I N D E X
1 Adjective order 2
2 Adjectives. Formation,
prefixes and suffixes. 4
3 Prefixes 6
4 Adjectives: Comparison 8
5 Adjective: Comparison (cont.) 10
6 Adjectives: degrees of intensity _ _ 12
7 Adverbs of manner 14
8 Adverbs of degree 16
9 As well as + ing - Although -
As long as - As (cause) 18
10 Used to + gerund 20
11 Because of - Bound to 22
12 By + time phrase -
By the time + past perfect 24
13 The causative 26
14 Clauses of reason 28
15 Clauses of comparison 30
16 Clauses of concession 32
17 Condition clauses 34
18 Clauses of purpose 36
19 Clauses of purpose (cont.) 38
20 Clauses of time 40
21 Conditionals type 1 42
22 Conditionals type 2 44
23 Conditionals type 3 46
24 Comparisons 48
25 Connective relative clauses 50
26 Discourse markers 52
27 Relative clauses: defining 54
28 Relative clauses: non-defining 56
29 Future tense: contrasts 58
30 Future tense: contrasts (cont.) 60
31 Gerunds after "for" and
certain verbs 62
32 Gerund after prepositions 64
33 Infinitive after certain verbs _ 66
34 Inversion of the verb
after certain adverbs _ 68
35 Modal verbs. Revision 70
36 The one who / that / which -
The one with 72
37 Once + Present perfect 74
38 Passives: All tenses -
is considered / thought /
said to be 76
39 Reported speech 78
40 Reported speech (cont.) 80
41 Remember (and other verbs) +
gerund or infinitive 82
42 Suffixes and prefixes 84
43 Compound nouns 86
44 Tenses: General revision 88
45 Phrasal verbs 1 90
Phrasal verbs 2 91
Phrasal verbs 3 93
Phrasal verbs 4 94
Phrasal verbs 5 95
Phrasal verbs 6 97
Phrasal verbs 7 98
APENDIX 1 Exercise.
Idiomatic expressions. __ 101
APENDIX 2 Exercise.
with colours 103
APENDIX 3 Expressions with:
to do • to make 104
Phrasal verbs 8 99
UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• Aunque es muydificil dar unorden exacto, y
hay ligeras variaciones entre las gramaticas
mas usuales hoy en dfa,se puede considerar
que el orden que damos a continuationes el
A big black cat.
A long wide avenue.
Cruel blue eyes,
A small blue metal box.
An old iron bucket.
Yellow silk curtains.
de personalidad y
y el adjetivo little.
• Losadjetivos depersonalidad y emotion
vienen detras de los adjetivos dedescription
fisica, pero antes que los colores:
A small, nervous man.
A large, patient group of men.
A fierce, black dog.
A kind, white doctor.
• A menudo usamos little, young y old,no
para dar informacion, sino como una combina-
tion de adjetivo/sustantivo:
Jimmy is such a nice, little boy.
An athletic, suspicious, young man
stood at the door.
• Cuando young y oldse usan paradar
information, ocupan la position num. 3.
A young, black woman.
An old, Italian clock.
• Siqueremos poner enfasis enel tamano es
mejor usar small, que little.
He was a small ambitious man.
• Cuando losadjetivos sonpredicatives,es
decir, van detras del verbo, generalmente se
The tea was sweet and strong.
I had a black and white Italian
They sat at a big, round, conference
She wore black, Spanish, leather
He played with an expensive steel-
framed tennis racket.
The day was dark, wet and cold.
1. Pon los adjetivos entre parentesis en la posicion correcta.
Example: We saw a Japanese film, (new) We saw a new Japanese film.
1. an old picture (expensive/Italian) 19. a little restaurant (French/nice)
2. short hair (black/attractive) 20.a kitchen cupboard (handmade/
3. a large town (new/exciting)
21. a leather handbag (small/black/shiny)
4. a small dog (thin/white)
22. a huge milkshake (ice-cold/
5. a narrow street (small) strawberry)
6. a white face (fattish) 23. a Spanish waiter (little/friendly)
7. a wooden box (brown/large) 24. a clean room (bright/beautiful)
8. a black car (new/large) 25. a daring pilot (handsome/young/Air
9. a pretty dress (blue)
26. A curious dog (little/brown)
10. a cold shower (refreshing)
27. A tall cowboy (handsome/dark/Texan)
11. a rainy day (miserable)
28. a green ashtray (Chinese/glass)
12. large eyes (red)
29. a conference hall (large/glass)
13. a British film (funny)
30. a carving knife (long/sharp)
14. a black skirt (leather)
31. a handy little calculator (black)
15. an old mansion (decrepit)
32. a curious monkey (little)
16. a beautiful woman (young)
33. an inexpensive dirty hotel (little)
17. an old man (grumpy)
34. a kindly coloured doctor (old)
18. a rare bracelet (emerald)
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes.
• Algunas palabras hacen la funcion solamente de
adjetivos (small). Otras pueden ser sustantivos
o adjetivos (cold). Muchos adjetivos que se
relacionan con verbos o sustantivos tienen un
final caracteristico (suffix).
• Losparticipios de presente tambien actuan
amuse amusing amused
astonish astonishing astonished
• Adjectives ending in -ible
• Adjectives ending
• Adjectives ending
• Adjectives ending
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. En letra cursiva tienes una explicacion de la palabra que tienes que poner
terminando en ble.
Example: This word is impossible to pronounce. It is unpronounceable.
1. He had followed a course in elocution. His speech was quite without faults.
2. I think that this plan will be impossible to put into practise.
It will be
3. A masterpiece is impossible to define or explain.
4. The number 13 can't be divided by any other number.
2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos que terminan en ous.
Example: Teachers prefer a class with pupils of the same level. It is an homogeneous
1. Children who develop faculties at an early age don't always become Einsteins.
2. Many children are difficult to please.
3. Her arguments seemed right, but they were not so.
4. The weather here is unpredictable and ever-changing.
It is very
3. Haz lo mismo con adjetivos que terminan en ate.
Example: Keep these ones apart from the others. Keep them separate..
1. It was a very complicated plan.
It was very
2. The place was deserted and uninhabited,
3. They are very close friends.
4. That word was just the right word.
It was very
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el adjetivo contrario al que se te da.
Example: This person is not very honest.
1. Smuggling tobacco is, of course, not
2. That boy is not responsible.
3. This person doesn't care about
He is a very person.
4.1 was not injured in the accident,
5. In America many people were against
6. This thing is impossible to eat.
7. I'm afraid he is not very loyal.
8. He is lacking education.
9. You can dispense with him.
He is not
10. The bill was due to be paid some
11. It is not logical to do that.
12. 'Is he satisfied?'
'No, he is
13. It was not at all planned.
14. He is not very religious.
On the contrary, he is
15. They are not going to interfere.
They have an
Usa los sufijos que has aprendido.
He is dishonest.
16. He is not very well known.
In fact, he is
17. He was not a very social man.
18. She is an extremely sensitive
19. It is not very well adjusted.
20. This gold is not very pure.
21. He has no illusions left in this life.
He is rather
22. This treatment is not very effective.
23. Johnny has never been very formal.
24. It was not a very real situation.
25. The meat is not done yet.
26. This man is extraordinary.
He is a
27. It was not very consistent.
It was rather
28. The report was not complete.
29. It wasn't a regular situation.
It was quite
30. The situation is not very favourable.
UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• La mayor parte de losadjetivos monosila-
bos anaden er y est para formar el comparati-
ve y el superlative:
cleaner greater colder
cleanest greatest coldest
• Muchos monosilabos queterminan envocal
+ consonante duplican la consonante:
• Losmonosilabos queterminan ene anaden
• Para formar el grado comparative y superla-
tivo de los adjetivos de dos o mas silabas, se
anade more/less para los comparativos, y
most/least para los superlativos.
• Less se puede usar conadjetivos deuna
sflaba (less cold).
adjective comparative superlative
• Asi como gentle, otros adjetivos bisflabos
pueden formar el comparative y el superlative
• Algunos adjetivos terminan eny precedida
de consonante. El comparative y superlative
se forman con i:
- pretty prettier - prettiest
La exception es:
• Los puestos detales palabras
(unpleasant, etc.)tambien forman el
comparativo y el superlative de dos formas:
the most unhappy
He is more quick-witted than she is.
John is better-looking than Peter.
He is worse-tempered than she is.
1. Completa las frases con el comparative correspondiente.
Example: Today is very wet. It is much wetter than yesterday.
1. He came very early. He came than yesterday.
2. This picture is very grey. It's than that one.
3. James is very shy. He is than his sister.
4. My boss is very busy. He is than I am.
5. This girl is very sad. She is than her sister.
6. This boy is very fat. He is than his friend.
7. These people are very free. They are than
2. Haz ahora lo mismo con el grado superlative.
Example: April is very wet. It's the wettest month of the year.
1. This desk is very tidy. It's the desk in the classroom.
2. This man is very thin. He is the man in the country.
3. She is very funny. She is the girl in her class.
4. This land is very dry. It's the land in the state.
5. This picture is very grey. It's the in the auction.
6. This river is very long. It's the river in the world.
3. Usa er/est o more/most, less/least, etc. para completar las frases.
Example: This street is very narrow. It's narrower/more narrow than those.
1. This situation is than that one. (common)
2. He is well built. In fact he is than me. (built)
3. This is not very expensive. In fact, it's than
4. That joke was not very amusing. In fact, it was the
of all. (amusing)
5. This boy is very bad-tempered. He is than
his father, (tempered)
6. My boyfriend is very handsome. He is the boy I
7. They were all beautiful, but she was, perhaps, the
Adjective: Comparison (cont.)
El uso de than en la forma comparativa
• Si la referenda es clara no hace falta
This sleeve is longer.
• Si estamos hablando de doscosas podemos
Which is the longer?
(of the two roads)
• Si than va seguido de nombre o
pronombre actua como preposicion; cuando va
seguido de una oration, hace el oficio de
I know her better than you.
- I know herbetter than you know her.
• Comparativos con er and er
This girl is getting taller and taller.
• The+ comparative +the+ comparative
The more money you have, the more you
Uso de la forma superlativa
• Usamos elsuperlative cuando comparamos
con mas de uno.
This is the cleanest.
That is the safest.
• Casi siempre despues de un superlative
London is one of the biggest towns in
- Heisthetallest inourclass.
• Menos frecuentemente usamos of.
John is the tallest of/in the family.
August is the hottest month of the year.
Superlative con ever
This is the longest book (that) I have
• Lossuperlativ-es pueden ser modificados
con adverbios de grado: much, quite, almost,
nearly, far, by far.
- This isbyfarthemost expensive book
in the shop.
• Comparativo deigualdad as... as
- Heisastall ashisbrother.
• Ennegaciones se usa notas... as onot
- Heis notso/as clever ashisbrother.
• The same as y different from.
My car is the same as yours.
Our house is quite different from yours.
Grados de parecido
Those girls are exactly the same.
The two brothers are completely
1. Termina la frase como en los ejemplos.
Example: He is growing. He is getting taller and taller. He is ambitious. The more he
has, the more he wants.
1. This boy is very greedy. The more you give him
2. Flights are getting cheaper. They are getting
3. 'Sometimes you have a lot of time and do nothing.' 'Yes, the more time you have,
4. 'Computers are becoming very complicated.' 'Yes, they are getting
5. 'If you make a lot of money, you spend a lot money.' 'Yes, the more money you
2. Pon la preposicion que falta.
Example: He is the tallest boy in our class.
1. My girlfriend is the most beautiful girl the world.
2. The 21st of December is the shortest day the year.
3. The Nile is the longest river Africa.
4. She is the most clever/cleverest her family.
5. That was the happiest day my life.
3. Termina la frase con ever.
Example: She is the prettiest girl I've ever seen.
1. This is the most interesting book (that) .
2. Heis the most conceited man(that/whom) I .
3. That was the most expensive bicycle (that)
4. Usa el comparativo de igualdad para completar las frases.
Example: Your car is not as/so new as mine.
1. This house is just (big) ours.
2. No, this book is (interesting) that one.
3. My son is just (clever) yours.
4. No, he is (hard worker) his brother.
UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adjectives: degrees of intensity
• Losadjetivossepueden dividir endosciases:ios
que se pueden graduar y ios que no.
• Unadjetivo esgraduabie cuando sepuede usar
con palabras tales comovery, too, enough,
• Unadjetivo esnograduabie cuando nosepuede
modificar: monthly, yearly, medical, dead.
• Very solo, no puede ir con comparativos y
superlatives, pero very much si puede.
This is very much faster than this one.
• Con alone:
The poor woman has been very much
• Very se puede usar congerundios y
She isa very interesting woman.
She was very interested.
Very much, so much, such a/an
• Much overy much puede ir en el medio de
She is very much/much loved in this
• Si queremos ponerlo alfinal de lafrase
tenemos que usar very much.
I like hervery much.
• Con unsustantivo podemos poner such a+
adjetivo, o so + adjetivo.
Mrs Smith was such a nice woman!/
Mrs Smith was so nice!
• Intensifica engrado sumo la accion del
'Was it good?' 'Yes, it was very good
• -ly intensifiers.
He is a particularly good element.
The news was terribly confusing.
This man works really slowly.
