080415 Regulation Safety Quality

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  • 080415 Regulation Safety Quality

    1. 1. <ul><li>Science-Based, Business-Ready Information </li></ul><ul><li>for the Food Entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>News, Search, Links, Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.northwestfoods.net </li></ul>Getting Your Recipe to Market NorthwestFoods.net
    2. 2. Getting Your Recipe to Market Northwest Entrepreneur Development Seris Safety, Perception, Demand: Better Names for Quality John Henry Wells Food Systems Engineer
    3. 3. Foods Must be Safe Safety before Quality
    4. 4. Regulatory Definitions <ul><li>Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic Act </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Food &quot; means </li></ul><ul><li>articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, </li></ul><ul><li>chewing gum, and </li></ul><ul><li>articles used for components of any such article. </li></ul><ul><li>OAR 603-025-0010 </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Adulterated Food (FD&C Act SEC. 402) </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional or Unintentionally Added </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional or Intentionally Not Added </li></ul><ul><li>Misbranded Food (FD&C Act SEC 403) </li></ul><ul><li>Misleading Label or Container </li></ul><ul><li>Contents-Label Mismatched </li></ul><ul><li>Label Incorrect Format </li></ul>Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic Act http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/fdcact/fdcact1.htm
    6. 6. Regulatory Definitions <ul><li>&quot;Food Processing&quot; means the cooking, baking, heating, drying, mixing, grinding, churning, separating, extracting, cutting, freezing or otherwise manufacturing a food or changing the physical characteristics of a food, and the packaging, canning or otherwise enclosing of such food in a container, but does not mean the sorting, cleaning or water-rinsing of a food. </li></ul><ul><li>OAR 603-025-0010 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Regulatory Definitions <ul><li>&quot;Potentially Hazardous Food&quot; means any food that consists whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, edible crustacia or other ingredients, including synthetic ingredients, in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms, but does not include food which has a pH level of 4.6 or below or a water activity (Aw) value of 0.85 or less </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>OAR 603-025-0010 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Food Science Food Microbiology <ul><li>Characteristics of Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are everywhere (ubiquitous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assume your food has one or more pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They live under extreme conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychrotrophic (refergiration temperatures) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesophilic (normal room temperatures) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermophilic (high temperatures) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic (live in presence of oxygen) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic (live in absence of oxygen) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facultative (live by adapting to what is available) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Food Science Food Microbiology <ul><li>You Can’t See Microorganisms (microscopic) </li></ul><ul><li>Spoilage Microorganisms (impact quality change) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slime, Mold, Yeast (undesirable sensory experience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial Microorganisms (fermented foods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic Bacteria (impact human health) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne Illness can result from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins Production ( past microbial activity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microflora Ingestion ( present growth conditions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Resistant Spores ( future contamination opportunity) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. THEY MIGHT KILL YOU We are the microbes …
    11. 11. Foods Must be Safe Safety before Quality
    12. 12. Food Safety Analysis Regulatory Definitions <ul><li>Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Title 21 – Food and Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/cfrassemble.cgi?title=200521 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 1-99 Food and Drug Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 100-169 Food (Labeling, GMP, HACCP, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 170-199 Food Additives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Title 21 CFR Section 101.9 - Nutrition labeling of food ) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Food Science Physical Food Preservation <ul><li>pH Control - measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (pH meter) </li></ul><ul><li>A w Control - measurement of the amount of water available to microorganisms and chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>(water activity) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating – elevated temperature to kill selected microorganisms (thermal processing – heating followed by cooling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration – lowering temperature to slow microbial growth (cooling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing – lowering of temperature to create biologically inert water (formation of ice crystals) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Food Science Physical Food Preservation <ul><li>Combination Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple microbial hurdles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls on one or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH + A w + temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Package microenvironment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture barriers to maintain correct A w </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headspace gas composition to suppress microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Food Safety before Food Quality
    15. 15. Food Safety Analysis Cross Contamination <ul><li>Post-process contamination – product that is heated to reduce the number of microorganisms and comes in contact with unheated materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid mixing of finished product and raw materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper process planning – product flow should consider minimize risk of cross-contamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming materials and finished product should be on opposite ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste flow countercurrent to product flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper facilities planning - HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system should be designed so that the highest air pressure is in the finished product area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of cross-contamination by air-born particles. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. HACCP References <ul><li>U.S. Department of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Safety Inspection Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Hazard_Analysis_&_Pathogen_Reduction/index.asp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Food and Drug Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/haccp.html </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Foods Must be Safe Safety before Quality
    18. 19. “ Fitness for Use” Food Hazard <ul><li>Food hazard means any biological , chemical , or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21 CFR 120.3 (g) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Safety is most important (period) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> SAFETY BEFORE QUALITY </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Food Safety Management System Hazards and Controls <ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Contamination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(naturally occurring) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Adulteration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(anything not on the ingredient label) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(glass shards, equipment parts, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(GMP, SSOP, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Measure, record, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Change and verify) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Describe Your Product Class Activity <ul><li>Describe the “Controls” for your product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you reduce , avoid , and/or eliminate potential hazards? </li></ul></ul>~ 10 minutes!
