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Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
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Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
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Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
Torres gastelu 1
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  • 1. Information Technology (IT) as a capability: A Technological Capability (TC) Approach Author´s name Carlos Arturo Torres Gastelú Telephone number 52-(229)-9241185 Mailing Address Calle Josefina del Río de Melo Núm. 830 Fracc. Villa Rica C.P. 91810 Veracruz, Ver. México e-mail Address carlos_tr66@yahoo.com ctorres@uv.mx Affiliated institutions UNAM Department Facultad de Contaduría y Administración Topic Technology and ProductivityKey words: IT, Technological Capabilities, Information Technology AbstractThis paper explores preliminary research results realized in a large Mexican firm in order toidentify and examine technological capabilities (TC) of information technology and theirimplications in the following dimensions: individual and organization. It is proposed to make aresearch of the possible relation between capability accumulation for a specific type ofinformation technology (IT): employees´ portal (EP) with the technological capability that can beachieved in a specific firm. In order to do that closed related factors have been identified(organizational behaviour, technology integration, individuals skills, social interaction andtechnological infrastructure). These factors are involved in the knowledge1 codification-transmission processes for employees´ portal capabilities generation, with the purpose toidentify how influence in the different administrative ways for processes and taking decisions thataffects in a direct or indirect way for the technological incorporation of IT, such as personneltraining policies, personnel recruiting, technological investment rate, modernization strategies,corporative philosophy, communication policies, and so on.1 For this study the knowledge typology proposed by Lundvall (1996) will be used, due the research focusfor this study will analyze technological knowledge based in experience, skills and others variables. Theknowledge typology is integrated by four elements: know what, know why, know how and know who.Know-what refers to knowledge about "facts". How many people live in Mexico city is an example of thiskind of knowledge. Know-why refers to knowledge about principles and laws of motion in nature, in thehuman mind and in society. Know-how refers to skills - i.e. the capability to do something. Know-whoinvolves information about who knows what and who knows to do what. But especially it involves thesocial capability to establish relationships to specialised groups in order to draw upon their expertise(Lundvall, 1996). 1
  • 2. IntroductionSeveral authors (Terceiro & Matías, 2001; Seely Brown & Duguid, 2001) have discussedthe importance of technology as a factor of the change in the social relations, productionways and economical structures; also about the impact that have been affecting thesociety due to the afectations in these matters; specially IT has been an interest subjectattending their difussion and explotation (Moelbjerg, 1998) and also some theories havebeen developed trying to explain this phenomeno, however few has been studied aboutin which way successful technology incorporation (in specific IT in developing countries)could be spread in one or more industries in order to increase region development ornational development. In the case of Mexico, as a developing country it has at least tworealities for firms, in one side it can be found few strong large mexican firms (LMF) thatare getting stronger with the time and have reached international markets fighting withmajor world firms leagues, and in the other side most of the small and medium mexicanfirms face day by day the tremendous challenge of survival, and some of them competein local, regional or even national markets.It is convenient to analyze what is happening in each one of this firms sectors fortechnological capabilities (TC) development, in order to have a better understandingabout reality, and in that way try to answer to the main question of this research: How ITis been positionated in TC conformation in LMF?; in order to answer that it is proposedthe following specific questions: Which factors affect IT capabilities accumulation? AreIT capabilities related with TC conformation in LMF? How those factors have beenaffecting individual´s and organizational´s dimensions IT capabilities accumulation inLMF? How IT (employees´s portal) capabilities are being codified and transmitted?The purpose of this investigation is to try to explain the possible positioning of IT and itsimplications in the following dimensions: Individual and organization. It is intended toestablish possible relation that exist in the accumulation of capabilities of IT regardingthe total accumulation of technological capabilities that they may develop at a given firm.For that, an analysis of knowledge-codification and knowledge-transmission will beintended to take for the generation of capabilities for the incorporation of Internet 2