She was extremely helpful.
Jolly, pretty, dead + adjectives.
He is a jolly good fellow.
This train is moving pretty slowly.
And he was dead right!
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. En todas las frases tienes adjetivos. Tienes que aumentarlos o disminuirlos de
intensidad si se puede.
Example. She was a nice person. She was a very nice person.
1. This is a very good cake. That one is good.
2. This newspaper is daily. It is a newspaper.
3. The pot is hot. It is hot to touch.
4. Your answer is wrong. It is not right.
5. The water in the pool is warm to swim in.
6. I get paid every month. I get paid .
7. Byron is admired in Greece.
8. It was nice party!
9. I enjoyed the party .
10. The masterpiece was the only one.lt was .
11. Nothing could be heard. The place was quiet.
12. We all like him. He is a fellow.
13. 'You were very wrong.' 'Yes, I know I was wrong.'
14. The wounded needed a doctor. They needed attention.
2. Usa estos adverbios de intensidad y juntalos con la oracion que creas va mejor.
1 All the bodies were A extremely comfortable
2 He is an honest man
', extremely tight
3 He has been manyyears
with the firm as he is a D well lined-up
E mostly wrong
4 The situation wasF incredibly cheap
5 The poor girt felt
6 He djdn't trust him^ He felt H completely mistaken
7 Sheis getting old and I perfectly planned
8 The raid into enemy J bad|y needed
territory was K works really slowly
9 They all missed her L deePly suspicious
She was M terribly confusing
10 You are wrong.Youare N terrib|y confused
0 particularly good worker
11This leather bag is [. *,_ _ .. _ _ _? p highly respectable
12 Your answers were
13 The soldiers were
14 That pullover is
15 Those sheets are
16 This armchair is
B whiter than white
F incredibly cheap
G horribly mutilated
Adverbs of manner
• La mayoria de losadverbios de manerase
forman ahadiendo "ly" a losadjetivos:
- glad . gladly
mad . madly
• Los adjetivos que terminan enIduplican laI:
careful . carefully
• Siterminan eny despues deconsonante:
• Losqueterminan ene ahaden ly:
Prases preposicionales usadas
• Cuando noexiste unadverbio para loque
queremos expresar recurrimos a unafrase
We came here by train.
They all came to us in a rush.
Adjetivos que terminan en "ly"
Adjetivos y adverbios con la misma
forma y el mismo significado
A fast (adjective) car is a car that goes
She works hard (adverb) because she
likes hard (adjective) work.
He is a friendly man. (adjective)
- He always greets me in afriendly
Adverbios con dos formas que se
usan de la mismamanera
clean . cleanly
- clear .clearly
close . closely
loud . loudly
We bought the house cheap/cheaply.
Posicion de los adverbios de manera
1. Despues del objeto:
They watched us curiously.
2. Despues del verbo:
It rained heavily last night.
3. Despuesde una particulaadverbial:
He put the ladder upcarefully.
• Ennarrativa aveces empezamos lafrase
con adverbios de manera, tales como:
gently slowly suddenly
• Estos adverbios vanseguidos por una
Suddenly, he heard a voice behind him.
1. Completa las frases siguientes con adverbios.
Example: This is, possibly, the show in town (possible).
1. It was an difficult situation (extreme).
2. This boy is in love with that girl (mad).
3. This is the same thing (basic).
4. We didn't go out because it was raining (heavy).
5. We pay our bills (month).
6. I always drive very (careful).
7. They all left (hurry).
8. I'm sorry, I hear very (bad).
9. It was a very evening (live).
10. That girl speaks quickly (incredible).
11. They decided to leave town (secret).
12. It was not a successful book (whole).
13. I was in love with you (true).
14. The train didn't go very (fast).
15. They didn't work very (hard).
2. En este ejercicio tienes que decidir cual de las dos palabras es la apropiada.
Tacha la que no lo sea.
Example: He spoke'tyti&/quietly in the dark.
1. She is terribly/terrible upset about
losing her boyfriend.
2. He drove very careful/carefully along
the narrow road.
3. All those people were very colourful/
4. After years in Paris she speaks very
5. His English is not very good but his
German is almost fluent/fluently.
6. Both of them are very happy/happily
7. It has rained continuously/
continuous for two weeks.
8. Why is that girl so unfriend/
9. She waited nervous/nervously in the
10. The two men were seriously/serious
11. She was bitter/bitterly disappointed.
12. It's a reasonable/reasonably cheap
13. The food in here is extremely/
14. I'm terrible/terribly sorry. I didn't
15. The exam was surprising/
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adverbs of degree
• Losadverbios de grado mascorrientesson:
• Se pueden usar como adverbios de grado.
- very much
I don't like her very much.
They don't drink much wine in this
• El sentido de quite depende de la clase de
palabra que lo modifica.
• Puede expresar el sentido de
'completamente, mucho' con:
The bottle is quite full.
You were quite right.
Con palabras tales como:
This man is quite amazing. He plays
quite le da a la palabra
un valor superlative.
• Sinembargo, cuando quitese usa con
adjetivos como good o strong,el resultado
es ligeramente mas debit.
The play was good.
The play was quite good.
• Detodas formas depende mucho del entasis
que le damos a la palabra.
Rather y fairly
• Ambos significan 'moderadamente', pero
fairly se usa generalmente con adjetivos y
adverbios favorables (nice,good, well, etc.)
mientras que rather se usa generalmente con
adjetivos y adverbios desfavorables (ugly,
bad, silly, etc.):
Jimmy is fairly clever, while his sister is
• Estos se pueden usar con participios:
She was fairly comfortable; he was
He is a fairly good speaker, but rather
Hardly, barely y scarcely
• Lostres son muyparecidos, con unsentido
• Hardly se suele usar conever, any, at all,o
con el verbocan.
She can hardly speak.
The soup was barely warm.
puede ser reemplazado por almost never.
I hardly ever go to London.
I almost never go to London.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes unas frases con fairly y rather. Tacha la que creas que no esta bien.
Example: This man is rather/fairly stupid.
1. During the driving test she was fairly/rather relaxed.
2. The old woman walks fairly/rather slowly.
3. This book is rather/fairly interesting.
4. It was a rather/fairly boring film.
5. The box was fairly/rather light.
6. It was a rather/fairly heavy box.
7. Johnny is rather/fairly intelligent.
2. Completa las frases que van a continuacion con el adverbio apropiado: fairly,
rather, quite, hardly.
Example: The meal was quite good. I enjoyed it.
1. That old man is an expert on Roman coins.
2. It's a shame that we have to work on Sundays.
3. like raw fish.
4. They spoke on the way.
5. She knows a word of French.
6. He is certain that she'll come back to him.
7. I was sure that you'd come.
8. The case was so heavy that he could lift it.
9. Frank is clever but lazy.
10. It's a good play. I wouldn't go again though.
11. The job was finished.
12. There was anybody left.
13. It's a nuisance that we can't park here.
3. Vuelve a escribir estas frases usando almost.
Example: I hardly ever see him nowadays. / almost never see him nowadays.
1. There's hardly any good news in the newspapers today.
2. We hardly ever go out nowadays.
3. Your son barely ever knows his lesson.
UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
As well as + ing - Although - As long as - As (cause)
As well as + ing
• Cuando as well as se usa con un verbo va
seguido de gerundio.
As well as breaking his arm, he hurt
He worked at night as well as working
during the day.
- Aswell asrunning a marathon,he
went to the disco.
• Hayunapequena diferencia entre:
They act as well as dance,
(actuan y tambien bailan)
They act as well as they dance,
(actuan tan bien como bailan)
As long as
• Despues de as long as en ingles se usael
presents de indicative, mientras que la misma
frase en espafiol se pondria en presente de
We'll go with them as long as there is
room for us. (siempre que haya sitio)
• Lomismo ocurre conotras conjunciones:
You can take my book as long as you
don't lose it. (mientras no lo pierdas)
Although y though
• A menudo se usan indistintamente:
He's a nice chap though/although I
don't like the way he behaves.
Though/although he lacks official
support, he continues the fight.
• Though es mas informal y a menudo se
pone at final de lafrase:
The weather didn't help. I enjoyed
• Eneste caso se puede traducir por'sin
embargo' y hace el oficio de adverbio.
• A veces usamos even con though para
darle mas enfasis:
Even though I didn't understand her, I
liked her voice.
• A veces tiene el sentido de although.
<* Raining as it was, we went out.
(Although it was raining)
Tired as he was, he went on walking.
(Although he was tired)
• A veces tiene el sentido de because.
As there is little demand, we don't keep
a big stock.
As she is very old, she doesn't go out
• A veces tiene el sentido desince.
As you can't do it yourself, ask
As you are young, you can help me.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas con as well as.
Example: She washed the dishes. She made the bed. As well as washing the dishes,
she made the beds.
1. He plays the guitar. He sings.
2. He speaks Chinese. He writes it.
3. They feed you. They let you have a bed.
4. They smash the place. They laugh at you.
5. He swims in the sea. He lies in the sun.
6. In a triathlon you swim. You run and you cycle.
2. Completa la frase usando as long as.
Example: I'll go there as long as you come with me.
1. We'll go for a picnic
2. I'll go with you
(not/go over/speed limit)
3. We'N be able Jo do it
(you come/in time)
4. I'll have a word with him
5. You won't have any problems
3. Tacha la palabra que consideres mal.
Example: Our argument, alfoetmi/though, is the need for economic independence.
1. Even though/although we haven't met for years, we still love each other.
2. It was a quiet party. I had a good time, though/although.
3. Cold though/although it was, I went out.
4. Even though/although it was raining, we went for a walk.
UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Used to + gerund
• Puede que nos parezca raro que en algunas
oraciones el verbo que va detras de to vaya
en gerundio en vez de infinitive. Lo que pasa
es que hay dos clases de to.
• Unoes el signo de infinitive:
I like to stay at home at the weekend.
Do you want to come with us?
• Elotro to es unapreposicion.
I'm going to London.
I'm not used to this traffic.
• Cuando esta preposicion va seguida deun
verbo, este verbo lo ponemos en gerundio.
I'm not used to driving in this traffic.
Do they object to working on Saturday
• Laforma de saber si el to es preposicion o
no, es poner un sustantivo detras. Si se puede
poner, es preposicion.
I'm looking forward to Christmas.
I object to loud music.
• Si el to no puede ir seguido por un sustanti-
vo no es preposicion.
• Nose puede decir:
'I want to Christmas'.
• Tampocose podria decir, por lotanto:
'I want to speaking'.
• Losejemplos mascorrientesde
to + gerundioson:
look forward to ...-ing,
in addition to ... -ing,
be accustomed to... -ing,
object to... -ing, used to... -ing.
I'm not used to driving on the left.
I object to having so many interruptions.
- Heis accustomed toenduring this
In addition to having difficulties with the
language, he is mentally handicapped.
I'm looking forward to hearing from you.
• Quelostres tipos defrases siguientes
dan lugar a confusion:
I'm not used to speaking in public,
(no estoy acostumbrado)
I used to speak inpublic,
I usually speak in public,
1. Completa estas frases con gerundio o infinitive.
Example: I'm not used to eating out.(eat)
1. I object to (have) loud music played in my ear.
2. I'm looking forward to (hear) from you.
3. She wants to (eat) fish.
4. I used to (speak) in French when I met her.
5. They usually (speak) in her mother language when
they are alone.
6. She objects to (be) laughed at.
7. We have to (drive) on the left in England.
8. In addition to (come) late, he came dirty.
9. Are you used to (get up) early?
10. He used to (get up) early when he was in the army.
11. When they were little they used to (come) to see
me quite often.
12. In addition to (speak) four languages, he can
understand several others.
13. I strongly object to (be) spoken to like that.
14. Are you looking forward to (see) them again?
15. I don't usually (smoke) a pipe.
16. When I was young I used to (smoke) a pipe.
17. Well, the trouble was that I wasn't used to (smoke)
18. I'd like to (go) riding in the morning.
19. She expects me to (visit) her every time I go to London.
20. I'm not looking forward to (pay) those bills.
21. I object to (be) treated like a slave.
22. I would like to (have) fish, please.
23. The poor girl was not used to (live) in a caravan.
24. The gypsy girl used to (live) in a caravan.
25. Those gypsies usually (live) in caravans.
26. Are you looking forward to (go) on holiday?
27. I'm not used to (be) insulted.
28. He used to (insult) everybody.
29. He doesn't usually (stay) here long.
30. I'm not looking forward to (meet) him.
31. They expect us to (invite) them to dinner.
32. I object to (be) kept waiting for hours.
33. I used to (go) there often when I was young.
34. Are you used to (drive) on the left? 21
Because of - Bound to
• Esunaconjuncion queintroduceuna
oracion, con sujeto y verbo.
I couldn't sleep because I had drunk a
cup of coffee.
• Esunapreposicion quese pone delante de
un sustantivo opronombre.
They were late because of traffic
• Es un sinonimo de confident, sure,
My brother is sure/certain/bound to
win this match, (esta segurodeganar)
• No puede ir seguido de un infinitive.
I'm confident that you will win.
Bound + infinitive
• Tambien puede significar estar bajouna
According to the contract, they are
bound to supply the materials.
Ejemplos con bound to.
