Speech Language Therapist Role in School Inclusion
SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPIST ROLE IN SCHOOL INCLUSIONBy: Néstor Antonio Pardo Rodríguez1Speech Language Therapistnestorpardo2011@yahoo.com.coABSTRACTThe article presents an overview of the role of the Speech - Language Therapist at the EducationalInclusion, as part of a transdisciplinary team of support. Also located training processes leading to thecommunity, parents and teachers on the various communication methods (conventional andalternative) that a student with special educational needs can use, in order to enabled the optimizationof communication in familiar environments, school and community, for which monitoring is required,among other aspects, the environment and especially the acoustic characteristics of the classroom.Keywords: Inclusion, Disability, Speech, Transdisciplinarity. INTRODUCTIONAccording to Miller (1979), without communication, social organization is impossible.Individual whodoes not speak with any member of a group is necessarily isolated and cannot acquire knowledge, asit is constructed through dialogic exchange that allows the interpretation of world trade.One of the features common to different students who have Special Educational Needs related with orwithout "disability" and now to give a less clinical dye called "limitations in action", is the difficulty incommunication, which results in isolation within his own family and consequently in the School andCommunity. Therefore, to improve the quality of life of these people are needed to optimize theircommunication through various alternatives, which allows for increased self-esteem, autonomy,interpersonal relationships and employment, given by: education, family life, community activities, andemployment.Speech - Language Therapist within an inclusive context seeks precisely to foster communicationskills of parents, teachers, support staff and students through a process approach to the needs andpotentials of the individual. It further agrees joint strategies with the aim of both the system chosen asthe elements that compose it reflect reality in which these and his family operate.This article presents an overview of the role of the Speech - Language Therapist in InclusiveEducation, seeking the dialogic exchange between professionals and community, in order to open1 Speech Language Therapist graduate at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Over 27 years of experience in Education,Health and International Cooperation, in Bolivia, Colombia, Nicaragua and Peru. He was Secretary of the Municipal Education, Municipal Advisory Council in the area of Education, Creator of SpecialEducation Programs, and Promoter of NGOs related to the theme of Education and Language Therapist (public and privatesectors) in Colombia. CIIR / Progressio in Nicaragua and British International Service in Bolivia Development Worker.Currrently, Consultant of the Cobija, Bolivia Mayoralty.
opportunities for participation as a way of life in which all members can express, disagree or agree andcreate a variety of possibilities about the future of humankind. DOWN SYNDROME LEARNING BLINDNESS DIFFICULTIES LANGUAGE SPECIFICAL LEARNING DEAFNESS DISORDER CEREBRAL AUTISM PALSYFigure 1. Language as a Common Element of Difficulties in Students with Special EducationalNeedsINCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND SPECIAL NEEDSThe concept of Special Educational Needs refers to all the barriers that affect learning andparticipation of a person within the educational community. Although often associated with peoplewho have a disability, their perspective is broader. Involves the recognition that all learners aredifferent and can learn, regardless of their personal, social or cultural. An Inclusive School or Educational Institution must promote and implement successful measures toassume the educational community: • The value of diversity as an element that enriches the personal and social development of learners and educators, parents and education authorities. • The design and implementation of a participatory educational project whose focus is education and diversity. • The implementation of a teaching style that recognizes and adapts to different abilities, motivations, rhythms and learning styles of students. • The establishment of criteria and procedures for evaluating and promoting flexible.
• The availability of a professional transdisciplinary team to support, plan and develope educational actions that cover all school needs.SPEECH - LANGUAGE THERAPY AND EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION Holland (1994), cited by Raven (1999) argues that "it matters little that the speech therapists generatemore knowledge and expand the scope and sophistication of their clinical skills to meet thepopulation-traditional and new - of people with communication disabilities, if they are able to ensurethat services reach those in need " Cazden (1991) says that the spaces of school life presented as a multiplicity of communicativeevents. The school, like any social institution, is a communication system. The network learningprocess - learning is linked primarily through discursive social interaction teacher - student, which mustbe optimized. In this regard, the role of the Speech - Language Therapist is to design and implement programs ofprevention, promotion, diagnosis and intervention for students with and without communicationdisorders, and advise teachers and parents among others (Flórez 2004), in conjunction with atransdisciplinary team of support. This helps students to participate as much as possible in all aspectsof their educational, social and vocational life, and prepar them to meet the communication demandsof the working world in the XXI Century (American Speech and Hearing Association - AmericanAssociation of Speech and Language).
