The Home of the FuturePerspectives on “Smart Home” from the viewpoint of HCI
ContentsSmart Home State-of-the-Art *What is the Wise Home?Smart Home Research AreasContributions to these Research AreasConclusions / Outlook* The focus of research is COTS (consumer off the shelf) systemsavailable on the mass market.
What about the future?What could the smart home of the future look like?Increased AutomationMultimodal Interaction“Smartness” (e.g. Smart TV, UPnP, DLNA)
“Actually, I do have a vision for the nation, and our goal is a simpleone: By the time I leave office, I want every single American to be ableto set the clock on his VCR.” G.W. Bush (US President), 1990…he failed. D. Norman (HCI Guru), 2010
But why should we care about Smart Homes ?Demographic ChangeIncrease of Self ServiceUbiquitous Computing, Embedded Devices
What constitutes a Wise Home?different possibilities.A Wise home is to its users like a mother to her child. She is supporting whennecessary, but lets the child learn from own experiences, mistakes andsuccesses. However, when the child is in danger or not able to solve theproblem on its own, she intervenes.State-of-the-Art smart Homes don’t work that way.They have to be pre-programmed in a strict and un-flexible way.They are not adaptive to changing needs.They are overruling their users.They do not learn from experiences.The Wise home will be different…
Smart vs. WiseSmart HomeOne size fits all, rule-basedLimited technologyFocus on technologyArtificially-evaluatedWise HomeAdaptive, context-sensitiveBased on open platformsMultidisciplinary approachReal world evaluation
Research AreasComfortControlHCI Aspects:End User ProgrammingConfigurationSecuritySafetyHCI Aspects:AutomationActivity PatternAgeingWell-beingHCI Aspects:Ambient Assisted LivingRemote CareEnergyEnvironmentHCI Aspects:VisualizationRecommendation
Ageing / Well-beingChallenges of demographic change are intensivelyresearched in AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) (Steg et al.)80% of topography of EU 27 constitutes rural area25% of population are living there (Eurostat) Research on this specific context isunderrepresented Achieved Results can be appliedto other environmentsThe region I grew up
ComfortWe spend around 70% of our time in our homes The goal is to make it as comfortable as possibleGeneral tendency to self-service (including “programming” tasks)At the end of 2012 about 90 million people were doing some sort ofprogramming (About one third of them are professional programmers).End user programming is already an essential part of our daily lives.(Holloway et al.)But people do not want to control devices, they want to have bettercontrol of their lives. (Davidoff et al.) Interfaces have to focus on Usability and User Experience
Safety / SecurityCorrelated to the amount of time spent at home, safety and securityaspects are of relative importance“…falls among the elderly, is increasing at a faster rate than demographictrends”“…incidence … is rising in the area of home and leisure“(European Injuries Report, 2009, 2010)Product and non-product related causes of fatal home injuriesComprehensive View on injuries in EU 27 by domain(unintentional injuries)
Energy / Environmentdifferent possibilities.Decline of fossil energy supplyRaising energy costsSmart Homes can (in combination with other measures) help insaving energyFor example with the “Standby”problemLebot et al. Global Implications of Standby Power Use. Proceedings of ACEEE, 2000
In order to be able to establish a Wise home, technological issues have to besolved in advance.A basic platform was built using the following componentsSmart Home Platform Living Lab Administration Platform Household 37General Contributiondifferent possibilities.Multilayer OSGIHardware AbstractionExperimentalEvaluationLive Status View of21 installations,~ 2 Million Data Sets60 Components4 UsersReal World SettingsContributors: A.J. Fercher – Platform Enhancement and Integration, Adminstration Platform, D.Felsing – Basic Platform, W.Rabl –Multiplatform Interface, B. Grötschnig – Activity Pattern Recognition, R. Samselnig – Indoor Tracking, S. Karumanchi – SmartDoorbell, M. Florian – Multiuser Interaction, C. Ayuningtyas – User Pattern Recognition, J.Brown – Calm Interaction
Contribution to Ageing / Well-beingCasa Vecchia (ital. altes Haus)Funded by Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG)Ambient Assisted Living in Rural AreaLongitudinal Field Study, 20 Real World Households, 3 Years.Leitner et al.: Applicability and Usability of Off-the-shelf Smart Appliances in Telecare. Proceedings of IEEE AINA, 2007Leitner et al.: Potenziale und Herausforderungen von AAL im ländlichen Raum, Proceedings of German AAL Congress, 2011
Contribution to Ageing / Well-beingOff-the-shelf systems can support independent living- even under sub-optimal circumstancesUnobtrusive environmental sensors do not disturb daily livingInnovative interaction concepts simplify the access to ICTTechnology can enhance different aspects of life (e.g. social network)Leitner et al.: Applicability and Usability of Off-the-shelf Smart Appliances in Telecare. Proceedings of IEEE AINA, 2007Leitner et al.: Potenziale und Herausforderungen von AAL im ländlichen Raum, Proceedings of german AAL Congress, 2011Smartphone oftrusted personsAlternative User Interface Metaphor