The weather is bound to
get better tomorrow.
You've worked so hard that you're bound
to pass your exam.
I feel bound to tell you that you are
drinking too much.
I'm bound to say that I disagree with
you on that point.
• Queboundfor signified algomuy
<? The ship is boundfor port.
(se dirige a)
We are bound for home.
Where are you boundfor?
Eastbound traffic will bedelayed.
That's the northbound lane.
Diferencias entre bound y likely.
He is likely to come tonight.
He is bound to come tonight.
(seguro que viene)
• Porotra parte likely admite tambien una
oracion introducida por that.
It's likely that he will come tonight.
1. Completa las frases con because o because of.
Example: He was very happy because he had won the lottery.
1. They separated certain differences in opinion.
2. He won't be here tonight he missed the train.
3. He won't be here today a strike.
4. She was sad her dog had been run over by a car.
5. She doesn't go out any more her age.
6. He left her he didn't love her any more.
7. We haven't been able to finish it the holidays.
2. Completa las frases con bound o bound for.
Example: 'Where are you going?' 'Well, we are bound for London.'
1. 'i,ls she going to tell you?' 'Yes, she is tell me sooner or
2. According to his letter, our order is arrive any time.
3. I feel tell you that you are driving too fast.
4. Those people were New York and Miami.
5. I knew it! Those two were get married.
6. That ship is Liverpool.
7. Don't worry. He'll tell. He is tell the truth sooner or later.
8. We've finished for today. We are home.
3. Completa las frases con bound to o likely to.
Example: 'Do you think he'll sell the car?' 'Well, yes. He is likely to sell it.
1. Look at those black clouds. It is to rain any minute. Take the
2. 'Will he ring today?' 'Probably. He is to give us a ring tonight.'
3. I knew it. It was to happen. He couldn't lead that sort of life
4. It's quite that she will come with us.
5. I was sure of it.That hooligan was to finish up in jail!
6. I'm to finish reading it tonight. I'll probably give it to you
7. According to the contract, he is to supply the material.
By + time phrase - By the time + past perfect
By the time phrase
• By, seguido de unahora, significa'para', es
decir, 'no mas tardede'.
I have to be at home by ten o'clock.
Where is she? She should be here by
Take the car,but I want it back by six
By seven o'clock in the morning, I'm
• Se puede usar con el futureimperfecto
By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be in
I'll be able to tell you by seven o'clock
• Y confuture imperfecto continue.
By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be lying
on the beach in Miami.
By seven tomorrow, I'll be telling you
the whole story.
• Conel future perfectosimple.
I will probably have finished this job by
By eight o'clock, we'll have already
• Y future perfectocontinue.
By eight o'clock tonight, I will have been
working on this job for 20 hours.
By four o'clock, we will have been eating
for two hours.
By the time
• Sepuede usar conpresente.
By the time you come here, he'll have
We'll have finished breakfast by the
time you get up.
By the time you came here, he had
They had stolen all the jewels by the
time the police arrived.
By the time she had finished speaking,
the little boy had vanished.
I had made all the beds by the time she
had finished shopping.
By the time the policeman had realized
what was happening, the burglar was
already on the roof.
The boys had already eaten all the cakes
by the time their mother went back to
1. Completa las frases en future simple.
Example: By six o'clock this evening I will be back (be back).
1. By nine o'clock, the children (be) in bed.
2. (finish) the job by four o'clock.
3. Your father (be) back by Saturday.
4. The flight (arrive) in NewYork by nine o'clock.
2. Completa las frases en future perfecto.
Example. They will have arrived bynow.
1. I posted the letter last week, so they (receive) it by now.
2. They started at seven this morning, so they (finish) by now.
3. I told him yesterday, so he (do) something about it by now.
4. The plane took off at five, so it (arrive) by now.
3. Completa las frases en forma continua en future imperfecto o perfecto.
Example: By this time tomorrow we'll be flying to the Costa Brava.
1. By nine o'clock tonight I
(finish) this job.
2. By the end of this month, I
(work) here for twenty years.
3. By the time you arrive, I
(sleep) in my bed.
4. By the end of the year, I
(fight) in the Trade Unions for 40 years.
4. Completa las frases con el past perfect.
Example: By the time they got to the cinema, the film had already started.
1. By the time she arrived, most of the guests (leave).
2. By the time you started, I (finished) already.
3. By the time she got to the supermarket, they (close) already.
4. By the time she got, the children up already
• Esta estructura gramatical seformacon:
have + object + past participle
I have my car serviced every month.
I'm having my car serviced now.
I had my car serviced last week.
• present perfect:
I have just had my car serviced.
• I will have my carserviced tomorrow.
• I may have my carserviced tomorrow.
I may be having my car serviced soon.
• Que esmuy facil confundir el
pluscuamperfecto con la estructura
I hadmade atable.
I had atable made.
• Laforma causativa es parecida a lavoz
pasiva. Nos fijamos en lo que se le hace a
algo o alguien, no en lo que alguien hace.
active: We are painting our house.
passive: The house is being painted
causative: We're having our house
• Losverbos que a menudo se usan conesta
• Con los verbos:
nos referimosa cosas que causamos que
sean hechas por otros:
active: I'm training my son.
passive: My son is being trained,
causative: I'm having my son trained.
• Otros usos de have + object + past
She's stupid! She had that explained to
her three times.
Last week I had my radio cassette
The Prime Minister had rotten eggs
thrown at him.
Why don't you have your hair cut?
We had our house remodelled.
1. A continuacion tienes unas frases en voz activa. Ponlas en voz pasiva y en
Example: I'm cleaning my room. My room is being cleaned. I'm having my room
1. I built a house on the hill.
2. They'll develop the photos.
3. I mended my socks.
4. I'm going to cut the hedges.
5. She's photocopying the book.
6. She will press her skirt.
7. I did the job last night.
8. We'll paint the fence.
9. We are decorating the room.
2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos: teach, train, instruct, coach, show, prepare.
Example: I'm coaching the team. The team is being coached by me. I'm having the
1. I'm teaching my daughter.
2. She is instructing the boys.
3. i prepared them for the test.
4. We'll train the children.
5. I'll show you the house.
6. He'll coach them.
Clauses of reason
• Estas oraciones responden a la pregunta
<,por que? y se pueden introducir con las
As/Because/Since there were few
people, the show was cancelled.
We don't keep a stock of those books
because they don't sell well.
• Porregla general si queremos darle entasis
la ponemos al final.
• A menudo empezamos frases conaso
since porque las razones a las que nos
referimos no necesitan ser enfatizadas.
<? As/Since you can't do it yourself,
you'll have to ask somebody else to do it
As/Since you're very busy, I'll ask your
brother to come with me.
• Because suele ir a continuationde la
oracion principal para poner entasis a una
razon que no es conocida por la persona a la
que nos dirigimos:
He is taking driving lessons because he
wants to buy a car.
I am studying because I want to become
• Because se puede usar siempre en vez de
as, since, for pero estas conjunciones no
siempre se pueden usar en lugar de
• In view of the fact that puede ser expresa-
do por as/since/seeing that, pero no por
As/Since/Seeing that you're here, let's
go over the figures.
As/Since/Seeing that you're younger,
you can carry the case.
As/Since/Seeing that they've finished,
we can go home.
• Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a
una aseveracion anterior, o ya entendida,se
puede reemplazar por if.
As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like
him, why do you go out with him?
• If so/not puede reemplazar un sujeto
previamente mencionado + verbo.
Will you be coming to the party? If so,
bring a couple of bottles of wine.
Do you want to drive? If not, I'll do the
Do you want to pass your exam? If so,
Are you going to collect the prize? If not,
I'll collect it.
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases, unelas con una conjuncion de razon.
Example: The strike was not successful. There was little support.The strike was not
successful since/as/because there was little support.
1. They camped there. It was too dark to go on.
2. The problem was too difficult. I left it blank.
3. You are here. You may as well give me a hand.
4. The fuse blew. She had switched on all the heaters.
5. She was angry. We were late.
6. Wehad dinner very late. I was not hungry.
7. You don't like him. Why did you invite him?
8. It had frozen. There was ice everywhere.
9. You can't cook. You'll have to hire a cook.
10. He wants to find a flat. He wants to be independent.
11. He is studying at night. He works during the day.
12. He knows Italian. He can do the talking.
13. You don't love him. Why did you marry him?
2. Completar con "if so"o "if not".
Example: Do you love Jim? If so, why don't you marry him?
1. Will you stay tonight? , hand in the key.
2. Is he going to New York? , tell him to bring mea
3. Canyou lend me£1? , I'll ask Peter.
4. Have you got any money? , why didn't you lend me
Clauses of comparison
• Estas oraciones a menudo responden ala
• Laformation es de:
as + adjetivo + as (as good as)
as + adverbio + as (as well as)
not so/as... as
• Normalmente omitimos el verbo dela
segunda parte de la comparacion.
She is as pretty as her sister (is).
Mary types as quickly as Jennifer
He is not so/as good as his sister (is).
His brother is faster than he (is).
She moves more slowly than her
The more exercise you take, the better
• A veces omitimos tanto el sujeto como el
This morning he looked happier than
(he looked) last night.
Comparacion con adjetivos y
It's warmer today than it was yesterday.
My wife spends more money than I
He doesn't pay as much as we do.
Comparacion con adverbios y
He didn't run as fast as we expected.
She works harder than I did at her age.
Comparacion con adjetivos e
infinitives o gerundios.
• A menudo se usan indistintamente, pero es
mejor usar el infinitive para una action en
particular, mientras que los gerundios se usan
mas para cosas engeneral.
Nowadays it's as cheap to buy a new
watch as (it is) to repair the old one.
Buying a new watch is as cheap as
repairing the old one.
It's always safer to do it oneself than to
let others do it.
Doing things oneself is usually safer
than letting others do them.
• Sitenemos unverbo conjugado +this/that/
which antes de as/than podemos poner un
I'll do it myself; this will be cheaper than
calling a plumber.
She helped me in the kitchen, which
was better than watching TV.
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases con adjetivos. Unelas.
Example: He is clever. His sister is just as clever. He is as clever as his sister.
1. He is slow. His brother is faster.
2. He is quick. His sister is quicker.
3. Today it's dark. Yesterday was not so dark.
4. He earns a lot of money. He spends more.
5. We pay a lot in taxes. He doesn't pay so much.
2. Haz ahora lo mismo con adverbios.
Example: We played well. You play better. We didn't play as well as you did.
1. i work hard. You work harder.
2. I heard people singing before. She sings louder.
3. He answers quickly. His sister answers just as quickly.
4. He moves slowly. His friend moves faster.
3. Completa las frases siguientes.
Example: Buying a new watch is cheaper than repairing it. To buy a new watch is
cheaper than to repair it.
1. I think that lying on the beach is as boring as ,
2. To drive a car is easier than , (pilot) a plane.
3. Eating cereals is much healthier than , (drink)
4. To sweep the streets is better than , (do) nothing.
Clauses of concession
• Lasoraciones deconcesion estan
introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones:
I wassorry for her, I must saythatshe
We intend to go to the book fair even if
we don't sell any books.
However far it is, we'll get there.
No matter what you do, don't touch this.
Whatever you do, don't tell anybody you
Much as I'd like to help you, I can't do
anything for you.
However rich people are, they always
While I disapprove of the wayyou do it,
I agree to the idea.
• Podemos usar mayencasos hipoteticos
despues de todas las conjunciones que
introducen oraciones de concesion.
However clever she may be, she isn't
as clever as he is.
Even though you may be sorry for him,
he doesn't deserve it.
Whatever you maythink, I won't
change my decision.
- However frightened youmay be, you
must never show it.
• Maypuede significar "puede quesi".
'But he is your friend!' 'He may be my
friend, but I still don't trust him.'
• Detodas formas, may usado asi es parte
de la oracion principal, no es una oracion de
• As y though pueden ir detras de algunos
adjetivos, adverbios y verbos para introducir
oraciones de concesion en un estilo formal.
Beautiful though she was, she wasa
very unreliable woman.
Try as we might, we couldn't get a word
out of him.
• Even if se puede usar delante de should +
infinitive, lo mismo que if en frases condicio-
nales. Expresa la idea de que no es facil que
Even if she should hear it on the news,
there's nothing she can do about it.
• Loscompuestos de ever pueden introducir
oraciones de concesion de la misma manera
que no matter.
Whatever I do, it always seems to be
Whenever you see her, she always
seems to be busy.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes dos columnas. Casa las de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. Whatever you do, A. I'm going ahead with the plans.
2. No matter what you do, B. it is difficult to avoid accidents.
3. However frightened you may be, C. don't give him money.
4. Even though you may feel sorry for him, D.you must remain calm.
5. However carefully one drives, E. don't touch this switch.
6. Whatever your opinion is, F.don't tell him what I told you.
7. No matter where you are, G. the practise is always different.
8. Much as I'd like to help, H.everybody knew about it.
9. Although it was supposed to be a secret, I. I'm powerless to do anything.
10. While what they say is the ideal thing, J. you'll always be the same.
2. A continuacion tienes unas oraciones concesivas. Completalas con la conjuncion
Example: Beautiful though the necklace was, it was too expensive.
