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  • 1. Tables trust online Tina Guenther / Guido Möllering © 2007 – Preliminary Version: Do not cite without permission! Table 1: Preconditions of trust online Realms of Knowledge Production interaction Electronic markets/ (e.g. Wikipedia/ Online Identity management/ Online trading Knowledge-Blogs/ Online relationship management Preconditions Open Source Software) for trust    Buyer Author Author    Seller Editor Editor    Intermediate Reader Reader Actors    [identifiable] Provider Distributor Distributor    Regulator Provider Provider    Owner/registered member Owner /user Owner /guest   (fair) market competition Informal, heterarchical cooperation    Reliable information Commonly shared interest in Rewarding social relations   Reliable code quality, that is truth, practical use Centrality Expectations   Exchange of goods/ & moral rightness, authenticity (positive) Feedback  service/economic value of content, code and meta data Obtain valuable information    Privacy Unrestricted distribution and usage Support/Advice [gift culture]   Transparency Support/Advice [gift culture]    Deception: Deception: Social damage:  Ridiculing, rejection, social – Transaction – Cooperation – Reputation – Innovation placement as “awkward person”  Diminishing chances for career – Indiscretion – Availability Vulnerability  Destruction: – User rights advancement – material   – Market Competition Destruction: Personal/pychological damage: – immaterial – Reliable information – Vandalism – (loss of) money – Reliable code – Exploitation [related to – (loss of) time – Privacy produsage community] – (loss of) confidence – Transparency & self-esteem
  • 2. Realms of interaction Electronic markets/ Knowledge Production Online Identity management/ Online trading (e.g. Wikipedia/K-Blogs/OSS) Online relationship management Preconditions for trust online  Irreducibility of trust to perfect  Irreducability of trust to:  software code, rules and procedures. Lack of control over distribution – Technology High quality of content, code and and usage of published content, (reliable code) Uncertainty metadata cannot be guaranteed. code and metadata – Economic calculation   Lack of control over distribution and Loss of autonomy – Control & surveillance  usage of published content, code and Loss of authenticity – Social norms metadata    Voluntary participation Voluntary participation Voluntary participation Agency    Misuse possible Misuse possible Misuse possible (e.g. Identity theft)    Internal (code, formalities, Internal (atmosphere of cooperation Internal (user authority, rules sanctions) and mutual support/gift culture) unwritten & unspoken rules   External (social External (with regard to other and procedures)  norms/netiquette) sources of content, code and External (offline reputation and Embeddedness  External (with regard to meta-data). networks of social interaction)   economic institutions, state External (with regard to market External (with regard to citizenship, regulators and legislation) relations, professional associations, religion, marriage, & citizenship and academic institutions, intellectual state legislation) property legislation) Explanation: By this table we seek to explain why trust is a problem in online interaction. Each of the preconditions actors, expectations, vulnerability, uncertainty, agency and embeddedness must be fulfilled to speak to speak of trust online as a relevant category. Tina Guenther / Guido Möllering © 2007
  • 3. Table 2: Elements of trust online Realms of interaction Electronic markets, auctions Knowledge Production Online Identity management and and online trading (e.g. Wikipedia/K-Blogs/OSS) Online relationship management Elements for trust online  Information and knowledge goods in  Valuable, complex online identity the form of content, code & metadata  Increase scope and diversity of   Goods/services Public good (availability, widespread social relations & memberships  economic value distribution, unrestricted user rights)  Practicalities (e.g. passwords)   Reputation (e.g. good Practicalities (e.g. in work processes) Reason  Reputation (e.g. good blogger)  – utility provider/eBay user) Authority (e.g. object of narratives)  Authority (e.g. high centrality,   – signals Competence Benevolence: reliability, flexibility, academic degrees, positions)  Benevolence user-friendliness, identity related  Benevolence (e.g. comments,  Integrity information incoming links & trackbacks)  High Quality with regard to truth/  Credibility teleology, moral rightness, integrity  Open, controversial discussions    Self presentation Quality checks by other produsers Informal, welcoming atmosphere    Evaluation/ Rating systems Public discussion & permanent Check incoming comments,  Complaint systems/FAQ overwork within produser community links/trackbacks Routine    Uniform appearance Documentation of changes: Monitoring visitors/usage patterns??   Documentation of activity?? authors, versions, discussion Monitoring personal reputation??    Control/surveillance?? Control/surveillance of user behavior Exclusion of users/Restrictions of   Sanctions?? Exclusion of users/Restrictions of user user rights in case of norm violations rights under certain conditions    Public records (e.g. media) Transparent rules and procedures Establishing relationships online Reflexivity    – experience History of past transactions Size & Dynamics (e.g. site stats) Number of functioning relationships    – learning Exchange of experience History of knowledge productions Exchange of experience    Trial and error Mutual support & advice Playful/hetherodox usage patterns
  • 4. Realms of interaction Electronic markets/ Knowledge Production Online Identity management/ Online trading (e.g. Wikipedia/K-Blogs/OSS) Online relationship management Elements for trust online Illusion of fame, public reputation, Suspension Illusion of calculable risk Illusion of reciprocity & mutual support improvement of social positioning [leap of faith] and impression management  Happiness beyond project  Happiness beyond [happiness about positive relations]  Happiness beyond project [happiness  Tension when establishing transaction about successful cooperation] Experiencing  Tension during transaction weblog/complex online identity  [emotions] Tension during cooperation   Frustration from trolls/ Frustration from  Frustration from failed cooperations failed transactions flaming/spam/hacking etc.  “Online addiction” (??) With regard to market With regard to scope of activity With regard to participation in produsage: participation and economic and degree of authenticity: transaction:  Committing Enacting  Committing  Committing  Delivering  Delivering  Delivering  Responding  Responding  Responding Explanation: Authors interpret trust as a social process between trustor and trustee containing the six elements of reason (utilities; signals), routine, reflexivity, suspension (leap of faith), experiencing (emotions) and enacting (making trust possible by trusting). Tina Guenther / Guido Möllering © 2007