  • 3. technology specifically to employees portals, with the purpose of identifying how ITinfluences the different administrative aspects such as processes and taking decisions(the personnels qualification, the personnels recruitment, etc.). Under this perspective itis intended to establish IT influence examining TC accumulation taking in considerationtwo dimensions: the individual and the organization contrasting them with the group ofTC that could be detected in the interviews with the firms executivesA case of study in a Mexican corporation that has been characterized for a greatsustained growth and also for an increasing technological incorporation has beenselected: that firm is CEMEX, which is been constituted as a mature enterprise so muchfor the productive sector that it takes care of, as for the grade of technologycompenetration, which it has been the result of a learning technological process joinedto a continued innovative process disseminated in the various levels of the firm (Costa &Robles, 2002).This Mexican corporation is the third productive worldwide- cement plant, the fifth mostimportant firm of the country and occupies the nineteenth place at all the Latin Americancontinent, so CEMEX has developed its own corporate philosophy (the “CEMEX Way”)that implicates the adoption of new technology and the strict imposition of standards ofworldwide control, as much as its technology as well as management techniques done“at home”.Its probable that the adoption, adaptation and development processes utilized byCEMEX may do assets brought in for a best understanding of the forms as it has beenadopted successfully and “in the Mexican way” the use and exploitation of IT. It isimportant to mention that of the broad range that conforms the IT, it is only intended toexamine the participation of employees portals in the conformation of the TC in theLMF, however the present document coverage includes preliminary results due thatinvestigation has not been concluded. 3
  • 4. Technological capabilities conceptualizationOne of the researchers that has deeply penetrated in the technological capabilitiesconceptualization is Lall; this author has assumed that the TC are circumscribed as theskills, knowledge and experience demanded in order that a firm attain the technologicalchange in different levels (Lall, 2000a). He has highlighted the fact that the TC areacquired and accumulated by long periods of time through technological efforts, whichare carried through by the firm. Such technological accumulation is named learningprocess, which as it is simultaneous to the technological change.Accumulated capability type, as well as the technological change reached depend onhow explicit and decided the efforts are. While more explicit and decided thetechnological efforts are, the deepest and the most complexes will be the accumulatedcapabilities and the technological change reached (Lall, 2000a). A little bit differentperspective of Lall (2001) in posterior publications emphasizes that technologicalcapabilities are defined as “ the skills - techniques, administrative or organizational - thatare necessary to permit the firms to efficiently utilize the hardware (team) and software(information) of the technology”. Such capabilities are necessarily specific of the firm,institutional knowledge composed of individual skills and all the accumulated experiencein the course of time” (Lall, 2001). Where he develops an important argument regardingthe “synergetic element” that appears as a product of the individualss interaction, whichis different to the very literal sum of the individualss capabilities.In the same way Ernst & Kim (2001) have supported that the organizational learning isnot the simple sum of individual learnings. Only the effective institutions can translatethe individual learning and the capabilities in organizational learning and capabilities.Lall (2001) and Hedberg (1981) affirm that the construction of capabilities requiresindividual and organizational learning. The individuals are the main actors in the learningand in the creation of knowledge. They constitute local capabilities that can be combinedin the level of organization. Therefore technology simply cannot be transferred to adeveloping country like a physical product, due that effective implantation has to includeimportant capabilities building elements: Simply providing equipment and directions of 4