LOCATION ONLY REGULAR REGULAR CLASSROOM INCLUSIVE TYPE CLASSROOM WITH EXTERNAL CLASSROOM SUPPORTHIGHLIGHTS The regular educator meets The regular educator meets Educational InstituteOF THE all the needs of the student, all the needs of the student, designs and implementsALTERNATIVE who cannot be officially who cannot be officially diversified educational identified as a child or youth identified as a child or youth methods for students, with special educational with special educational meeting the individual needs. needs. needs and characteristics of all Receive occasional other professional advice.TYPICAL Without Special Educational Without Special Educational Students with andTYPES OF Needs and other students Needs and other students without SpecialSTUDENTS TO who were not identified by who were not identified by Educational NeedsATTEND preSpecial Educational preSpecial Educational Needsting mild learning Needsting mild learning problems, emotional problems, emotional disorder disorder / behavioral mild or / behavioral mild or mild mild mental retardation, mental retardation, students students with Special with Special Educational Educational Needssory or Needssory or physical physical disabilities. disabilities.PRIMARY ROLE Training to the Directive Training to the Board, Participation andOF SPEECH Board, Academic Academic Committee, InstitutionalLANGUAGE Committee, Educators and Educators and Parents in Assessment, based onTHERAPIST Parents in relation to the relation to the detection and its area of action. detection and prevention of prevention of communication communication disorders. disorders. Participation for Institutional Educational Terms advice on classroom Training and Advice to Project Development acoustics Teachers and Parents in the Generation of Strategies to Participation in the Enhance Language Skills of design and institutional Students implementation of diversified educational Advice for detecting methods for students, students with special meeting the individual educational needs in the needs and areas of language, hearing characteristics of all and communication. Training Process Advise the regular teacher Leading to the at his request. Community on Normal Development of Terms advice on classroom Language and acoustics Communication, as well as prevention of disorders or abnormalities in them and Hearing. Advice and Control over Classroom Acoustic Conditions
Table 1. Role / Speech - Language Therapist in Different Educational Contexts SPEECH - LANGUAGE THERAPIST ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE INCLUSION The Speech - Language Therapist within an inclusive context seeks to optimize the communication skills of parents, teachers and students. This requires the implementation of an individualized program of stimulation for communication to be designed based on a careful assessment of each person transdisciplinary. It is especially important to include the family as the main stimulator team member. Disciplinary support team evaluates the characteristics and needs motor, cognitive, Special Educational Needssory, behavioral and communicative. It analyzes the situation based on knowledge shared, and attention to a proposal in conjunction with the student and his family, with a view to real social inclusion. This acknowledges the role of the family and the community to promote individual development through a system of care tailored to their needs. As the prefix "trans" indicates, transdisciplinarity deals with what is, at the same time, across disciplines, across disciplines and across all disciplines. Its objective is to understand the preSpecial Educational Needst world, and one of the requirements for that is the unity of knowledge. Thus, the dialogic exchange between professionals and community opens up opportunities for participation as a way of life in which all members can express themselves, or agree to disagree and create a variety of possibilities about the future of humankind. The speech therapist or speech therapist or assumed by this approach a provocative role for the analysis of potential changes that must assume a person is having difficulty communicating properly, based on needs in the classroom, school and curriculum. You should also consider the needs of the person in relation to community activities such as religious and recreational groups. SPEECH OCUPACIONAL LANGUAGE For this reason, THERAPIST - Language Therapist should seek consensus with support the Speech THERAPIST transdisciplinary team, educators and families to look for improvement in the quality of life for people with severe communication difficulties, increasing knowledge and use of traditional methods or the Alternative for Communication. In this Special Educational Needsse, in the process of rapprochement to the needs and potential of individual decisions and agree joint strategies with the aim of both the system choSpecial Educational Needs as the elements that compose it reflects reality in which they and their families operate.SOCIAL WORKER STUDENT WITH PSYCHOLOGIST SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS PHYSICAL FAMILY THERAPIST TEACHER