1. Unlikely it may sound, what I'm saying is true.
2. Rich the man was, he had not attraction to her.
3. Try they might, they couldn't move the rock.
4. poor you are, there's always someone poorer than you.
5. you do, don't touch the bomb.
6. he was condemned for robbery, he only got a couple of
7. I disapprove of the wayyou do it, I think you're right about
8. it is, we'll get there in time.
9. she should find out, she won't do anything about it.
10. happens, don't forget to write.
11. I'll find her, she's gone.
12. gains most points, wins the competition.
13. My roof leaks it rains.
14. team gains most points, wins the set.
15. hard I worked, my teacher was never satisfied.
16. what they are, stick to your beliefs.
17. Unlikely it may seem. I saw it with my own eyes.
18. Poor he was, he was honest.
19. difficult it is, I'll solve it.
20. he was guilty, he got off lightly.
• Lasoraciones de condition puedenser
introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones:
as long as
on condition that
» so long as
but for that
• Even if
We must leave even if you aren't ready.
• Whether... or = if... or
We must leave now, whether you are
ready or not.
• Unless + affirmative verb
= if + negative
Unless we leave now, we'll be late.
If we don't leave now, we'll be late.
• On condition that
They'll lend us their car on condition
that we pay for the petrol.
• Provided/Providing that
You can have the rest of the day off
provided / providing that you finish
• Suppose/Supposing (that)
Supposing that you miss the plane,
what will you do?
I must finish the job bytomorrow,
otherwise I won't get paid for it.
• But for that
My uncle pays the fees; but for that I
wouldn't be here.
• Quehaydiferencias entre in case yif
I'll bring some beer in case you need
I'll bring some beer if you need
• Enel primer caso traer6 la cerveza de
todas formas (por si acaso).
• Enel segundo caso la traere solo si hace
With patience, you'll teach him something.
(if you have patience)
- Given anopportunity, they'll succeed.
(if they are given)
But for his friends he would have
problems, (if he didn't have)
Without their help we wouldn't have
reached the top. (if they hadn't helped us)
1. Completa las frases con una conjuncion condicional.
Example: We must be back by 12, otherwise we'll be locked out.
1. She used her calculator, she would have taken longer.
2. we leave at once, we'll be late.
3. We must leave at once, you are ready or not.
4. You can borrow my car, I have it back by tomorrow
5. I miss the train. What shall Ido?
6. They'll lend us their villa we look after it.
7. that it is true, what can we do about it?
8. you start at once, you won't get there in time.
9. I don't mind what you talk about you speak in English.
10. I wouldn't marry him he was/were a millionaire.
11. Come with me, they won't let me in.
12. I don't mind what he does he sends me a cheque every
2. En este ejercicio tienes que casar las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. I'll ask your father A. it has nothing to do with me.
2. Suppose there are no flights, B. even if you say it's true.
3. I'll be back to work tomorrow C. provided you buy some petrol.
4. We must be early, D. otherwise/or else we won't get a seat.
5. You can borrow my car E. whether I feel well or not.
6. I find it difficult to believe F.what shall Ido?
7. Assuming that what you say is true, G. unless you prefer that I ask your mother.
3. Indica si los implied conditionals son del tipo 1, 2, o 3.
Example: With luck we'll be there in time. Type 1
1. In different circumstances, I would have gone with you.
2. I would telephone her, but I don't know her number.
3. To hear her talk, you'd think she was the Queen of Sheba.
4. I'll speak to her, if I see her.
5. We would have eaten that if we had been hungry.
6. She'll marry me if I ask her.
7. You'd do it if you had to.
UNIT 18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Clauses of purpose
• Estas oraciones indican unproposito yson
introducidas por: so that
in order that
for fear that
• Responden a laspreguntas ^para que?y
para que proposito?
• In order to y so as to nos dan idea de
proposito, pero no son conjunciones, sino
una variante del to de infinitive.
Secuencias del verbo
• Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta
en presente, preterite perfecto o future, so
that y in order that puede ir seguido de may,
can, o will.
• So that es mas usado que in order that.
We've come early so that/in order that
we can/may/will get good seats.
• So that y in order that pueden ir seguidos
Make a knot in your handkerchief so
that/in order that you remember to give
me a ring.
• Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta
en pasado simple, pasado progresivo, o
pluscuamperfecto, so that y in order that
van seguidos de should, could, might, o
We came early so that/in order that we
should/could/might/would get good seats.
• Laforma negativa de inorder that yso
We came early so that/in order that
we might not miss the train.
• Tambien podrfamos poner should not y
• No podri'amos poner, sinembargo, could
• Sepueden hacer construccionesde
infinitivo con not to, so as not to, y in
order not to.
She wore an apron in order not to
We were behind the goalkeeper so as
not to miss our team's goals.
• Despues de in case se puede poner
should, might o presente.
The building has an emergency exit in
case there is (there should/might be)
• Should con lest
He ran away lest he (should/might) be
seen, (para que no)
• Forfear suele ir seguido de might, aunque
la misma idea se puede expresar con in
He left in a hurry for fear(that) she might
change her mind.
He left in a hurry in case she changed
1. Casa las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. They've arrived early A. so that we should have quiet.
2. I've opened the window B. in order to get fresh air.
3. I closed the door C. so they can get a good view.
4. They arrived early D. so as not to miss anything.
5. I'm taking an umbrella E. in order that we may live.
6. They have a memorial service F.so that future generations might
every year know who they were.
7. i left a note on his pillow G.so that blind people can tell the
8. The banknotes are different difference.
9. They carved their names on the so that he would be sure to see it'
rock I. lest they should forget their dead.
10. They have died J. in case I need it.
2. A continuacion completa las frases con lest, in case, for fear, so that.
Example: I bought it quickly, for fear she might change her mind.
1. We avoided mentioning her husband she should be grieved.
2. We bought the house at once he changed his mind.
3. We arrived early we might not miss anything.
4. She hid her diary her husband wouldn't be able to find it.
5. We hid in the cave we might be seen.
6. We slipped away silently that he might wake up.
7. She's taking a raincoat she needs it.
8. I'm lighting the fire the house will be warm when the children
9. There were telephone points drivers could summon help.
10. She asked us to ring first she was out.
11. She came early that she might not miss anything.
12. I'll take a gun with me I need it.
13. We left in a hurry he should change his mind.
14. He uses public telephones the police won't be able to trace
15. We left in a hurry he'd come after us.
16. We left in a hurry he might come after us.
17.1 rang him up to tell him the news.
UNIT 19 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Clauses of purpose (cont.)
• Estas oraciones describen consecuenciasy
pueden ser introducidas por because o as.
She was sacked because she didn't
work hard enough.
As it froze, there was ice everywhere.
• Tambien pueden ser expresadas por dos
oraciones unidas por so:
It was too late, so we stopped for the
It had rained hard, so there were pools
• Thereforetiene el mismo sentido, peroes
They haven't arrived yet. Therefore,
• Lasoraciones deresultado se pueden
introducir con that despues de so +adjetivo.
His hands are so fast (that) the eye
can't follow them.
• Tambien se puede formar conthat despues
de so + adverbio.
His hands move so quickly (that) the
eye can't follow them.
• Se pueden formar tambien consuch (a)+
(adjective) noun + that.
She issuch a pretty girl that everybody
stares at her.
They have such good players that they
• Such +that se pueden usar en un lenguaje
Her temper is such that no one wants to
be near her.
• Lasoraciones de resultado se pueden usar
despues de so much, so many, so few, so
There was so much to see that we
stayed two more days.
There were so many people in the room
that we couldn't get in.
• Enambos cases se puede usar such a
• Que cuandolaoracionesunaexclama-
cion el soy el suchse pueden usarsin el
* He isso tall...!
They made sucha mess ...!
She makessuchhorrible coffee ...!
• Such + a + adjective+ noun sepuede
reemplazar por so + adjective+ a +
Such a kind woman.
. Sokinda woman.
• A veces encontramos el so al principio dela
frase. Esto va seguido de una forma invertida
So terrible was the news that she broke
So conceited was the girl that nobody
went out with her.
1. Completa las frases con so, such, such a, so much, so many, so few,so little.
Example: That man is such a fool that everybody laughs at him.
1. This woman is pretty!
2. It was raining that we stayed in.
3. I was cold that I couldn't sleep.
4. Children make mess!
5. They are handsome boys that all the girls love them.
6. I've never heard terrible news.
7. Thumbelina was that she lived in a nutshell.
8. Never in the history of humanity have achieved so much.
9. We have money that we'd better stay home.
10. It's strange to see you here!
11. There are things to do on this farm!
12. He gets money and works so little!
13. I, however, get money and work so much!
14. He spoke for long time that we all fell asleep.
15. You seldom drink good coffee.
16. Mrs Cohn is kind. She is a good person.
17. There was a lot of rain last night!
18. I've never seen nonsense in my life.
19. That girl is nuisance!
20. They were that it's difficult to imagine how they could have
won the battle.
21.I didn't know the problem was difficult!
22. The dog was fierce that no one dared to get near.
23. It was fierce dog that no one dared to get near.
24. They had rain that the rivers overflowed.
25. There were questions to answer!
26. They were that they couldn't do the job in time.
27. They had time that it was impossible that they'd do it in time.
28. He had water left that he could hardly wet his lips.
29. She had boyfriends that she didn't know which one to
30. You've made mess, children!
31. She speaks fast that it's difficult to follow her.
32. Never have achieved so much.
33. He worked hours that his wife hardly ever saw him.
Clauses of time
• Lasoraciones de tiempo se introducencon
las siguientes conjunciones:
no sooner... than
• ambien pueden serintroducidas con:
• Cuando la oracion adverbial va enprimer
lugar se pone una coma.
After she got divorced, her life changed.
His life changed completely after he got
You can keep the book as long as you
Once you've seen one of his films,
you've seen them all.
• Cuando la oracion temporal se refiere al
futuro, generalmente usamos el presente
as soon as
by the time
They'll emigrate to Australia when their
papers are ready.
As soon as we get there, I'll light a
• A menudo usamos el preterite perfecto con
un futuro perfecto.
By the time they've finished, we'll
already have disappeared.
• A menudo usamos el preteriteperfecto
despues de once y now that.
Once we have painted the kitchen, we'll
move to the sitting room.
Now that we know the truth, we can act
• Queaunque generalmente nousamos el
futuro en las oraciones temporales, se
puede usar will despues de when.
The secretary wants to know when
she will be taking her holidays.
• Normalmente, sinembargo, usamos el
When I come back home, I'll bring you
He'll tell us about the match when he
• After vaseguido generalmente de
After/When you've finished reading
it, give it back to me.
After/When the train had left, he
remembered leaving the lights on.
• Hardly/scarcely... when,
no sooner.... than.
He could hardly breathe when he
entered the room.
No sooner had they finished painting
at one end than they had to start at
1. Completa las frases con una conjunction correspondiente.
after, when, as, as long as, as soon as, during the time, before, by the time,
once, since, until, till, the moment, whenever, while.
Example: Before John arrives, I'll give the children their tea.
1. I won't say a word, you do the same.
2. We never met I lived there.
3. they come, we'll have finished our dinner.
4. you have seen one,you've seen them all.
5. you insist, I must tell you something.
6. Let me know he arrives.
7. She was making the bed he was preparing breakfast.
8. Finish one thing you start another.
9. They were working late at night.
10. Martha and John were always fighting they lived together.
11. you get into the habit of smoking, it's very difficult to get rid
12. I'll give you a call I finish.
13. She answered the phone almost
2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar: scarcely, hardly, no sooner, the sooner.
Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: Hardly had he begun to talk when he was told to keep quiet.
1. No sooner had she drunk the coffee she began to feel drowsy.
2. Scarcely had she entered the room the phone rang.
3. Hardly had he finished his coffee he got back to work.
4. No sooner does she get money she spends it.
5. The sooner we start, we'll get to Santiago.
6. Scarcely had he got to sleep the telephone woke him up.
7. We had hardly began our walk it started to rain.
8. The sooner we get married, we'll have a family.
9. Scarcely had I got into the bathtub there was a knock at the
10. No sooner had she heard the news she broke down in tears.
11. We had hardly crossed the bridge it collapsed.
12. No sooner had she got the injection she began to lose
13. Hardly had he finished speaking to her on the phone she
appeared at the door.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 21 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 1
• Usamos las condicionales delTipo 1que sucedera o no sucedera, si
creemos que un acontecimiento future es probable.
If he comes early, we'll go to the theatre.
If he doesn't come early, we won't go to the theatre.
• Si no estamos seguros de lo que sucedera
podemos usar un verbo 'modal'.
If he comes early, we may/could/can/
may/might/should/ought to/ must go
to the cinema.
If + should + imperative
If you should see her, tell her to come
Should you see her, tell her to come at
If you should happen to see her, tell
her to come at once.
Should you happen to see her, tell her
to come at once.
• Laoration principal puede noserun
If I should see Mary, I'll tell her to
come at once.
If + should + imperative
• Seusasobre todo para peticiones y
If you should go to Barcelona, go to
see the Olympic City.
- If youshould write to them, send them
• Tambien se pueden usar imperatives enel
Tipo 1 ordinario.
Speak to them if you want. If you want,
speak to them.