  • 5. operation, patents, designs or the drawing of execution does not secure that technologywill be used efectively.Regarding technological capabilities development in the processes of industrialization,Cimoli (2000), argued that it is related with the capability to acquire technology and withthe capability to absorb and to adapt the local environment. In the same direction,Figueiredo (2002b), define the technological capability as the necessary resources togenerate and manage improvements in processes and production organization,products, equipment and engineering projects. Agreeing with Bell and Pavitt (1995)whereon technological capabilities are accumulated and developed by the individuals(skills, knowledge and experience) and in the organizational systems. Also Gonsen(1998), has ratified it when he has addressed that the fundamental components oftechnological capabilities are the individuals (which possess skills and technicalknowledge), the organization (institution that assemble different accomplishments andthe “know how”), and a common objective (combination of efforts of technical skills in acommon direction) (Gonsen,1998).Empiric case studies have analyzed the technological capabilities in three levels: Levelof the firm or microlevel, in the level of industrial sector and in a national level. Giventhat the large Mexican companies are the nature of sign of study, it is consideredadequate level of the firm or microlevel.In the level of the firm, the empiric evidence reveals that some firms, that initially weredependent or else were importing technology, they developed (through the effort andtime) technological capabilities that they permitted catching up with international levelhigh standards of efficiency and competitiveness, by means of the development ofstrategies for the acquisition of knowledge, adaptation and development (Gonsen,1998). 5
  • 6. For the purpose of this investigation it is considered that technological capabilities arerelated to a technological learning processes that imply the acquisition of additionalknowledge and technical skills by individuals and organizations, this learning processimplies acquisition processes and knowledge-codification processes, that is how theyacquire and transmit the knowledge in the firms by the accumulation of experienceacquired by the qualification or specialized training, by the transmission of tacitknowledge or else for the practice of daily realization.In the recent literature (Figueiredo, 2002a, 2002b) TC have been studied in the firmslevel (microlevel) aspects related with the organization, process and production or elsecentered in the product, investment or equipment, it is proposed to take IT toaccomplish a contribution that imply the explanation of the conformation of technologicalcapabilities turning to a productions element of investment as IT, in order to identify itspossible relation with the firms total capabilities. In other words, I propose the assetsbrought in of this study in the theoretic frame of TC to group them on the basis of thetypes of selected dimensions. As to individuals dimension, I consider that the type ofknowledge is different for the incorporation of information technology that for the rest ofthe technological capabilities, for example for the production processes regarding thedesign and maintenance of a web portal; It means it´s not the same type of knowledgeand therefore their knowledge-codification processes and transmission processes will bedifferent. Regarding to the dimension of the organization, I propose a relation ofrecognition by the executive staff and also most of the employees of the LMF expressedin the affectations in the culture, behavior and ways to do things, which as they considerthe accumulation of technological capabilities of information technology belonging to thetotal TC of the firm in study. MethodologyAlthough final reach of this study will permit explaining the participation of IT in theconformation of TC of the firm, preliminary results materialized in this document permitvalidating in a preliminary manner some factors proposed in IT incorporation. Theresearch instruments occupied in the two first months that extends throughout this reporthave been the documentary work, the interviews and the observation. In posteriorphases questionnaires will be also included. 6
  • 7. Documental work performed was divides in two phases, in the first one TC bibliographyrevision and analysis and the second one review of available documentation at thepublic portal of the firm. What I got from bibliography analysis was proposed factors forthis research, while the available documentation checked at public portal of the firmrelating to the origin, development and evolution of the firm, articles and publicationsthat implicate the use of IT with the aim of knowing the story and evolution of the firm, aswell as the manner to regulate the realization of processes at the firm, for the objectiveof detecting and build manner whereon is implicated the participation of IT. The valuableresource of interviews as much to the executive, management and operating staff hasprovided relevant information for the understanding on the forms about how to do things,the organizational behavior and the culture adopted for the firm for the IT incorporationin its processes.Observation work in the working spaces joined to the formal and informal interviews withthe IT personnel of the firm has permitted compiling information to understand how theconformation of technological transference of processes and products, the assimilationand development of specialized skills, the schemes of diffusion and appropriation areaccomplished.Research work intends to be ended up in an additional time limit of 6 to 8 months in themissing period in addition to the instruments mentioned, it is intended to make use ofquestionnaires, which will be designed in order to procure the skills and knowledge ofpersonnel sign to employees portal, permitting to know the group of techniquesacquired, the knowledge acquired of processes, labor experience; as well as thenetworks that they conform for the dissemination and acquisition of interveningknowledge the get-together with associates and bosses, the formation of supportiveinternal networks as well as his forms of interaction. Besides it will enable thecompilation of valuable information relating to the mechanisms, grade and forms ofqualification and training, as well as the forms applied for the personnels recruitment. 7
