2. 1. El Presente –ar,-er,-ir Clauses2. Los Verbos con cambios de 13. Informal Commands raiz 14. Formal Commands3. Los Irregulares en el forma del 15. Nosotros Commands ―yo‖ 16. Direct Object pronouns4. Los Irregulares 17. Indirect Object Pronouns5. Ser y Estar 18. Possessive Adjectives6. Ser y Estar con adjetivos 19. Possessive Pronouns7. Los verbos como gustar 20. Demonstrative Adjectives and8. Preterite vs. Imperfect Pronouns9. Present Subjunctive 21. Reflexives10. Subjunctive Must Haves 22. Por y Para11. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 23. To Become12. Subjunctive in Adjective
3. • The present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending –ar, -er, or –ir and adding personal endings• Used to express habitual actions, actions that will take place in the near future, actions or situations that are going on at the present time, and to express general truths. Regular Conjugations Hablar Hablo Hablas Habla Hablamos Hablan Comer Como Comes Come Comimos Comen Vivir Vivo Vives Vive Vivimos Viven
4. • Stem-changing Verbs: many –ar and –er verbs change from e and o to ie and ue. Some –ir verbs change from e to i. No stem changes occur in the nosotros/vosotros form. Examples: Jugar-Juego; Incluir-Incluyo Examples Jugar Juego Juegas Juega Jugamos Juegan Incluir Incluyo Incluyes Incluye Incluimos Incluyen
5. • Irregular yo forms: Verbs ending in –cer or –cir change to –zco in the yo form; those ending in –ger or –gir change to –jo. Several verbs have –go endings. Examples Exigir Exijo Exiges Exige Exigimos Exigen Ver Veo Ves Ve Vimos Ven • Verbs with prefixes follow the same pattern. ExampleReconocer Reconozco Reconoces Reconoce Reconocimos Reconocen
6. • Irregular Verbs: Commonly used verbs in Spanish are irregular in the present tense or combine a stem- changing with an irregular yo form or other spelling change.
7. • Both mean ―to be‖• Uses of Ser: Nationality and place of origin; profession or occupation; characteristics of people, animals, and things; generalizations; possession; material of composition; time, date, or season; where or when an event takes place.• Uses of Estar: Location or spatial relationships; health; physical states and conditions; emotional states; certain weather expressions; ongoing actions (progressive tenses); results of actions (past participles).
8. • With adjectives: Ser is used with adjectives to describe inherent, expected qualities. Estar is used to describe temporary or variable qualities.• Some adjectives have two different meanings when used with ser and estar. *Estar is used with muerto/a, not ser.
9. • Gustar is followed by an indirect object pronoun indicating the person who is pleased.• The thing or person that pleases the subject always agrees with gustar.• When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.• Gustar is often used in the condition (me gustaria) to soften a request.• Many verbs follow the same pattern as gustar, Examples: Encantar, molestar, faltar, quedar.• The construction a+(prepositional pronoun) or a+(noun) can be used to emphasize who is pleased, bothered, etc.
10. • The preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and definite end.• To conjugate regular verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending and add one as follows:Hablar Hablé Hablaste Habló Hablamos HablaronComer Comé Comiste Comió Comimos ComieronVivir Vivé Viviste Vivió Vivimos Vivieron
11. • The imperfect is used for actions in the past that are not seen as completed. Use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end. • To conjugate regular verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending and one of the endings as follows:Hablar Hablaba Hablabas Hablaba Hablabamos HablabaComer Comiba Comibas Comiba Comibamos ComibanVivir Viviba Vivibas Viviba Vivibamos Vivaban
12. • Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypotheticalHablar Hable Hables Hable Hablemo Hablen sComer Coma Comas Coma Comamo Coman s•Vivir Irregulars: dar-de, ir- vaya, saber-sepa, haber- haya, Viva Vivas Viva Vivamos Vivan estar-este, ser-sea. (DISHES)• Construction: Main clause+connector+subordinate clause Used when W- wishing/ wanting E- Expressing: emotions D- disbelief D- doubt I- impersonal expressions N- negation G- god/greed
13. • Impersonal Expressions: Es bueno que, Es mejor que, Es malo que, Es importante que, Es necesario que, Es urgente que.• Verbs of Will and Influence: Aconsejar- to advise, Importar- to be important; to matter, Insistir (en)- to insist (on), Mandar- to order, Prohibir- to prohibit, Recomendar (e-ie)- to recommend, Rogar (o-ue)- to beg; to plead, Sugerir (e-ie)- to suggest• Expressions of Emotion: Alegrarse (de)- to be happy, Esperar- to hope; to wish, Sentir (e-ie)- to be sorry; to regret, Sorprender- to surprise, Temer- to be afraid; to fear, Es triste- it’s sad, Ojala (que)- I hope (that); I wish (that)• Expressions of Doubt, Denial and Disbelief: Dudar- to doubt, Negar (e-ie)- to deny, Es imposible- It’s impossible, Es improbable- It’s improbable, No es cierto-
14. • Subjunctive Noun Clauses: Dependent clauses which serve as the direct object, predicate complement of another verb or as the subject of a verb, just as a noun can do. ExampleQuiero que compres The clause que compres elel libro. libro is the direct object of theI want that you to verb Quiero.buy the book.