• Sepuede expresar unacondicion sin if,
empezando una frase con should. Esto es
una forma de expresion muy formal.
Should you be interested in taking
part in our book fair, please fill in this
Should you wish our agent to call on
you, just drop this slip in the letter box.
Imperative + conjunction + clause
• Se pueden usar imperatives envezde
oraciones de if para peticiones, comentarios,
ofertas, amenazas, etc.
- Keep doing that and you'll geta fine.
Tell them what to do and they'll do it.
Stop shouting, or you'll get smacked.
Take the shortcut, or you'll never get
there in time.
Give us the materials, and we'll do the
1. Completa la segunda parte de la oracion con las palabras entre parentesis.
Example: If the weather is good, we'll go for a walk.
1. If we arrive early, (we/leave/early).
2. It will be cold (you/open/window).
3. If I win the pools, (I/buy/that house).
4. I'll tell him that (I/see/him).
5. If you stop talking, (I/tell/you).
6. We'll be there by 9 (the train/leaves/time).
7. If she comes with you, (she/be/welcome).
8. I'll lend you the book (you/want/read it).
9. If it's cold, (close/window).
10. I'll fill in the form (you/hand/it/to/me).
11. If you pay cash, (you/get/reduction).
12. You will get more money (learn/languages).
13. If I am hungry, (eat/sandwiches).
14. You'll catch a cold (stand/rain).
2. En las frases siguientes vas a usar el imperativo.
Example: If you see her, give her my regards.
1. If you should happen to see him,
2. Should he call,
3. If you should write to Jennifer,
4. Should you go to Madrid,
5. Should you be interested in our offer,
6. If you want our agent to call,
7. If she should get in touch with you,
8. Should they come early,
9. Should you receive a letter,
UNIT 22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 2
• Este tipo defrases habla acerca de situaciones imaginarias y
especula sobre sus consecuencias.
If you took a taxi, you would get there in time.
If you didn't go to that place, you wouldn't get in trouble.
• A veces describimos cosas completamente imposibles.
If I had your ears, I'd be able to fly.
• Se puede usar were envez dewas des-
pues de I/he/she/it. No hay diferencia en el
significado, pero were es mas formal.
If I was/were taller, I'd be a policeman.
• Sinembargo, para frases imaginarias es
If I were the King ...
• Tambien usamos were para darconsejos.
If I were you/in your position, I'd take
• Con la expresion if it were not for/were it
not for, no usamos was.
If it weren't for his charity, I would have
• De una forma mas formal, If it were notfor,
se puede expresar por Were it not for.
Were it not for the Red Cross, they
would have died.
Were it not for the fact that they helped
us, we would have died.
• Cualquier verbo modal puede reemplazar a
would cuando creemos que las consecuen-
cias son menos posibles que ocurran.
If they were here, they could give us a
If they were here, they might give us a
If he lost, he should train harder, (duty)
• Podemos usar were + infinitivo en vezde
un verbo ordinario.
If I were to ask you, would you lend me
• Sepueden usar verbos modales enla
If you were to ask her, she might
If your son were to make an effort, he
could do much better.
• Unaforma comun de inversion, quitando el
Were the government to cut taxes,
petrol would be very cheap.
• Laforma negativa es posible.
- I'd do it, were it notlikely to make
things worse for us.
1. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: I would be a policeman if I were taller.
1. If you went by plane,
2. We'd stay at home, (it/rain).
3. If you saw it, (see/difference).
4. You would get there quicker, (go/train).
5. If I were taller, (run/faster).
6. I would live in Miami,
7. If they were^ vegetarians,
8. I would buy that dress
9. If they needed money, (sell/car).
10. The policeman would find me
11. If I asked her, (marry/me).
12. I'd go to the pub (want/play/cards).
13. If I had money, (put/it/bank).
14. I'd put them in the sitting room
15. If I had scisssors, (cut/it).
16. Iwouldn't^go to Benidorm
17. If I liked pmons, (eat/them).
18. Td spread the butter (have/knife).
19. If you looked after jtL
20. [ would jnarry him.
21. Were it not for your help,
22. I would leave him (I/be/in her place).
23. If you were to ask her, (may/help).
24. If he were here, (can/help us).
25. If he were to make an effort,
26. I'd be king (you/be/my/queen).
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 23 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 3
• Estas oraciones decondicional asumen algo
• Tanto en el tipo 2 como en el 3, soncondi-
If I hadbeen taller, I would have been a
If I hadn't been carrying an umbrella, I
would have got wet.
- If I had won thelottery, Iwould have
bought a new house.
If I had been you/in your position
• Expresamos lo quehabrfamoshechosi
hubieramos sido otro.
- If I had been you/in your position, I
would have married him.
If it hadn't been for
• Sinohubiera sido poralgo...
If it hadn't been for the cold, we would
have gone to the beach.
Inversion con "had"
• Hadhe es unavariacionde if he had:
Had the workers gone on a strike, the
production would have stopped.
• Sepuede hacer unainversion negativa.
Had it not been for his reluctance to
leave, we would have been able to reach
the others in time, (no se puede decir
if + past perfect + modal.
If I had known the facts, I could have told
you what to do.
If I could have got the facts, I might have
told you what to do.
Que podemos reemplazar would con
otro verbo modal cuando sentimos que las
consecuencias imaginadas son menos
probables que ocurran, o cuando nos
referimos ahabiiidad, posibilidad, etc.
If Ihad been here, Icould have
defended you, (ability)
if Ihad been here, I might have told
If he had received the note, he
should have goneto the meeting.
• Sepuede combinar laforma progresivay
tiempos compuestoscon losverbos
If I had been there, I could have
been helping with the harvest.
If they had been there, they could
have met my teacher.
1. Completa las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo.
Example: If it had rained, we would have stayed home.
1. You would have got a better job
(you/work/harder at school).
2. If you hadn't had an umbrelja
3. Life would have been easier
4. If I had had time
5. The children would have broken many things
6. If we had liked the film
7. It would have seemed easier
8. If you had been a vegetarian
9. We would have had a good harvest
10. If I had panted to play cards^
11. I would have liked to go by bicycle,
12. If I had been him
13. He might
14. Had the management acted sooner
15. The garden would have looked much better
16. If I had had a knife
17. Had it not been for the bad weather
18. She could have met my brother,
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
have told us
• Lascomparaciones adverbiales se pueden
hacer con los siguientes adverbios:
as ...as: - John runs asfastas
not as/so... as: She can't dance as
well as you (can).
I can't speak so
fluently as you (can).
the... the: The more you study,
the more you learn.
comparative: He is taller than
anyone I know.
superlative: - Heisthetallest man in
Jimmy is the youngest
of/in the family.
• A menudo usamos el comparativo +than
ever, than anyone, thananything.
The athlete ran faster than ever.
He runs faster than anyone else.
• Most + adjetivo (sin the) significa very.
You are most kind.
significa .Youare very kind.
• Este tipo defrases seforma conadjetivos
• Lascomparaciones conlike y alike.
Jim is very like his father. Jim and his
father are very alike.
Look at those plants! This is like living in
Comparaciones entre "like" y "as"
• Like (preposition) se usacon nombres,
pronombres y gerundios.
He drinks like a fish.
You look like a princess.
Why aren't you like him?
house is like being in a prison.
• As (conjuncion) introduce oraciones con un
Do as your brother does: go jogging.
Why don't you study foreign languages
as we do?
• Sinembargo, a veces en ingles coloquial
usamos like en vez de as.
Walk to the office like wedo.
Que hayunadiferencia entre like +
sustantivo y as + nombre:
She works like a slave in that kitchenof
hers, (trabaja muchfsimo)
Cervantes worked as a slave for five
years in Algiers, (fueesclavo)
The murderer used the heavy ashtray as
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas en una tal como en el ejemplo.
Example: She sings sweetly. Her sister sings sweetly too. She sings as sweetly as her
1. I can't swim well. You can swim better.
2. Jim can't jump high. His friend jumps higher.
3. The weather is getting cold. I didn't expect it to get so cold.
It is getting
4. My father drives fast. No one drives so fast. Nobody drives
5. This film is very bad. I have never seen a worse one. This is
6. Susan types fast. No one in her class types faster. Susan is
2. Completa las frases siguientes.
Example: The faster she types, the more mistakes she makes,
1. This weather is getting colder every day.
2. Things are getting more and every year.
3. The rain cleared more (quick/l/expect)
4. He is becoming less in physics, (interest)
5. The bigger the bed, the we'll sleep.
6. Riding a horse is not a motorcycle, (easy/
3. En las frases siguientes vas a elegir entre like, alike y as.
Example: She runs like a gazelle.
1. Why don't you do your mother?
2. Why don't you cook she does?
3. You should train every day we do.
4. Mark and his brother are very much .
5. These twins are two peas.
Connective relative clauses
• Lospronombres son: who
• Se usan comas igual que enlas
• Lasoraciones 'conectivas' nodescriben a
los sustantivos sino que continuan la historia.
Generalmente se colocan detras del objeto
del verbo principal:
I asked my father, who said it had nothing
to do with him.
• O detras de unapreposicion +sustantivo:
• I gave thesalt to my father, who passed it
on to my mother.
• Elpronombre relative puede reemplazarse
por and/but + he/she etc.
I gave the salt to myfather and he passed
it on ...
I gave the salt to my father, but he ...
• A veces es dificil distinguir si unaoracion es
connective o non-defining, puesto que las
dos formas son iguales.
Ejemplos de oraciones
He eats a lot of bacon and eggs, which
She went out with Jill, whose boyfriend
had just left her.
Se pueden usar one/two, etc., few/several/
some, etc. + of + whom/which.
They had twenty goats, two of which
were killed by wolves.
Mrs Evans introduced us to her daughters,
one of whom offered to show us the town.
The explosion injured many people,
several of whom had to be taken to
Oracion con "which"
She ate a lot of cakes, which made her
The alarm clock went off an hour earlier,
which annoyed me quite a lot.
My girlfriend kept playing about with other
boys, which made me mad.
A dog was barking all night, which kept
• Queel pronombre relative what no tiene nada que ver con el pronom-
bre relative conectivo which.
• Which tiene como antecedente a unapalabra o grupo de palabras en
la frase anterior, mientras que what no se refiere a nada anterior.
• What suele ser objeto, mientras que which es generalmente sujeto.
He said he was poor, which was not true.
What I saw astonishedme.
1. Une las dos frases que tienes a continuacion en unasola.
Example: She drank beer. The beer made her fat. She drank beer, which made her fat.
1. She bought a dozen eggs. Five broke on the way.
2. The old man slipped on the banana skin. It made everybody laugh.
3. I threw the ball to my brother. My brother threw it to Jim.
4. The wall collapsed on top of the children. Several children had to be taken to
5. She went out with her boss. Her boss's car broke down on the way
6. I told my mother. My mother said it wasn't my business.
7. The teacher introduced me to my new classmates. One of my classmates offered
to show me around.
8. The rain rattled on the roof all night. This kept us awake all night.
9. She said she had no money. It was not true.
10. Some of the bridges had been blown up. It made the army's advance more
11. He met all Tom's sisters. Some of them took a fancy to him.
12. I bought two lamps. One of the lamps broke when I dropped the box.
13. The singer let out a squawk. It made everybody laugh.
14. He ate only cereals. That kept him fit.
15. The roads were flooded. That made our journey very dangerous.
16. He said he was an orphan. That was not true.
• Talking about' y 'with reference to'
muestran una conexion entre lo que quieres
decir y lo que se dijo antes.
I saw Susan this morning. Talking
about Susan, did you know that she is
With reference to your letter, I should
like to point out that..
• Otras expresiones tratan de'enfocar'la
Well, regarding past results, I don't
think it is advisable ...
That goes for production. Now, as
regards marketing, I think ...
As far as marketing is concerned, I
leave the decisions up to you.
As for Janet, the less I see her, the
• Hay un gran numero de expresiones que se pueden usar para mostrar la estructura de lo que
first of all
- tobegin with
in the first place
for one thing
as well as
• Contrastando con lo que
acabamos de decir:
all the same
on the other hand
He is not very clever. All the
same, he's a nice chap.
He is a socialist, and yet he
has a villa in Spain.
• Dando ejemplosy
with the exception of
and so on
and so forth
on the whole
- asa rule
in most cases
to some extent
• Consecuencia logica:
They didn't do it. Therefore,
we'll have to do it.
I mean, that is to say,
in other words.
• Cambiando de tema:
By the way,
incidentally, I say.
• Cuando nosreferimos alas
expectativas de otro:
'Was it good?' 'Yes, as a
matter of fact, it was very
'Did you go?' 'No, we didn't,
• A menudo criticamos con:
Honestly, darling, the
meal today was terrible.
Frankly, John, your marks
could have been better.
1. Completa las frases con una de las expresiones que van a continuacion:
to start with, all the same, talking about, therefore, honestly,
actually, for instance, and so forth, on the whole.
Example: Corporal Evans is not a bad soldier. On the whole, I think he is quite good.
1. 'What shall I do?' 'Well, you can clean this room, '
2. darling, this is the worst meal I have ever eaten.
3. She's not very clever. you've got to admit she is
4. 'Did you have a good holiday?' 'Well, we
didn't go on holiday.'