  • 8. Finally to conform TC of the firm, I will make use of the information compiled by anotherresearchers joined with the information compiled at work field (documentary revision,interviews, questionnaires and observation), once shaped will proceed to compare theTC of the firm with the executives staff using a partial results presentation, however thepresentation of general final results will have to wait until end of the investigation. Preliminary ResultsThe factors (see table 1) that affect the participation of IT in the conformation of TC are:Organizational behavior, technology integration, individual skills, social interaction andtechnological infrastructure. Table 1. Definition of the factors involved in IT incorporation Factor Definition This factor is related with culture and ways to do things in the Organizacional organization. Regarding to culture is important to know which are Behavior corporative values related with IT incorporation and also IT role and what IT represents to employees. Ways to do things are defined in terms of operating practices, politics and procedures, so it means how IT is related with management routines. Conformation of this factor involves several elements: mechanisms Technology to integrate knowledge, firm strategies for skills development into Integration the organization, employees and organizational systems flexibility to change adaptation and finally standards adoption such as technological as organizational that allow spread acquired technological knowledge. This factor is integrated by organizational and technical skills that an individual can develop in a organization, as basic and Individual Skills specialized knowledge acquired by several ways and finally accumulated experience by performance in daily routine activities expressed in terms of acquired values and behavior tacit norms developed for daily problems management. 8
  • 9. Social Interaction constitute a medium for individual TC transformation into organizational TC. It is integrated by utilized Social electronics communication forms, by IT recognition and positioning Interaction in daily activities, by different ways of electronic socialization that works as an informal knowledge transmission mechanism and finally by the team spirit generated in team daily activities caused by information interchange. This factor constitute a basic requirement for information Technological technology TC conformation. It is related with firm technological Infrastructure resources, human resources that can be able to understand, manipulate, use, modify and even create with acquired technology and also R&D intensity realized in IT.Source: Own elaboration based on research.It is important to mention that all factors are strongly related, so I suggest total factorsparticipation to TC conformation in a firm working as a system.The preliminary results obtained in CEMEX turn up developed according to theseproposed factors.Organizational behavior.Technological adoption has been reflected in the philosophy of the ´CEMEX Way´,which has been backed up and fomented for the firms directive levels, standards wereable to generate a model that includes processes and operating practices backed up toa large extent for the IT, permitting to generate capabilities of replication in the differentplants and countries that conform to this mexican group. This is perhaps the bestexample of the form whereon CEMEX has been able to get constituted as an innovative,mature firm in the incorporation of IT in its processes and best operating practices, butabove all in the capability of adaptation to the change, in the proliferation of incentivesmechanisms of creativity, as well as the international level standardization of commonforms to get the things done. 9
  • 10. The ´CEMEX Way´ represent a technological capability that cannot be transferred with alow cost neither in a fast way with the equipments, drawings of execution and user´smanuals. It has to be built with ´technological efforts´ with a purpose: Investments intime and resources for the assimilation, adaptation and improvement of knowntechnologies, and the creation of new technologies ´made at home´ (Romijn &Albaladejo,2002) (Lall,2001). This technology ´made at home´ proposal for CEMEX isthe result of a group of capabilities developed and properly integrated to get theestablished goal: Standardization and replication of processes and best operatingpractices by means of information technology.CEMEX created a selected group joining high IT executives level with high businessareas executives