Caribbean Culture


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Caribbean Culture

  1. 1. Caribbean Culture By Gigi, Regina, Irem, and Amanda
  2. 2. Education <ul><li>Very important </li></ul><ul><li>First university founded in 1538 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12 colleges today </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Britain’s Education system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More advanced levels offered </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Education (cont’d) <ul><li>Equal enrollment of males and females </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Television </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Medical graduate school </li></ul>
  4. 4. School Stats <ul><li>Dominica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>73 nursery schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66 primary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 secondary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of West Indies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ross University Medical school </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Food <ul><li>Fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exported- north America and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oranges, papaya, bananas, watermelon, grapefruit, legumes (‘pod’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish, conch, goat meat, pork, beef </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly spiced foods </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food (cont’d) <ul><li>Fruit beverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ bush tea” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remedy for common cold, asthma, high blood pressure, fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ginger beer, milk with barley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fruit salad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many involve coconut and banana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>black fruitcake- celebrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooking methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cook-up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dish made with whatever ingredient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rice, vegetables, meat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health <ul><li>Nutrition-related chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced- increase of protein and calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetes, hypertension coronary heart disease, cancer, obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-food restaurants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cereals, grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processed foods- unhealthy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Languages <ul><li>Creole- combination of African and European, developed so that slaves could communicate with plantation owners </li></ul><ul><li>French Creole- spoken in Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Lucia, Dominica, and French Guyana </li></ul><ul><li>In Papiamento- blend of Dutch, Portuguese, English, and African </li></ul><ul><li>In Jamaica- Patwa or Patois </li></ul>
  9. 9. Music & Dance <ul><li>Reggae is popular </li></ul><ul><li>Includes African beats, also Indian and Latin styles </li></ul><ul><li>Modern rap </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing is part of the music and everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Salsa was originated in Cuba, and then was adopted by the Puerto Ricans </li></ul><ul><li>The merengue was originated in Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Ricans created another music style called Bomba y Plena </li></ul>
  10. 10. Architecture <ul><li>Older homes were made of palm trees </li></ul><ul><li>They were painted in bright colors to conceal the poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Now there are large metropolitan and modern cities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Literature <ul><li>African traditional styles </li></ul><ul><li>European modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba influenced Angolan literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban writers, who wrote of experiences in Angola, were mostly white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This kept Cuba and Angolan relations close </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Art <ul><li>Based on the country’s culture and the cultural movements </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the artists studied in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban artists were receiving more recognition due to political reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Gallery of Modern Art- famous museum in the Dominican Republic </li></ul>
  13. 13. Religions <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominantly Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holidays recognized throughout </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish and French Caribbean – Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British and Dutch Caribbean - Protestant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most variance in Bahamas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many denominations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anglicans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baptists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mormons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jehovah’s Witnesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lutherans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presbyterians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Religions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Rare Religions <ul><li>Animism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals, plants and inanimate objects have souls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voodoo </li></ul><ul><li>Local superstitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Black” and “white” magic </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Blended Religions <ul><li>Foreign influence; isolated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Pocomania (Christanity + Animism) </li></ul><ul><li>Vodun (Christianity + Benin, Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Santeria (Christianity + Yoroban of W. Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Rastafarian Movement (Hinduism + African religions) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Holidays and Festivals <ul><li>Christian Holidays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masses, feasts, gift-giving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico ~ Saints’ Festivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Year round </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties, parades, huge dances, traveling fairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bahamas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regattas (boat races, beauty pageants, cooking demonstrations) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. National Holidays <ul><li>Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 26 ~ Remembrance of the National Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feb. 24 ~ Anniversary of Second War for Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jamaica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Mon. in August ~ Independence Day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feb. 27 ~ Independence Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>August 16 ~ Restoration Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 6 ~ Constitution Day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bahamas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 10 ~ Independence Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Mon. in August ~ Emancipation Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 12 ~ Discovery Day </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. People and Society <ul><li>Divisions caused by the huge contrast of wealth and poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small and very wealthy group controls most money and power in the Dominican Republic, and concern themselves with political and economic issues, while most people live poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class includes professions, shop keepers, teachers, and clerical employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those in the lower class are concerned with daily survival, and most are illiterate and unskilled </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Racial Divisions in the Dominican Republic <ul><li>Race defines many Dominicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light skinned people call themselves ‘white’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People of mixed ancestry, about 75% of the Dominican population, call themselves ‘Indian.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most upper class people have lighter colored skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of these racial tensions come from the past, when, in many Caribbean countries, class was often primarily dictated by race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the turn of the century, Dominicans began denying their African inheritance and attempting to phase out many African influences on their culture. They began identifying themselves as white or Indian and not African. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caribbean’s wide ethnic diversity has led to racial tensions in the past in every Caribbean country. Some prejudice still exists today. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean has many mulattos (ethnic mix of black and white) ranging in skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term “black” is reserved for Haitians, partly due to their extreme poverty </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Women in the Caribbean <ul><li>Most countries have a matriarchal society in the sense that women play a large role in everyday and family life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although, men hold most political and economic power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bahamas and many Caribbean islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women cannot pass citizenship to their spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a woman dies, her possessions go to her oldest male relative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence against women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women treated equally, make up about 45% of workforce on average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortions are easy and common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low birth rate; family planning for women encouraged by government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong sense of female self-reliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most children grow up with mother and siblings. Father’s work often, and it is not uncommon for the father to have another family. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Family Structure <ul><li>Extended families stay close and are strongly bound to support each other </li></ul><ul><li>Machismo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means masculine pride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affairs are common, excepted, and even encouraged in some young men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men will usually support their illegitimate children as they support their own family. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premarital sex and extramarital sex expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers removed from everyday family affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sons are valued </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 40% of married couples break up while still in their 20’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce is much easier than in U.S </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Lifestyle <ul><li>Dominican Republic and Haiti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most live in unsanitary conditions, with poor health care, poor nutrition, and unorganized or no government support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy about 67 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration to cities becoming more popular, but still mostly rural countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haiti suffers extreme poverty and thousands immigrate to surrounding Caribbean nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common transportation is public buses/vans, only wealthy can afford cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jamaica, Bahamas and Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthier countries; high life expectancy, high literacy and good healthy care from government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization/Modernizations happening rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People move to cities for work, so ghettos are a problem; shortage of affordable housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban gangs and violence emerge (high youth population) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment leads to lots of illegal activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Special thanks to: <ul><li>Google images and Amanda for the use of the pictures our presentation </li></ul>“ Caribbean.” Encyclopedia Americana . Encyclopedia Americana . Scholastic Lib. 3 May 2007 <>. “ Caribbean Islanders, Diet of.” Gale Virtual Reference Library . Thomson Gale. Upper Merion Area High School Lib. 4 May 2007 <‌itweb/‌?db=GVRL>. “ World Culutures Today.” The Geenwood Encyclopedia . Daily Life Through History . Greenwood Publishing Group. 5 May 2007 <‌login.asp>.
  24. 24. The End