Contribution to Comfort / ControlTwo-step study was performed addressing the following questions:- Are so-called “home scenarios” relevant?- If yes, how can they be supported by a computerized system?Leitner et al.: Scenario Programming 2013, Proceeedings of Southchi 2013.Leitner et al.: AAL 4 ALL – a matter of User Experience, Proceedings of ICOST 2010.Leitner et al.: Usability - Key Factor of Future Smart Home Systems, Proceedings of HOIT 2007.Card Sorting Pretest (OUR) Digital Prototype
Contribution to Comfort / ControlLeitner et al.: Scenario Programming, 2013N = 36, 2-step Approach, Card Sorting, Digital PrototypingCompetitive System 1 (OSS) Competitive System 2 (EPS)
Contribution to Comfort / ControlLeitner et al.: Scenario Programming, Southchi 2013
Contribution to Safety / SecurityLeitner et al.: Decision support in the smart home, Recsys Workshops, 2011.Leitner et al.: Reducing the entry threshold of AAL Systems: Preliminary results, ICCHP 2012.Automated function based on probability estimationDetection of accidents such as falls or deviations in activitiesLife- or Health-critical accidents have to be processed immediately
Contribution to Safety / SecurityLeitner et al.: The Combination of Evaluation methods in e-health, CHI Workshops, 2009.Leitner et al.: Decision support in the smart home, Recsys Workshops, 2011.Work in Progress: Cooperation with Chitra AyuningtyasAnalysis of activity patternsIncident detection, e.g. burglarySimple indicators of crime by time of dayFelson & Poulson
Contributions to Energy / EnvironmentalismWork in Progress Prototype – Developed in Cooperationwith Graz University of Technologydifferent possibilities.Smart Homes can positively influence energy usage by:Providing adequate and frequent feedbackProviding the possibility for interventionsRecommending behavioral changesFercher et al: Raising Awareness of Energy Consumption in Smart Living Environments, Proceedings of IE09.Leitner et al. Decision support in the smart home, Recsys Workshops 2011.Felfernig et al. Persuasion in Knowlegde Based Recommendation, Proceedings of Persuasive, 2008.Energy ConsumptionFeedback
Contributions Summarydifferent possibilities.The focus of this presentation was to show how a Human ComputerInteraction perspective can enhance the development of Smart Homes.An interdisciplinary approach based on interoperable technologies enablesethnographic research to achieve results with a high ecological validity.A basic platform has been established and, in contrast to similar researchprojects, is up and running under real world conditions for almost two years.Unobtrusive ethnographic observation methods enable the collection ofmeaningful data building the basis of further research activities.A combination of methods allows for the identification of psychological,sociological and social aspects influencing the access to technology ingeneral and smart home technology in particular. For example, significantgender differences could be observed within Casa Vecchia.
What constitutes the home of the future?different possibilities.Smart Homes are not adaptive or flexible:The WISE home adapts to the needs of its inhabitants, by enabling, e.g:- Multimodal interaction- Spontaneous interruption of automated procedures(such as cruise control in a car)- Interoperability of devices from different manufactures- Learning of patterns of daily activities- Consideration of changing life circumstances and stages of life So that we come closer to the goal that interaction with and within thehome is “as refreshing, as a walk in the woods”. (Weiser, 1991)
Bibliographydifferent possibilities.Bush Zitat: Cristopher P. Nemeth Human Factors Methods for Design: Making Systems Human-centered, Foreword.Brush, A.J. B. , Jung, J. Mahajan, R. Scott J. m-HomeLab: Shared Infrastructure for HomeTechnology Field Studies, UbiComp, September 5-8, 2012.Holloway, S., Julien, C.: The case for end-user programming of ubiquitous computing environments.Proceedings of the FSE/SDP workshop on Future of software engineering research (FoSER). pp167–172. (2010)Davidoff, S., Lee, M.K., Yiu, C., Zimmerman, J., Dey, A.K.: Principles of Smart Home Control.Ubicomp, Springer, Orange County, CA, pp. 19–34. (2006)Eurostat Yearbook (2010) http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-CD-11-001/EN/KS-CD-11-001-EN.PDFRode, J. A., Toye, E. F., Blackwell, A. F. (2004): The fuzzy felt ethnography?Understanding the programming patterns of domestic appliances. Personal Ubiq. Computi. 8, 3-4,pp. 161-176.Iachello, G., Truong, K.N., Abowd, G.D., Hayes, G.R., Stevens, M. (2006): Experience prototypingand sampling to evaluate ubicomp privacy in the real world, Proceedings of CHI06, pp. 1009-1018.Weiser, M. (1991). The computer for the 21st century. Scientific american, 265(3), 94-104.