and with a solid and stable IT platform generating a technologicalcapability through the creation, improvement and maintenance of a model to do thethings (CEMEX Way). Besides of a solid technological infrastructure and a corporativegovernance, it was backed for a high tools and applications adoption grade, generatinga modification in the organizational culture where several mechanisms emerged topropitiate the gestation, depuration, development and implementation of the creativeideas that happen within the pale of the entrepreneurial space without distinction oflevels or else through the interaction with the technological partners. These modificationprocesses accomplish themselves by means of learning internal processes, generatingits own individual patterns of technological and organizational capabilities and itstechnological trajectories (Bachmann and Astrid, 1998)Technology Integration.A distinctive characteristic of CEMEX with regard to the generation of capabilities hasbeen the grade of existing fusion among the IT personnel and the business areaspersonnel, expressed in the permanent human resource allocation for the tracking,monitoring and business processes understanding analysis.In the same direction related to the business personnel areas there is a significanttechnological assimilation due to the participation of expert elements as much in theareas of business as well as in the information-technology application. This fusion of 10
  • 11. skills developed so much for the technological personnel, executive, strategic andoperational has permitted to generate knowledge-codification and knowledge-transmission mechanisms through informal networks for the get-together routinist eitherfor electronic ways (e-mail, forums, chat, etc) or traditional ( face to face, telephone, fax).CEMEXs technological race, has permitted a high grade of participation from all theemployees in several ways: suggesting changes, improvements in the diverseintervening applications by a strong and intimate electronic communication (making useof mail, forums or chats) or when proposing technological alternatives, which can resultin the creation of new projects financed by the firm. However, the organizationallearning, is not the simple sum of individual learnings. Only the effective institutions likeCEMEX can translate the individual learning and the capabilities in organizationallearning and capabilities (Ernst and Kim, 2001) (Dosi, Nelson and Winter, 2001).Individual skills.Evidence has been found of a broad recognition of individuals skills in the participationas a detonating factor in the cultural change, expressed in the selection, recruitment andutilization of highly human resources qualified in technical and organizational aspects;this process of recruitment has been made in an international level permitting cultureshock and the gestation of new culture, producing improvements of the best operatingpractices and the enrichment of diverse forms to think and ways of doing things. Thisinterchange of highly human resources qualified in various levels of organization(executive, related to management and operating) has propitiated the networksstrengthening, skills development as much as in the individual level as in thecorrespondent dissemination and proliferation of skills into the organization, and as aconsequence in TC generation (OECD, 1997) (Lall, 2001).TC individualss gestation regarding to the development of skills has been considered inCEMEX using various mechanisms; one of them is the permanent program ofqualification which permits the development of capabilities and certification foremployees, converting the individuals in the main stars in the learning and in thecreation of knowledge (Hedberg,1981), considering with a lot of on-line available 11
  • 12. resources using corporative Intranet. By means of the online resource there are alsomanuals, instructions books and operating practice available.Another mechanism for skills development is receiving qualification through the differenttechnological suppliers, among the ones is NEORIS as a principal technological supplierbeing a part of firms chain that support CEMEX´s technological growth. One skilldiffusion mechanism has been the internal training when the firm reply processes orplants using the internal personnel in charge of spreading out knowledge and the wayhow to get things done in terms of processes, policies and operating practices wherethere is an important IT tools and aplications involved.Social interaction.It is considered that technological capability also can be expressed by the diverseaspects of social interaction among the members of organization (Mehra & Dhawan,2003). A rooted electronic interaction exists in CEMEX working as an official way andalso as an informal communication mean. It emerged from a strong electronicinterchange by e-mail through Lotus Notus and it has evolved even to generate insertedforms of collaboration at the portal that the firm named ´CEMEX Plaza´.CEMEX Plazas concept includes much more than employees portal, it is considered tobecome everybody´s space of work of the personnel at CEMEX, attending to threedominions the relation of employee and firm, an inherent relation between all differentjobs and the third dimension taking care of the information necessities of the person.Through this portal all employees have access from anywhere, counting with apersonalized view according to their information needs, safety environment and accessto the applications and more frequent contentsIT incorporation in CEMEX through the portal is a form to foment the informal knowledgenetworks using the collaboration mechanisms in terms of portal´s tools and propitiousgeneration of ´communities´ (personnel that labors in a same business area conformedby all of the countries that CEMEX has presence in). 12