5. She had an accident. She was unable to
6. Several of my friends came: Carol and Susan, .
7. They discussed investments, the state of the economy and
8. 'I saw John yesterday,' 'did you?. . John, did
you know he's leaving the firm?'
2. Completa las frases con las expresiones adecuadas.
Example: He claims he is a socialist and yet he lives in a mansion.
1. The flat is not very good; it's very cheap.
2. He had an accident, he was ruined and, his
wife left him.
3. I invited John, Jim and Alan. Mark, I
couldn't care less about him.
4. We'll have to do without your services, you're
5. There was a little whisky, but it was soda .
6. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, I enjoyed it very much
7. I am home by six.
8. ! What a nice girl is coming this way!
9. I like Mary her husband, I think he is quite a bore.
10. The car is not very new. it's not expensive.
11. There were a few Italians, but there were Americans
12. 'Did you like the party?' 'Yes, I did like it '
13. ! This is not what I ordered.
14.1 like Susan, Leslie and Carol. Linda, I
couldn't care less about her.
15. There are some poplars and oak trees, but there are pine trees
Relative clauses: defining
• Unaoracion de relative 'definida' es laque
nos da una referenda de la palabra que le
A doctor is a person who has been
trained in medical science.
- A liar isa person whohabitually
• Elpronombre relative that se usasolo para
oraciones 'definidas' y se refiere a personas o
cosas. Para personas, por supuesto tambien
se usa who, y para
I don't like children that are noisy.
I dislike women who chatter incessantly.
Unemployment is a problem that/which
concerns us all.
• Usamos indistintamente that o whosiel
antecedente es un sustantivo vago o generali-
zado o un pronombre.
She is the sort of woman who/that will
go out with anyone.
We need someone that/who can speak
• Si el antecedente es masdefinido usamos
The woman who came to see you
yesterday is a friend of my mother's.
• Cuando nosreferimos a cosas solemos usar
that o which pero en algunos casos preferimos
a) Cuando el antecedente es un pronombre
The doctors will do all that lies in their
b) Cuando el antecedentelleva unsuperlative:
That was the funniest joke that has ever
been told here.
C) Cuando el antecedente lleva un numero
The first answer that was given was the
d) Cuando el antecedente es el complemento
de to be.
It's an antique that will fetch a lot of
• A menudoomitimosel relativecuandono
es sujetode laoracion.
They didn't have the book I wanted.
• Lomismoocurre conwhom.
Was the woman you spoke to just
now a friend of yours?
• Eningles coloquial, encaso dedecir el
pronombre decimos who en vez de
whom, excepto cuando va precedido de
• Enel lenguaje hablado casisiempre
usamos oraciones de relative 'definidas'.
Es mas,la mayoria de las oracionesde
relative son del tipo en el que podemos
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Une las dos frases en una usando un pronombre relative. Pon el relative entre
parentesis si no es sujeto y se puede omitir.
Example: The offer is still open. I made it last week. The offer (that) I made last week is
1. The pools winner used a system. This system, he said, had won him a lot of
2. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises strong emotions.
3. I know the very person. He will do the job quickly.
4. The gales caused a lot of damage. They swept across southern England last
5. The problem is to build houses at a price. Young couples can afford to pay this
6. Some frogmen came across a wreck. It had lain on the seabed for 100 years.
2. Anadir oraciones de relative que definan la palabra en negrita.
Example: They are asking every tenant to move to a smaller flat, (have/house/bigger
than he needs). They are asking every tenant who has a house bigger than he needs to
move to a smaller flat.
1. Any person should be sent to prison, (commit/crimes)
2. The yacht arrived first, (command/captain Marryat)
3. The house has been demolished, (stand/on the corner)
4. The man was my uncle, (you/see/yesterday)
5. I enjoy talking to anyone, (he/have/personality)
6. This skirt is identical to the one my sister bought yesterday, (you/wear)
Relative clauses: non-defining
• Estas oraciones proporcionan unainforma-
cion extra y van encerradas entre comas. En
realidad, las dos oraciones, la de relative y la
principal se pueden presentar por separado.
The wax museum is one of the main
attractions. It was opened in 1900.
The wax museum, which was opened in
1900, is one of the main attractions.
• El hecho de que omitamos o no las comas
puede representar un significado diferente en
dos frases identicas.
He has a brother who plays with the
He has a brother, who plays with the
• La ausencia de la coma en la primera frase
indica que tiene mas de un hermano; uno de
ellos, al que nos referimos en este caso juega
con los Rangers. Podriamos aclarar la frase
He has a brother who plays with the
Rangers and another one who plays
• La presencia de unacoma en la segunda
frase implica que tiene solamente un hermano
(por lo tanto no se puede 'definir' cual de ellos
es). La oracion de relative simplemente da
mas informacion sobre el.
• Que conlasoracionesde'non-defining'
no se puede omitir el relativo, aunqueno
The wax museum,which opened in
1900, is one of the attractions of the
town, (which es el sujeto)
The wax museum, which the King
opened in 1990, is one of the
attractions of the town, (which es
• Para versi unaoracionde relativoes
'defining' o 'non-defining', lo mejor es omitirla
y ver si tiene sentido el resto de la frase. En
las oraciones 'non-defining', la frase tiene
perfecto sentido sin la oracion de relativo, que
al fin y al cabo no es nada mas que una
informacion extra. Mientras que la oracion
'defining' de relativo no se puede suprimir.
* Myuncle is a manwho never stops
My uncle, who will be 60 tomorrow,
never stops working.
1. Une las frases usando which o who en oraciones de relative 'non-defining'.
Example: Queen Elizabeth II descends from King Egbert. He united all England in the
year 829. Queen Elizabeth descends from King Egbert, who united all England in the
1. Her first speech was better than her second. The first speech was broadcast. She
gave her second one before an audience.
2. The Cabinet will be reduced to twenty. It now has twenty-two members.
3. The 'Book Distributing Co.' provides a novelty service. It was set up in 1950.
4. This industrial dispute has now been settled. It stopped production while it lasted.
5. The English weather is not as bad as some people suppose. They associate it
with rain and fog.
6. The new London guide contains a lot of information. It will appear in the
bookshops next week.
2. Pon una oracion de relative a continuation de la palabra que va en cursiva.
Example: Last night's meeting broke up in disorder. (I/not be able/attend) Last night's
meeting, which I wasn't able to attend, broke up in disorder.
1. The Cliffs of Dover are a startling white, (be/famous/all over the world)
2. The winning horse was trained in Ireland, (nobody/expect/win)
3. Joseph Conrad wrote all his books in English. (be/Polish)
4. Bernard Shaw died in 1950. (be/one/greatest writers/the 20th
5. Not many people could follow the speaker, (speak/extremely quickly)
6. He was advised to change to an outdoor job. (be/good/his health)
7. The wrecked ship is listing dangerously, (the crew/safe/shore)
Future tense: contrasts
• Future simple:
I will play.
• Future progresivo:
I will beplaying.
I will have played.
• Futuro perfectoprogresivo:
I will have been playing.
Will / Shall
• Para predicciones, promesas, peticiones,
ofertas, sugerencias y amenazas.
Liverpool will win the league.
I'll buyyou a bicycle for Christmas.
Will you hold this for me, please?
Shall I open the door for you, Madam?
Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow?
You'll regret this!
• Para contecimientos formales usamos will
en vez de going to.
The reception will take place at the Hilton
Will / Shall
• Para expresar esperanza, expectation, etc.
• Converbos y frases tales como:
I hope she'll marryhim.
I suppose he'll get the job.
• Conadverbios que indican falta de
Perhaps she'll change her mind.
Otras formas de expresar el futuro
• Begoing to:
I'm going to see him later.
• Be to:
I'm to see him later.
• Present progressive:
I'm seeing him later.
• Simple present:
It opens tomorrow.
Usos del futuro progresivo
The children will be arriving at any
• Que hayuna diferenciaentre:
I'll dothe cookingtomorrow,
(intention, posible promesa)
I'll bedoing thecookingtomorrow,
(indtea un hecho)
• Aveceshay mucha diferencia:
I won't paythe bill, (meniego)
I won't bepaying the bill,
(no me tocapagar)
1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo y forma masconveniente.
Example: He will possibly change his mind.
1. your coat for you, Mum? (I/get)
2. The Rangers the league, (win)
3. I promise you, I on this tomorrow, (work)
4. If you look at the work schedule, you can see that we on
this tomorrow, (work)
5. We this invoice. That's for sure! (pay)
6. Look at the book, but I think we this invoice on the
7. The wedding at St. James's on June 25th. (take
8. for a swim tomorrow, boys? (we/go)
9. 'When are you seeing him?' 'Well, I first thing in the
10. I am sure she the job she applied for. (get)
11. I suppose he his mind in the end. (change)
2. cambia estas frases por future.
Example: I have to see him tomorrow. I'm to see him tomorrow.
1. She has to do it today.
2. We have to give it to him tonight.
3. They have to report at five o'clock.
4. The boys have to meet at four.
5. You have to tell him the truth.
6. They have to let us know as
soon as possible.
7. We have to see him tonight.
3. cambia de futuro simple a futuro progresivo.
Example: I will see the film tomorrow. / will be seeing the film tomorrow.
1. We will work in the same office.
2. I'll speak to him in the morning.
3. I'll do the shopping in the afternoon.
4. We'll listen to the 8 o'clock news.
5. I'll look for a new job.
6. I'll see her first thing tomorrow
Future tense: contrasts (cont.)
• Usamos este tiempo para mostrar quela
action estara ya completada para cierto
momento en elfuture.
We will all be dead by the year 2090.
• Este tiempo se usaa menudo converbos
que indican que se completa algo:
• Elfuture perfecto se usadespues deverbos
I suppose they will have finished by
Futuro perfecto progresivo
• Lo que esta en progreso ahora se puede
considerar desde un punto de vista en el
By this time next month, I will have
been working for this company for 20
Usos del "going to" como futuro.
It's going to rain. Look atthose
They are going to get divorced, I'm
• Tambien se usael going to para intencio-
nes, planes, etc.
I'm going to train tonight.
• Laintention se puede enfatizarconlos
adverbios now y just.
I'm just going to change into something
And now I'm going to show it to you.
* Si decidimos hacer algo sin premeditation
usamos el will.
We are lost. I'll stop and ask the way.
• Que el presente progresivo se puede
reemplazar por el going to.
I'm having lunch with myboss today.
I'm going to have lunch with my
• Porrazones deestilo tratamos de evitar
ei going to con los verbos go y come
(going to go/going to come).
I'm going/coming home late tonight.
Sustitutos de futuro
• Se usa be to para referirnosalfuturo
cuando las acciones se pueden controlar.
The Prime Minister is to meet the
President in May.
You are to deliver this letter in person.
You are not to tell him anything.
El futuro en el pasado
They didn't know they were to be
reunited years later.
I was to see the personnel manager
today, but the appointment was cancelled.
His inventions were to change the
whole way of life for humanity.
1. Eiige entre going to y will.
Example: I think we have a puncture. /'// stop the car and see.
1. the piano for a couple of hours this evening.
2. He an engine driver when he grows up. (be)
3. There's somebody at the door. I who it is. (go/see)
4. They in November, (get married)
5. So you've got a puncture! OK, I the tyre for you.
6. Look at the sky. It tonight, I'm afraid, (rain)
7. We to stop on the way.
8. 'It's cold! 'OK, I take my coat.'
2. Forma sustitutos de future con las expresiones:to. due to, about to, on the point of.
Example: The train at seven. The train is due to leave at seven.
1. Mr and Mrs Bridge leaving.
2.1 think you to get a big surprise.
3. You to meet Mr Gibson at nine o'clock sharp.
4. These tablets to be taken four times a day.
5. The race to start.
6. You to deliver the flowers this evening.
7. The bus is leave any moment now.
3. Vas a hacer lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2, pero con futuro en el pasado.
Example: The train was about to leave when we arrived.
1. meet Mr Gibson at five, but he cancelled the meeting.
2. Little did we know we meet again 20 years later.
3. I couldn't go on that trip as I have a baby.
4. The plane at seven but it arrived at ten.
5. We to study the plans of the marketing manager but he didn't come.
6. They couldn't imagine that the two armies to fight
again years later.
7. She didn't come with us as she to have an
8. The advanced party to be back at dawn.
Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs
• Usamos for+ gerundio cuando estamos
hablando de un proposito en particular.
- This isatool foropening cans.
That's a gadget for opening bottles.
This is a case for keeping records in.
This is the knife for carving meat.
This tool is used for cutting holes.
• Detras de losverbos siguientes se pone
gerundio, nunca infinitive:
• Conalgunos verbos quevanseguidos de
gerundio podemos poner otra palabra entre el
verbo y el gerundio. Puede ser un acusativo,
me o un nombre, Peter. A veces es tambien
un posesivo como my; o's.
When are you going to get him working?
I don't want to see you doing that again.
I don't enjoy your/his/Peter's teasing.
I dislike going out with that girl.
I regret having said that.
Verbo (+ acusativo o posesivo) +
• Losverbos siguientes pueden ir seguidos
tanto por un acusativo como por un posesivo
antes de gerundio:
- can't bear
- can't help
- can't stand
Despues de come y go con
I often go climbing/skiing/fishing/
El gerundio de need y want.