Another important aspect of speech-language pathologists role is to control the acoustics of theclassroom. The sound environment has great influence on the ability to listen, because the child"training" to hear sounds that perceived to focus their attention on what you want. If the noiseconditions in the middle are too strong, the child forced to protect you and stop listening, blockingaccess of information to Central Nervous System (see information on reciprocal synapses in the organof Corti).This is very important for cases of children with autism, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome andhearing loss, who have great difficulty understanding the spoken word. We must remember that thesetypes of children not well understood linguistic messages are extremely Special EducationalNeedssitive to the way in which messages expressed. Thus, intonation and inflection of the voicebecomes very important. The same information can be "translated" by the child in very different waysaccording to what was said. Some invite the child to obey cheerfully, and others, however, can lead tototal rejection. Use of Alternative Community Communication Awareness Systemsat about Forms of Home and Communication Education Unit SPEECH LANGUAGE THERAPIST Training and Advice to Advice and Teachers and Control over Parents about Classroom Language Skills Acoustic of Students Conditions Detection, Evaluation, Description and Optimization of Students Communication CharacteristicsFIGURE 3. SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGISTS ROLE IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
In addition, many children in our current era are limited in their ability to comprehend auditoryinformation due to noise interference in homes, day care, learning centers and schools. Beyond theobvious problems associated with hearing loss are those that involve the processing of the speechsignal (abstraction or organizing information.) It seems that these children acquire language moreslowly and usually also have trouble in learning to read (deHirsch, 1961; Menyuk, 1976). We note that the halls or classrooms that face the street or playground neighbors have importantdispersing factor and children have a greater concern, affecting directly in the educational field,because it alters communication, especially with the noise impact, such as horns, exhaust pipes free,outdoor, and shouts of other children, etc... Students also raise the volume of your voice; teachersmust repeat your message repeatedly, resulting in vocal effort and waste of time. The noise seems to interfere with attention, memory and the ability of children to discriminatebetween meaningful auditory stimuli, especially in the field of speech. Background noise, in particularthe whispers, the screams of other students playing outside the classroom or in the classroom nextdoor and irrelevant speech, interfere with the ability of children to understand the spoken word. Thiscan have serious consequences for academic performance.CONCLUSION The constitution of the human occurs primarily through the language, because both are inextricablylinked as two sides of a coin. Thus, the human is only possible in the field of culture and cannot existwithout language. The importance that this concept for our reflections lies in the particular relationshipwith these approaches to the field of education. Education, in whatever form, including schoolingobviously, is an act of communication that is mediated by language. For its part, the school, like any social institution, is a communication system. Therefore, all schoolsshould benefit from speech therapy services or school phonoaudiological as language andcommunication skills are the foundation of all learning and an esSpecial Educational Needstialprerequisite for academic success, develop social skills and become responsible citizens andproductive performance in the world of work. All this implies the importance of the professional Speech Language Therapy within inclusiveeducational field. It can contribute to rethinking the model of reality learning, assuming first the normalstrategies that foster language development and communication skills as the basis of other academicacquisitions. It is necesary starting with a significant interdisciplinary team training support, teachersand families in these areas in order to: the generation of a program to analyze the communicative levellearners, identify the difficulties that arise, to prevent in future the emergence of these and correctthem. Further, plummet into the search for excellence communication between all involved ineducation and in all modes.REFERENCESAAMR. (1999): Deficiencia intelectual. Definición, clasificación y sistema de apoyo. Alianza, Madrid.BRUNER, J. (1983): El habla de la persona”. Paidós, Buenos Aires.BUCKLEY S (1993): Language development in children with Downs syndrome: Reasons foroptimism. "Downs Syndrome: Research and Practice." 1:3-9.CALDERÓN, G. (1981): "Salud Mental Comunitaria". Editorial Trillas, México.CASTILLO DE MIRANDA, N. (1984): Privación cultural y dificultades en el aprendizaje. En: Antigua,Nº 24. Editorial La Antigua, Panamá.
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