15. • In Spanish, the subjunctive is used in an adjectival clause when the antecedent is indefinite or unknown or is nonexistent or negated Example No veo a nadie que conozca. I dont see anyone I know.
16. • Affirmative: drop the ―s‖• Irregulares in Affirmative: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, se, ten, ven (tv dishes)• Negative: Put it in yo form, change to opposite vowel, add an s• Irregulares in Negative: tv dishes• Affirmative DOP/IOP: se is attached• Negative DOP/IOP: se must go before command
17. • Affirmative: put it in yo form and change to opposite vowel• Negative: Same as affirmative• Irregulares: tv dishes• Affirmative DOP/IOP: se is attached• Negative DOP/IOP: se must go before command
18. • Affirmative: put it in yo form and change to opposite vowel• Negative: Same as affirmative• Irregulares: Monos verbs• Example of Monos Verb: sentemosnos-sentemonos
19. • The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct ob• Answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.• Agrees with noun it replaces• Comes directly before verb. Examplme (me) Tengo e I have =te (you-familiar) Tengo la pluma. = Ilo, la (him, her, it, you-formal) have the pen. La tengo. = I have it.nos (us)os (you-all-familiar)los, las (them, you-all-formal)
20. • Tells what or whom receievs the direct object.• Place before the conjugated verb.• When replacing indirect objects with pronouns use: me (me) te (you-familiar) le (him, her, you-formal) nos (us) Example: os (you-all-familiar) Ella le les (them, you-all-formal) escribe una carta. She writes him a letter.
21. • Possessive adjectives are used to show ownership.• Are used directly before possessed noun.• There are five:mi Example:tu Mi casa es tu casa.sunuestrovuestro• Mi, tu, and su have two forms; singular and plural. (Mi- mis, tu-tus, su-sus.• Nuestro and vuestro change with number and gender. (Nuestro-nuestro, nuestra, nuetras, nuetros)
22. • The possessive pronouns are similar to the possessive adjectives, but they are normally used with the definite article.• mine el mío / la mía los míos / las mías• yours (familiar) Examples el tuyo / la tuya Adjective: los tuyos / las tuyas Mi libro es grande.• yours (formal), his, hers My book is large. el suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas• ours Pronoun: el nuestro / la nuestra El tuyo es pequeño. los nuestros / las nuestras Yours is small.• yours (familiar) el vuestro / la vuestra los vuestros / las vuestras• yours (formal), theirs el suyo / la suya los suyos / las suyas
23. • Demonstrative adjectives answer the question "Which?" in relation to the nouns that they modify.• Demonstrative pronouns replace a specific noun.• All demonstratives agree in gender and number.• There are three:• Este/os/a/as- this or this one• Ese/os/a/as- that or that one• Aquel /los/la/las- that over there or that one over there Adjective Pronoun Example: Juan Example: Juan reads this book. reads this. Juan lee este libro. Juan lee este.
24. • A verb is reflexive when the subject and the direct object are the same.• When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in "se.―• These pronouns are positioned before the verb, while the ending "se" is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.me (myself) Example:te (yourself) Juan se lava lase (himself, herself, yourself) cara.nos (ourselves) Juan washes hisos (yourselves) face.se (themselves, yourselves)
25. Uses• To express gratitude or apology • To indicate• For multiplication and division destination• For velocity, frequency and proportion • To show the use or• Meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of" purpose of a thing• When talking about exchange, including sales • To mean "in order• To mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of," to" or "for the• To express a length of time purpose of"• To express an undetermined, or general time, • To indicate a meaning "during" recipient• For means of communication or transportation • To express a• In cases of mistaken identity, or meaning "to be deadline or specific seen as"• To show the reason for an errand (with ir, venir, time pasar, mandar, volver, and preguntar) • To express a• When followed by an infinitive, to express an contrast from what action that remains to be completed, use por + is expected infinitive • "Estar para" to• To express cause or reason express an action• “Estar por" means to be in the mood, or inclined to do something that will soon be• In passive constructions completed *Both Por and Para can be used in idiomatic expressions
26. • Spanish has no single verb that you can use to translate "to become." Your choice of verb typically will depend on the nature of change that occurs.• Llegar a ser — This phrase typically refers to change over a long period of time, often with effort. It is often translated as "to eventually become.― Example: No creo que llegue a ser un problema.• Ponerse — This common verb is often used to refer to a change in emotion or mood, especially when the change is sudden or temporary. It can also be used to refer to changes in physical appearance and many other traits and can apply to inanimate objects as well as persons. Example: No nos pongamos tristes.• Hacerse — This verb usually refers to deliberate or voluntary changes. If often refers to a change in identity or affiliation. Example:Vamos a hacernos millonarios.• Volverse — This verb typically involuntary change and generally applies to people rather than inanimate objects. Example: Los jugadores se volvieron locos.