    21. 24. Quality Search for Meaning <ul><li>A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.asq.org/glossary/q.html </li></ul>
    22. 25. Quality Search for Meaning <ul><li>the extent to which a product fulfills consumer needs and wants </li></ul><ul><li>an aesthetic standard for a product usually set by experienced users </li></ul><ul><li>the sum of those attributes that govern product acceptability to the buyer or consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 2000 </li></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>there are many incomprehensible, official definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>think of quality as &quot;we keep our promises“ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iso9001help.co.uk/ISO_9000_history.htm </li></ul>Quality Search for Meaning
    24. 27. Quality Search for Meaning <ul><li>in technical usage, quality can have two meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; “fitness for use” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a product or service free of deficiencies; “conformance to requirements” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.asq.org/glossary/q.html </li></ul>
    25. 28. “ Fitness for Use” Food Hazard <ul><li>Food hazard means any biological , chemical , or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21 CFR 120.3 (g) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Safety is most important (period) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> SAFETY BEFORE QUALITY </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Quality Management System Hazards and Controls <ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial Contamination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(naturally occurring) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Adulteration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(anything not on the ingredient label) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(glass shards, equipment parts, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(GMP, SSOP, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Measure, record, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Change and verify) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 30. “ Conformance to Requirements” Food Standards <ul><li>Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO Standards) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.codexalimentarius.net/ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for Olive Oils and Olive Pomace Oils ( 33 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for Raisins ( 67 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards of Identity (FDA/USDA Standards) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cereal Flours and Related Products ( 21 CFR 137 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catsup ( 21 CFR 155.194 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 31. Quality Grade Standards Absence of Something Bad <ul><li>Quality (subjective concept) </li></ul><ul><li>degree to which a set of inherent characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>fulfils requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defect – non-fulfillment of the needs and expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade (objective concept) </li></ul><ul><li>category or rank given to different quality </li></ul><ul><li>requirements for the items having the same </li></ul><ul><li>functional use </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonconformity – non-fulfillment of the stated requirement specifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Integration, March 23, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>http://qiblog.blogspot.com/2005_03_01_archive.html </li></ul>
    29. 33. Perceptions of Quality Perishable Nature of Food <ul><li>Quality is an individual consumer’s expectations or preferences toward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominate attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foods perish by developing undesirable combinations of quality attribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All foods perish – shelf-life expectation </li></ul></ul>Quality Attributes
    30. 34. Food Science Food Safety, Deterioration and Spoilage <ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Pests </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient Use </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
    31. 35. Quality Perceptions Sensory and Consumer Science <ul><li>A complicated, complex and chaotic interaction of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliant factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymatic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial interaction/growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic appeal </li></ul></ul>
    32. 36. Quality Perceptions Sensory and Consumer Science <ul><li>A complicated, complex and chaotic interaction of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliant factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymatic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial interaction/growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic appeal </li></ul></ul>Sensory Characterics has very few SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS
    33. 37. Sensory Science Consumer Science
    34. 38. Perceptions and Preferences Sensory Science <ul><li>Sensory Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch/Hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory Preference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul>