• Detras deestos dosverbos se puede poner
She needs a lotof encouraging.
I can't bear him/his notwriting to you.
Fancy you/your having noticed that.
can't understand Peter/Peter's leaving
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el verbo entre parentesis en el tiempo correspondiente.
Example: I don't fancy (go) for a walk in the rain. I don't fancy going for a walk in the
1. That woman keeps (nag) me all day long.
2. I dislike (answer) silly questions.
3. It means (get up) very early.
4. I suggest (go) earlier.
5. She detests (speak) in public.
6. I admit (come) here late at night.
7. They contemplate (pull) down the whole building.
8. Imagine not (know) the answer to such a
9. They risk (have) an accident on the way.
2. Cambia las frases siguientes a gerundio.
Example: That wall needs to be painted. That wall needs painting.
1. The whole house wants to be redecorated.
2. My old car needs to be overhauled.
3. These children need to be encouraged.
4. The grass wants to be cut.
3. A continuacion tienes frases con acusativos y con posesivos. Cambialas. Si esta'n
con acusativo ponlas con posesivo y viceversa.
Example: Excuse him for not writing to you. Excuse his not writing to you.
1. I dislike them wasting so much money.
2. I hate their speaking to me like that.
3. I can't imagine Peter making such a fuss.
4. I can't understand his mother's approving that!
5. She can't forget my leaving her.
UNIT 32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Gerund after prepositions
• Usamos el gerundio despues depreposicio-
nes tales como:
He left the hypermarket without paying.
• Muchos adjetivos vanseguidos depreposi-
ciones + gerundio:
- afraid of
- interested in
He is very good at playing football.
- I'mnotinterested in acting.
• Muchos verbos vanseguidos de preposicio-
nes + gerundio:
- apologize for
prevent somebody from
• thank somebodyfor
I apologize for being rude toyou.
You can't prevent him from spending
Gerundio despues de"to"
• Cuando el to no es parte de un infinitive es
I want to go home,
(parte del infinitive)
I object to music.
(preposicion + sustantivo)
I object to smoking in public,
(preposicion + gerundio)
• Verbos que admiten tanto el infinitive como
I intend to walk/walking all the way.
She started to sing/singing.
• Verbos queadmiten lasdosformascon
like - hate
I like washing my car.(I enjoy it)
I like to wash my car on Saturdays.
• Despues de condicional siempre se usael
I would like to see you soon.
I'd hate to live in this place.
Remember, forget, regret,try,
stop, go on.
• Remember, forget + infinitive se refiere
a una accion en el future (o a una accion
futura vista desde el pasado).
Remember to give me a ring.
forgot to ask your brother.
• Remember, forget + gerundio se refiere
I remember falling/having fallen into
Have you forgotten meeting her?
• Try+ infinitivo significa 'hacer unesfuerzo'.
Try to overcome your fears.
• Try+ gerundio significa 'experimental,
'hacer la prueba'.
Try taking a couple aspirins with brandy.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo correspondiente.
Example: You open a door by (turn) a key in the lock. You open a door by turning a key
in the lock.
1. Why don't you pay, instead of (make) a fuss.
2. He left without (say) a word.
3. The little boy was punished for (talk) in class.
4. You'll learn a lot about (fish) with this man.
5. We'll settle everything by (speak) to him.
6. I apologize for (come) late.
2. Completa las frases con los siguientes adjetivos + gerundios: afraid of, bored with,
fond of, good at, happy about, interested in, sorry for, used to.
Example: She was afraid of speaking in public.
1. I am very playing the piano.
2. I am not working for you.
3. She is going out at night alone.
4. I'm sorry interrupting you.
5. We are all going on holiday together.
6. The old man is getting up early in the morning.
7. I am always listening to the same thing.
3. Elige entre gerundio o infinitivo.
Example: Would you like to eat out?
1. You'd hate (live) on a desert island.
2. I'd love (go out) with you.
3. I hate (do) the washing.
4. She likes (make) the beds first thing in the
5. I wouldn't like you (think) I've forgotten you.
6. Cervantes was said to like (write) early in the
7. She says she'd love (accept) the invitation.
8. I like (do) the ironing in the afternoon.
9. I'd like (speak) to you about it.
10. She is very keen on (come) with us.
11. I'm not much good at (play) the piano.
12. She objects to (be) treated like a slave.
Infinitive after certain verbs
• Losverbos mascorrientesquevanseguidos
de un infinitive son:
I hope to get there in time.
I can't afford to buy a new car.
Verbo + objeto + infinitive
• Losverbos mascorrientes para esta
hate - prefer
- help - press
instruct - recommend
. intend - request
- invite - remind
- mean - tempt
- need - trouble
- oblige - want
order - warn
• Conestos cuatro verbos se suele poner to
be + gerundio:
She happened to be looking out of the
window when I arrived.
He seems to be following them.
Verbo + how/what/when/where/
which/why + infinitive.
• Losverbos que masfrecuentementese
usan de esta manera son:
- want to know
know how to get inside.
He couldn't think of what to say.
• Infinitivo detras de losverbos:
consider seguidos de un objeto
+ to De.
- Thev considered herto bethebest
I don't want you to go.
She told me to stay.
They don't allow people to smoke.
• Conesta estructura podemos usar losverbos:
candidate for the post.
• A menudo usamos estos verbos en pasiva.
He is thought to be the best player.
You are supposed to know the laws of
• y know con el infinitive sin to.
I made him give me the money back.
They let their children stay up very late.
1. Pon el verbo en infinitive o gerundio.
Example: I can't afford to buy a car every year.
1. I happen (know) this man. He's a friend of my brother's.
2. I refuse (go) to the toilet every time I want to smoke a cigarette.
3. I don't want (bother) you with my problems.
4. I love (jog) early in the morning.
5. She failed (pass) her driving test.
6. That girl enjoys (dance).
7. I made him (tell) me the truth.
8. They don't allow anybody (smoke) in here.
9. She appeared (be) in good health.
2. Construye frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: (l/want/he/sit down/near me) / want him to sit down near me.
2. (She/make/l/wash/my face)
5. (She/expect/l/visit/her/when I come to London)
6. (l/expect/they/obey/me/at once)
3. Completa las frases siguientes.
Example: He found out how to open the safe.
1. I just couldn't think of say at that moment.
2. We discovered make cheap sausages.
3. She found out buy that gadget.
4. He showed me button press.
5. I always wonder get by with my salary.
6. I forgot switch it off.
7. She learnt make ice cream.
8. I remembered get the tickets.
9. At last I decided do it. I'd do it on Monday.
Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs
• Algunos adverbios o frases adverbiales
pueden poner entasis en la frase si invertimos
el orden. Los mas importantesson:
- hardly ever
no sooner... than
- only inthisway
- only then/when
- scarcely ever
They hardly ever managed to meet
Hardly ever did they manage to meet
I had never before been asked to do
such a job. (normal)
Never before had I been asked to do
such a job. (enfatico)
They not only steal things, they smash
Not only do they steal things, they
smash everything, too.(enfatico)
He didn't realize that he had lost his
pen until then, (normal)
Not till then did he realize that he had
lost his pen. (enfatico)
These cables must not be touched on
any account, (normal)
On no account must these cables be
He was able to make himself
understood only by shouting.
Only by shouting was he able to make
himself understood, (enfatico)
She became so suspicious that she
hired a detective, (normal)
So suspicious did she became that
she hired a detective, (enfatico)
• Unsegundo verbo negative en unafrasese
puede expresar con nor e inversion.
I had no money, nor did I know where I
could get some.
She had no friends, nor did she know
where to get help.
• Algunos adverbios o frases adverbiales
pueden ser introducidos por it is o it was y
retener el enfasis cuando se colocan al
principio de frase.
I didn't realize how ill she was until I
- Notuntil I visited herdidI realize how ill
she was. (enfatico)
It was not until I visited her that I
realized how ill she was.(enfatico)
• Fijate enladiferencia.
Jim comes here, (viene a menudo)
Here comes Jim.(esta viniendo en este
1. Invierte las siguientes frases.
Example: He spoke to me not only on Monday, but also on Tuesday. Not only did he
speak to me on Monday, but also on Tuesday.
1. Such a situation should never again be allowed to arise.
2. He had hardly finished eating his breakfast and he was hungry again.
3. The men not only demanded new training facilities; they also wanted more
4. He had no sooner put down the receiver than the phone rang again.
5. The robbers little realized that the police had thrown a cordon round the bank.
6. I wouldn't doubt his honesty for a moment.
7. The truth didn't become known until many years later.
8. The smoke was so dense that we couldn't breathe inside.
9. We have rarely seen such interest in the country's situation.
10. You will find a greater concentration of brains nowhere else in the world.
11. He agreed to land the plane, only when the terrorists threatened to kill the
12. Peace will be established in the area, only if both sides accept the treaty.
1. Pon entasis en estas frases usando it was.
Example: I didn't realize how old she was till I met her. It was not till I met her that I
realized how old she was.
1. The two countries began talks about six months ago.
2. She mentioned it to me only yesterday.
3. I discovered the truth only recently.
Modal verbs. Revision
• Haydoce verbos modales auxiliares:
can - could
may - might
will - would
• Need y dare, se usan como modales solo
en las formas interrogativas y negativas.
• Losverbos modales notienen ni infinitives
ni participios, por lo que tenemos que usar
perffrasis tales como be able to, o have to.
• El uso de could, might, would, should,
sugiere una actitud mas tentativa por parte
del que habla.
• Enpeticiones representa lo quese llama
la forma cortes:
Could/Would you let me have...?
• A continuation tenemos dostablas de usos
de verbos modales. En la tabla 1para afirmar
varies grades de posibilidad en cuanto a la
verdad de la asercion (es posible, probable,
cierto) mientras que en la tabla 2 los verbos
modales se usan para referirse a la habilidad,
deber, permiso, etc.con relation al sujeto:
must be there already.
can't/couldn't be there already
will/would be there already
may/might be there already
could be there already
should/ought to be there already
. must go immediately
.needn't go immediately
should/ought to go immediately
shall go immediately
will go immediately
. may go immediately
can go immediately
ausencia de obligacion
habilidad o permiso
• Podemos usar el infinitivo preterito converbos modales:
He must have been there.
can't/couldn't have been there,
will/would have been there.
may have been there.
might have been there.
could have been there.
should/ought to have been there.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con could o could have.
Example: He doesn't want to go with Tom. But he could go with him. He didn't want to
go with Tom. But he could have gone with him.
1. He didn't want to give me money. But he
2. He doesn't want to give me money. But he
3. He didn't want to have anything to eat. But he
4. She doesn't want to speak to me. But she
2. Ahora vas a leer una situacion y escribir una frase con must have o can't have.
Example: The doorbell rang but she didn't hear it. She must have been asleep.
1. I don't understand how he bumped into a tree, (he must/be/asleep)
2. He did the opposite of what I said, (he/can't/understand/what I said)
3. They knew everything about our projects, (they must/listen/to our conversation)
4. The light was on when I woke up. (I must/forget/to turn it off)
5. She didn't do what I said, (she/can't/listen)
3. A continuacion tienes que escribir frases explicando cada situacion.
Example: I can't find Mary. I wonder where she is.
a) (she might/go/shops) She might have gone to the shops.
b) (she could/play/tennis) She could be playing tennis.
1. Mark didn't come to the meeting. I wonder why not.
a) (He might/have/go/spmewhere else)
b) (He may not/know/about it)
2. David is going out. I wonder where he's going.
a) (He/may/go/to the cinema)
3. Excuse me, sir. Do you know how the fire started?
b) (It could/be/electrical fault)
The one who / that / which - The one with
• The one es el antecedente del pronombre relative who, that o which.
That boy over there is the one who/that came yesterday.
This book is the one that/which I like so much.
The one who/that
The ones who/that
The one that/which
The ones that/which
• Theone who/that
(para personas - singular)
The girl with blond hair is the one who/
that said it. (sujeto)
Mr Smith is the one who/that spoke at
the meeting, (sujeto)
She is the one (that/who/whom) I gave
the packet to. (objeto)
• Theone which/that
(para cosas - singular)
That house was the one (that/which)
she liked, (objeto)
That tile is the one that/which fell from
your roof, (sujeto)
That car is the one that/which won the
• Theones who/that
(para personas - plural)
Those children are the ones who/that
came singing carols, (sujeto)
Those girls are the ones who/that
asked us the way. (sujeto)
Those boys are the ones who/that you
• Theones that/which
(para cosas - plural)
Those books are the ones (that/which)
I want to buy.(objeto)
These antiques are the ones that/which
fetched such a high price, (sujeto)
• Entodos los cases en los que el relative sea
objeto del verbo se puede omitir.
That boy is the one who said that.
That is the boy who said that.
• The one with (el de los)
'Which one is your boyfriend?' The one
with long hair.'
'Which one is your son?' The one with
'Which one is the book you like?' The
one with blue cover.'
1. Cambia la frase tal como en el ejemplo.
Example: This is the man who came selling encyclopedias. This man is the one who
came selling encyclopedias.
