in nutrition related chronic diseases particularly in developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Increases are occurring much more rapidly than they did in industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>Within developing countries, the poor are at greatest risk </li></ul>Where are we currently?
Food environment Trade agreements Food production, processing & distribution Advertising Price Natural and Built Environment Urban design Land use Transport mode Public facilities Market access Social environment Financial capacity Living conditions Working conditions Transport access Social support Social cohesion Eating habits Social norms Sociopolitical, sociocultural, socioeconomic, socioenvironmental contexts (natural resources, norms & values, governance, policies, supporting systems) Social stratification Income, education occupation, age gender Differential exposure & vulnerability Individual level factors Food consumption, nutrient intake, energy expenditure, biological and psychological factors Inequalities in obesity rates Friel, 2007
The relationship between agricultural policies and production practices and diet Hawkes, 2007 Agricultural Policy: Input, production & trade Agricultural Production Practices: Plant/animal breeding, crop fertilization, livestock feeding Technological Innovation Consumer Food Choices Diet Agricultural Choices Made by Producers Agricultural Production Agricultural Markets Nutrition-Related Chronic Diseases Agricultural Food Outputs : Food availability, price & nutrient quality
<ul><li>Policymakers need to ask the following three particularly pertinent questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Are agricultural policies and production practices </li></ul><ul><li>contributing to—or detracting from—efforts to attain dietary goals? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Where and how could agricultural interventions </li></ul><ul><li>help achieve dietary goals? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are there trade-offs between agricultural interventions for tackling diet-related chronic disease and other important concerns? </li></ul>Hawkes, 2007
“ National food and agricultural policies should be consistent with the protection and promotion of public health. Governments should be encouraged to examine food and agricultural policies for potential health effects on the food supply…. Agricultural policy and production often have a great effect on national diets. Governments can influence agricultural production through many policy measures. As emphasis on health increases and consumption patterns change, Member States need to take healthy nutrition into account in their agricultural policies” WHO, Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, 2004
What Is Our Role in Globalization and Sustainable Food Systems?