    35. 39. <ul><li>Taste (Tongue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate, oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smell (Nose) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-nasal region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vision (Eyes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale/Dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wavelength, intensity, purity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flavor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salty, sweet, sour, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aroma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruity, floral, musty, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical shape and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hue, brightness, saturation </li></ul></ul>Perceptions and Preferences Sensory Science
    36. 40. <ul><li>Hearing (Ears) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound of biting/chewing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch (Kinesthesis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles, tendons, joints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch (Somethesis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure, pain, temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmitted, absorbed, reflected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crispness, hardness, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky, chewy, gummy, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture/Taste (mouth feel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fizzy, melt, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture/Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure, thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shine, polish, turbity </li></ul></ul>Perceptions and Preferences Sensory Science
    37. 42. Sensation and Intensity Perceptions and Preferences <ul><li>Sensory stimulus in context and experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception expressed as a sensation (+ or -) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of desirable product attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of undesirable product attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference expressed as intensity (relative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater degree of desirable attribute is perceived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>higher intensity (more preferred ~ higher quality) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser degree of the desirable attribute is perceived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lower intensity (less preferred ~ lower quality) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 43. Sensory Testing <ul><li>Sensory Rating Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panelists are trained to recognize specific quality attribute that are defined in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity Scaling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Loss Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory Difference Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panelists are asked to compare product samples and determine if there are “noticeable charges” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deviation from Reference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shelf-Life Determination </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 44. Intensity Scaling Sample A Sample B Sample C Not Hot Very Hot Not Hot Very Hot Not Hot Very Hot
    40. 45. Sample A Sample B Sample C Reference Deviation from Reference R R R
    41. 46. Sensory Science Consumer Science
    42. 47. Consumer Testing <ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open discussion within a group guided by a moderator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use and Brand Studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market Drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hedonic Scaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating question about non-specific character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Liking </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 49. Emotions and Behaviors Consumer Science <ul><li>Affective Measures (agreement) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional state elicited by a food item prior to ‘action’ (sensory acceptance or avoidance level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptor Set Size - Percentage of customers who like the product (as acceptable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumptive Measures (certainty) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-point ‘action’ is the behavior of selection or consumption of a food item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Weight Measurement – Weight of each food item before and after serving (least uneaten portion) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 50. Describe Your Product Class Activity <ul><li>Describe the “Sensation and Intensity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the most prominent characteristics of your product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the consumer know it is there? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the “Emotions and Behaviors” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the feelings and actions that you want consumers’ to experience from your product? </li></ul></ul>~ 10 minutes!