  • 13. Social interaction capability is fomented in the context of creation of the communitiesbecause creates informal networks and propitious a way to spread knowledge in thefirm, also when IT people try to find the way to deliver a value to the community. Thiscapability has created communication bridges among the divisional barriers of countriessupported by a strong and solid communication and information platform, all this ispossible because all firm´s employees have gotten a technological madurity levelexpressed in IT communication tools mastery but specially in a capacity to expand theirwork area in a world wide context.The portal represents in CEMEX a midway that propitiates the spaces of collaborationgenerating mechanisms for the knowledge-codification and knowledge-transmission inthe projects, in the operational basic routines, and still in the workpeoples same informalget-together. The portal has propitiated the consolidation and formation of capabilitieswhen the content of different sources is integrating in just one place, propitiating anincrement of the capabilities to collaborate in a structured manner and optimizing howtalkings are being coordinated, specially in projects management.Technological infrastructureCEMEX has been characterized for a great IT technological race owed to a great extentto the directive vision that has believed in the adoption of the technological tool as astrength of firm core competences; for that reason CEMEX has now a solid and stableplatform in IT. This firm has maintained an uplifted level of IT integration (Feeny &Willcocks,1998) including all of the main processes, propitiating high computer densitywhere almost all employee has one PC. Referring information-technology growthstrategy, CEMEX does not develop, it is supported on the solutions and developmentsgenerated by its technological partners. Main technological partner emanated fromCEMEX when it got constituted as an affiliated enterprise named NEORIS which is incharge of making offer itself so much to CEMEX as well as to others firms, services ofdevelopment and consultancy in integral solutions. 13
  • 14. ConclusionsAny technology type, including IT does not show for itself, no value as such for the firm.The way in which the firm is able to incorporate in its processes, operating practices,procedures, policies molding an IT organizational culture in the realization of dailyactivities is what speaks us of IT presence. The individual skills expressed in terms ofexperience and knowledge, the strengthening of capabilities in the social interaction, inthe integrative elements of technology and the form to get things done; they constituteeven more relevant elements in this cultural change process that propitiates theaccumulation of technological capabilitiesProposed factors were obtained through bibliography analysis of TC and shaped withfieldwork information, it is important to mention that although this paper does not includehow they rise and how they consolidate, there must be clear that TC possibleconformation is present for the relations that become established among these factorsand no for the presence itself or develop of some of them, in other words factors theyoperate like a system that propitiates knowledge (Dutrénit,2000) and firm skills(capabilities). It is pending to analyze individual acquired knowledge processes andhow to spread into the organization, in spite of it a contribution that this document offersis factors definition as well as the development of the different features applied forCEMEXs case.Table 2 shows factors that intervene in IT incorporation under a perspective of TCapproach, some of them have been developed at preliminary results section, in theunderstood that investigation continues in process and due space limitations not all thedetails were exposed.Technological capabilities are not able to be described entirely in terms of the hardware,or technological infrastructure sophistication, the synergy (Lall, 2001) among the factorsproposed, that is the capability to combine all like an organization is what it propitiatesthat IT converts to a technological capability, no for the participation of the technologicalelement by itself, but for these amalgam of factors in where the evolution, performance 14