    45. 51. <ul><li>Consumers need < product name > because … </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers want < product name > because … </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers value < product name > because … </li></ul>Consumer Demand Essential Market Understanding
    46. 52. Food and Agriculture Enterprise Consumer Demand Food Review 25(1): 2-9. USDA-ERS, May 2002 <ul><li>Demand for Value-Added Products </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Quality-Differentiated Foods </li></ul>
    47. 53. Food and Agriculture Enterprise Consumer Demand “ Benefits” that Add Value Food Review 25(1): 2-9. USDA-ERS, May 2002 <ul><li>Demand for Value-Added Products </li></ul>
    48. 54. Benefits that Add Value Multiple Perspectives Purpose Perception Promotion Process Place
    49. 58. Food and Agriculture System Benefits that Add Value <ul><li>Benefits that Add Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production – cultural practices and supply chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by farmer producers and ingredient suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing – defined specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by food entrepreneurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption – customers and consumer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by distributors and retailers </li></ul></ul>
    50. 59. Food and Agriculture Enterprise Consumer Demand “ Benefits” that Add Value “ Distinctions” that Differentiate Quality Food Review 25(1): 2-9. USDA-ERS, May 2002 <ul><li>Demand for Value-Added Products </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Quality-Differentiated Foods </li></ul>
    51. 60. Food and Agriculture System Consumer Demand <ul><li>Distinctions that Differentiate Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Wants </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits that Add Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production - An economic livelihood for farmer producers </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - A business opportunity for entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption - A market source of nutrition for society </li></ul>
    52. 61. <ul><li>Distinctions that Differentiate Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Needs - I need food to live </li></ul>Food and Agriculture System Consumer Demand <ul><li>Benefits that Add Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production - An economic livelihood for farmer producers </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - A business opportunity for entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption - A market source of nutrition for society </li></ul>(my lifestyle experience)
    53. 62. <ul><li>By 2020 more than one-third of the American population will be over fifty </li></ul><ul><li>Over 68 percent of the population is using vitamins and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Over 25 percent of the population are using herbs and related supplements </li></ul><ul><li>American consumers are constructing new personal wellness regimes </li></ul>Lifestyle Experience Distinct Needs Natural Products Census , The Hartman Group
    54. 63. Food and Agriculture System Consumer Demand <ul><li>Distinctions that Differentiate Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Needs - I need food to live (my lifestyle experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Wants - I want foods that are … </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits that Add Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production - An economic livelihood for farmer producers </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - A business opportunity for entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption - A market source of nutrition for society </li></ul>
    55. 64. Dashboard Dining Makes Tracks Focused on the growing niche of mobile foods, Deli Dashers® Premium Meal Oriental Cups, with a decidedly regional Chinese influence, are hitting the mark. Convenience Products Distinct Foods http://www.preparedfoods.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,1231,113739,00.html PreparedFoods.com
    56. 65. Stand-Up, Zip-Lock, Pop-Top, Squeeze Bottle, Surprise Inside Products
    57. 66. Food and Agriculture System Consumer Demand <ul><li>Distinctions that Differentiate Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Needs - I need food to live </li></ul><ul><li>Wants - I want foods that are … </li></ul><ul><li>Values - I appreciate (and benefit from) foods that are … </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits that Add Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production - An economic livelihood for farmer producers </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - A business opportunity for entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption - A market source of nutrition for society </li></ul>
    58. 67. Distinct Values Certifications
    59. 68. Quality-Differentiated Products Increasing Distinction Degree of Distinction: Safety Satisfaction Sustainability Social Responsible Continuous Improvement: Programs: ISO 22000 Food Safety Management System HACCP Microbial Food Safety Hazards ISO 9000 Quality Management System ISO 14000 Environmental Management System ISO 26000 Guidance Standard on Social Responsibility SA 8000 Social Accountability Standard International Standards Organization (ISO) 4-S Criterion for Food and Agricultural Enterprise
    60. 69. Quality-Differentiated Products How is quality defined? Continuous Improvement in the Degree of Distinction
    61. 70. Food and Agriculture System Consumer Demand <ul><li>“ Distinction Mix” that Differentiates Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Wants </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>“ Benefit Mix” that Adds Value </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption </li></ul>
    62. 71. Benefit Increasing Value-Added Products Increasing Distinction Quality-Differentiated Foods
    63. 72. Benefit Increasing Value-Added Products Increasing Distinction Quality-Differentiated Foods
    64. 73. Consumer Demand Production Manufacturing Consumption Benefit Mix Needs Values Wants Distinction Mix Benefits + Distinctions Cost
    65. 74. Production Manufacturing Consumption Benefit Mix Safety Social Responsibility Sustainability Distinction Mix Demand Specifications Satisfaction
    66. 75. Describe Your Product Class Activity <ul><li>Describe the “Benefit Mix” for a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are production , manufacturing , and/or consumption factors used to add-value to your product? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the “Distinction Mix” for a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are consumers’ needs , wants , and/or values (4-S criterion) considered to quality-differentiate your product? </li></ul></ul>~ 10 minutes!

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