  • 15. and accumulation of capabilities delivered through the time (Figueiredo,2002b) play animportant role. Table 2. IT incorporation factors Factor CEMEX´s features • IT importance recognition of employees expressed in values. • Worry for technological update in various levels of organization • Constant participation of employees in the emission ofOrganizational technological proposals Behaviour • Complex and innovator IT structures • IT worldwide functional diversification responsibilities • Mastery in business areas by IT personnel • Fusion between business areas operating practices and IT • Technological decisions taken by corporative centralization • Stressed capability for change adaptation • Operating practices standarization Technology • Best operating practices identification capability integration • Flexibility in the personnels mobility • Definition of worldwide standards for hardware and software platforms • Close relation and common knowledge sharing between business areas, IT area and corporative area. • Technological partners close relation • High technological project management capability o International human resources utilization o High processes knowledge by IT personnel Individuals o Internal training program with skills development and skills certification for employees o Permanent support to evolution and invention spirit 15
  • 16. o Human resource technological profiles definitions for recruitment o Specific training through technological suppliers o Diffusion of documents through corporative Intranet o Internal training for plants and processes replication • Electronic communication broad diffusion • High utilization and dependence of IT in the daily activities Social • Use of mechanisms incentives of creativity interaction • Flexible and opened communication channels • Communication and coordination using informal technological collaboration networks • Solid and stable IT platform • Multiple technological platforms strong integration Technological • High IT integration level covering all main processes Infrastructure • High PC density by employee • Documentary regulation in development, implementation and operation • IT development by technological partnersSource: Own elaboration based on research. 16
  • 17. ReferencesBachmann, A. (1998). “Profiles of corporate technological capabilities - a comparison of largeBritish and German pharmaceutical companies”. Technovation, 18(10) (1998), 593-604.Bell, M. & Pavitt, K. (1995). “The Development of Technological Capabilities”. In I. Haque (ed.),Trade, Technology and International Competitiveness, Washington: The World Bank, pp. 69-101.Cimoli, M. (2000). “Developing Innovation Systems”. In M. Cimoli (Ed.), Developing InnovationSystems. Mexico in a Global Context (pp. 1-20). UK: Continuum London and New York.Costa, I. & Robles S. (2002) "Foreign direct investment and technological capabilities inBrazilian industry". Research Policy 31 (2002). 1431-1443Dosi, G.; Nelson R. & Winter S. (2001). “The Nature and Dynamics of OrganizationalCapabilities”. Source. Organization Studies, 2001, Vol. 22 Issue 6, p1061, 3p. Author(s):Nuvolari, Alessandro. AN: 6660146 ISSN: 01708406.Database: Business Source PremierDutrénit, Gabriela (2000). Learning and Knowledge Management in the Firm. From KnowledgeAccumulation to Strategic Capabilities. Great Britain: Edward Elgar Publishing.Ernst, D. & Kim, L. (2001). “Global Production Networks, Knowledge Diffusion, and LocalCapability Formation. A Conceptual Framework”. DRUID, 2001.Figueiredo, P.N. (2002). “Does technological learning pay-off? Inter-firm differences intechnological capability-accumulation paths and operational performance improvement”.Research Policy 31 (2002), 73-94.Figueiredo, P.N. (2002). “Learning processes features and technological capability-accumulation: explaining inter-firm differences”. Technovation 22 Volume 22, Issue 11,November 2002, 685-698.Gonsen, R. (1998). Technological Capabilities in Developing Countries. IndustrialBiotechnologies in Mexico, UK: Macmillan Press LTD.Lall, S. (2000a). In: Kim, L., Nelson, R. (Eds.), Technological Change and Industrialisation in theAsian Newly Industrialising Economies: Achievements and Challenges, pp. 13-68.Lall, Sanjaya (2001). Competitiveness, Technology and Skills. Great Britain: Edward ElgarPublishing, Inc..Lundvall, B. (1996). “The Social Dimension of The Learning Economy”. DRUID Working PaperNo. 96-1.Mehra, K. & Dhawan, S.K. (2003). “Study of the process of organisational learning in softwarefirms in India”. Technovation 23 (2003) 121-129.Moelbjerg J. K. (1998). “Information Technology and Change in Danish Organizations. Resultsfrom a survey”. DRUID Working Paper No. 98-8. 17
  • 18. OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1997). OSLO Manual. Themeasurement of scientific and technological activities. Proposed guidelines for collecting andinterpreting technological innovation data. European Commission Eurostat: OECD; 2nd edition(April 7, 1997) .Romijn, H. & Albaladejo, M. (2002). “Determinants of innovation capability in small electronicsand software firms in southeast England”. Research Policy 31 (2002) 1053-1067Seely B. J. & Duguid P. (2001). La vida social de la información. Brasil, Prentice Hall y PearsonEducationTerceiro, J. B. & Matías G. (2001). Digitalismo El nuevo horizonte sociocultural. España, GrupoSantillana de Ediciones 18

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