1. These are the pictures that were stolen from the Museum.
2. Those are the players that won the match.
3. These are the people who want to emigrate.
4. Those are the pictures which you have to hang.
5. These are the plugs and the battery that you have to change.
6. This is the window that you have to paint.
7. That is the man you have to play with.
8. Those are the trees that have to be planted.
9. That is the branch that has to be cut off.
10. That is the lecture I am so interested in.
11. That is the man who is giving the lecture.
12. That is the treasure which was lost for so many years.
2. Responde a la pregunta como en el ejemplo.
Example: 'Which one do you like?' 'The one with the red skirt.'
1. 'Which picture do you prefer?' (golden/frame)
2. 'Which puppy would you like to take?' (brown/head)
3. 'Which car shall we buy, darling?' (flashing lights)
4. 'Which villa shall we hire for the holidays?' (swimming pool)
Once + Present perfect
• El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con once y nowthat.
Once we have decorated the house, we can move in.
Once you have finished your studies, you can start looking for a job.
• El preterito perfecto que usamos en ingles despues de once, corresponde aveces
al reterito perfecto de subjuntivo espahol. (Una vez que hayamos decorado...).
• Sin embargo, en ocasiones, se puede traducir per indicative.
Once you have seen one penguin, you've seen them all.
Once you've parachuted a couple of times, you're all right.
Once you've driven on the left for half an hour, you don't feel so awful.
Now that + present perfect
Now that you've grown, you can think
of getting married.
Now that we have paid all our debts,
we can think of buying a new car.
Now that the weather has changed,
we can set off.
When + present perfect
When you have spoken to him a couple
of times, you soon get used to it.
When you've seen one, you've seen the
- When you have worked hard allyour
life, you deserve a rest.
The first time + present perfect
This is the first time I've drunk Scotch
This is the first time (that) I've felt
relaxed for months.
This is the first time (that) I've heard
That's the fifth time you've said that.
- It's thefourth time he's fallen inlove
Ever and never + present perfect
'Have you ever been to Scotland?' 'No,
I've never been to Scotland.'
'Have you ever been in love?' 'No, I've
never been in love.'
'Have you ever eaten caviar?' 'No, I've
never eaten caviar.'
'Have you ever run a marathon?' 'No,
I've never run a marathon.'
'Have you ever spoken to the president?'
'No, I've never spoken to him.'
1. Pon la frase como en el ejemplo.
Example: (Once/you/see/clown/you/see/all) Once you've seen one clown, you've seen
2. (Once/you/cross/that/line/there is/no return)
3. (Once/she/make up/her mind/nothing will make her change)
4. (Once/you/make/deal/you can't get out of it)
2. Vas a hacer lo mismo con now that.
Example: Now that you've finished (finish/studies) what are you going to do?
1. Now that you (confess/guilt), do you feel
2. Now that you (succeed) in life, are you
3. Now that we (buy/a new car), we can go on
holiday to the Continent.
4. Now that we (pay/the car), we can buy the
3. Completa las frases siguientes con when.
Example: I'd like to have a word with you when you've finished on the phone.
1. When you (finish) feeding this baby, you'll
have to feed the other one.
2. When they (finish) painting the bridge at
one end, they'll have to start at the other.
3. You'll feel happier when you (tell) me the
4. Things will be easier when you (live) a few
months in this country.
4. Forma la pregunta para las siguientes respuestas.
Example: 'No, I've never been to Rome.' 'Have you ever been to Rome?'
1. No, I've never eaten lobster.
2. No, I've never met him.
3. No, I've never been to Egypt.
4. No, I've never spoken to the President.
UNIT 38 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Passives: All tenses - is considered / thought / said to be
May/might/will have been + past participle
She buys the bread.
She bought the bread.
She'll buythe bread.
She'd buy the bread.
She has bought the bread.
She had bought the bread.
She'll have bought the bread.
She'd have bought the bread.
The bread is bought byher.
The bread was bought byher.
The bread will be bought by her.
The bread would be bought by her.
The bread has been bought by her.
The bread had been bought byher.
The bread will have been bought byher.
The bread would have been bought byher.
Is considered/thought/saidto be
• Este tipo defrase se puede poner dedos
- It is considered that heisthebest
player in the world.
He is considered to be the best
player in the world.
It was thought that Galileo was
Galileo was thought to be heretic.
It is said that this man is mad.
This man is said to bemad.
May/might/will have been + past
He may have arrived by now.
The silly idiot! He might have told me!
By 6 o'clock it will have been done for
The jury may have already reached a
Everyone knew it.You might as well
have told me!
* Bytomorrow thefactory will have been
closed for two years.
1. Cambia las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: It is thought that Jim is the best. Jim is thought to be the best,
1. It is considered that this colour is the most suitable.
2. It is said that our team is the best.
3. It is thought that this picture is a masterpiece.
4. It is considered that this car is the fastest.
5. It is thought that this restaurant is the best in the country.
2. Responds a las preguntas con may have o might have.
Example: 'Whydidn't he answer the phone? I'm sure he was at home.' 'He might not
have heard the phone.'
1. 'I wonder why he didn't come to the party.' (he might/have/go somewhere else)
2. 'She didn't come to the meeting. I wonder why.' (she/may not/know/about it)
3. 'Why didn't Betty answer the doorbell?' (she/may/go/bed/early)
4. 'I'm sure she didn't go to the cinema.' (she/might/go/theatre)
5. 'How did the fire start?' (someone/may/drop/ cigarette)
3. Completa la frase con will have been + participio.
Example: By six o'clock the road will have been closed tor 12 hours.
1. By eight o'clock tomorrow the truce
(broke) for 10 hours.
2. By midnight the ship (wreck) on the
rocks for 48 hours.
3. By tomorrow morning he (go) for 36
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 39 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
I like tall girls.
I'm waiting for Jim.
I didn't know you were
You've broken the vase.
I was thinking about it.
We'll come early.
I'd go if 1could.
He said he liked tall girls.
He said he was waiting
He explained that he
didn't know I was there.
He recognized he had
broken the vase.
Past/past perfect continuous
He said he was thinking/had
been thinking about it.
He said they would come
He said he would go if he
Wish, would rather/sooner y it's time no
'I wish I didn't have to go to school,'
Jim said that he wished he didn't have
to go to school.
Tom wants to go alone,' said Mary, 'but
I'd rather he came with us.'
Mary said that Tomwanted to go alone,
but that she'd rather he went with
'It's time we began making plans,'
- Hesaid that itwastime they began
Might no cambia excepto cuando es una
- Shesaid, Tom might come today.'
She said that Tom might come that day.
'You might type the letters for me,'
He asked her/me to type the letters
Cuando should o ought to se usan como
consejo mas que obligation, se puede
cambiar a advise.
'You should/ought to go faster,' said
John advised/urged me/him to go
1. Pon las siguientes frases en forma indirecta.
Example: 'You'd better not drink the water,' she said. She advised us not to drink the water.
1. 'How old are you?' he asked me.
2. 'I'm tired,' she said, I'm going home.'
3. 'It may rain,' she said.
4. 'I should be delighted,' he said.
5. 'I hadn't seen her before that day,' he said.
6. 'I was only joking,' he said.
7. 'I didn't recognize you,' she said.
8. 'Is it raining?' he asked.
9. He said, 'I could do it tomorrow.'
10. 'If I hada screwdriver I could mend it,' he said.
11. 'You should read the instructions,' my boss said to me.
2. Ahora haz lo contrario.
Example: She said that she had been waiting for him. '/ have been waiting for you,'she said.
1. He said that he would take the car.
2. He said that they had been very happy when they lived in Paris.
3. Tom said that he would be 20 the following day.
4. He said that they had been thinking of selling the car.
5. She explained that she never ate meat.
Reported speech (cont.)
• Losverbos agree/refuse/offer/promise/
threaten + infinitive, y los verbos assurey
apologize a veces se pueden usar en vez de
'I won't lend you my bicycle any more,'
Tom refused to/said that he would not
lend him his bicycle any more.
Til help you if you like,' said John.
John offered to/said that he would
I'll pay you back next month, Mary,' Tony
Tony offered to pay Mary back the
Tony said he would pay Mary back the
Tony assured Mary that he would pay
her back the following month.
Iil kill you,' the man said.
The man threatened that he would/ to
'I'msorry I'm late,' she said.
She apologized for being late.
• Conlosverbos siguientes se usamucho
tanto la forma directa como la indirecta:
'I won't do it,' John assured us.
John assured us that he wouldn't do
'But it'll take longer,' he objected.
He objected that it would take longer.
Questions in reported speech.
'Where does he live?' she asked.
She asked/wanted to know where he
'Where's the station?' he inquired.
He asked where the station was.
'What have you got in your pocket? he
He asked me what I had in my pocket.
• Prases queempiezan conshall I enforma
'Shall I ever see him again?' she
She wondered if she would ever see him
'Shall I bring the soup now, sir?' the
The waiter asked me if he was to/if he
should bring the soup.
• Prases que empiezan con will you/
'Will you come with us tomorrow?'he
He asked if she would come with them
the next day.
'Would you like to come with me?' he
He asked her if she would like to go with
1. Reemplaza la palabra said por una de las palabras que se dan a continuacion. Lisa
cada palabra solo una vez:insisted, shouted, agreed, suggested, claimed, whispered,
protested, admitted, exclaimed, objected, boasted, muttered, sneered, threatened,
groaned, announced, promised.
Example: 'I can speak seven languages fluently,' he said. He boasted that he could
speak seven languages fluently.
1. 'Let's go to the theatre this evening,' he said.
2. 'Stop that noise, will you!' said the teacher.
3. 'Thebicycle you're riding is mine,' said theman.
4. 'Yes, I broke the window playing cricket,' said theboy.
5. 'I know my rights,' said theman.
6. 'I shall always love you,'said her boyfriend.
7. 'We don't have enough money for that,' said the treasurer.
8. This teacher doesn't know what he's talking about,' said the student.
9. 'Well, it's a surprise to see you here!' she said.
10. 'Well, yes.If the weather is bad,we can't go,' he said.
11. 'If you can't come today, you must come tomorrow,' he said.
12. 'I'll be back, darling,' he said.
13. 'Gentlemen, ours is the victory,' he said.
14. 'My whole body aches,' he said.
15.'I'll kill him,' he said.
16. 'I can't listen to those low-class people,' he said.
UNIT 41 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Remember (and other verbs) + gerund or infinitive
• Los verbos remember, forget y regret
pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo o gerundio,
aunque con sentido diferente. La formade
gerundio se refiere a cosas que suceden
(antes de que tenga lugar el hecho de
recordar, olvidar, etc.)
I shall always remember hearing the
I remember reading about the
typhoon in the papers.
I remember posting/having posted the
letters on my way home.
* I regret spending so much money.
<* I don't regret telling himwhat I thought.
I shall never forget seeing the Queen.
Have you forgotten meeting her?
• Remember tambien puede ir seguido de un
adjetivo posesivo/objeto + gerundio.
I remember his/him telling me about
I remember my uncle/uncle's telling
me about it.
• Remember, regret, forget + infinitivo se
refiere a una accion en el future (o a una
accion en el futurovista desde el pasado).
Remember to post the letters.
He remembered to do it, didn't he?
Don't worry. I'll remember to tell him.
I regret to inform you that your son is
I regret to say that you're under arrest.
I forgot to leave you a note.
I won't forget to give himyour
• Forget + gerundio se usa muy a menudo en
I shall never forget waiting for the
soldiers to come back.
Many people will never forget hearing
the bombs fall.
• Try + infinitivo significa 'hacer un esfuerzo'.
You must try to understand my position.
• Try+gerundio significa 'experimental.
Try taking an aspirin.
• Stop + infinitivo se refierea un proposito:
I stopped to buy the paper.
• Stop + gerundio: el gerundio esel comple-
mento del verbo.
He couldn't stop coughing.
1. Completa las frases con infinitivo o gerundio.
Example: I'll remember to attend the meeting on Thursday. I remember falling into the
river when I was five.
1. I'll remember (give) you a ring in the morning.
2. I won't forget (give) you a call.
3. She says that she regrets (say) that to you.
4. Don't forget (write) to your uncle.
5. Remember (put) the cat out before you go to bed.
6. I remember (live) in this area many years ago.
7. I don't regret (spend) that money.
8. I still remember my father (tell) us about it.
9. I regret (say) that you have failed.
10. I'll never forget (go) to that museum.
11. She remembered (read) about the earthquake.
12. Did you remember (lock) the door, John?
13. I don't remember (lock) the door, do you?
14. One day you'll regret (waste) your time.
15. I'll never forget (see) my daughter dance in public for the
16. Don't forget (wash) your face, will you?
17. I will never forget (see) those poor people starving.
2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos try y stop.
Example: He stopped to ask the way.
1. Stop (talk), will you!
2. 'I can't stop sneezing.' 'Try (hold) your breath.'
3. I tried (hang) the picture but I couldn't.
4. I can't stop her (talk) to the press.
5. 'I've got a headache.' 'Try (take) these pills.'
6. On the way to the office I stopped (buy) a paper.
7. When he told us that joke, I couldn't stop (laugh).
8. You really must stop (smoke).
9. Every hour I stop work (smoke) a cigarette.
10. I can't make any sense of it. Let's try (put) it upside
11. Come on, boys.Let's try (win), shall we?
UNIT 42 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Suffixes and prefixes
• Muchos adjetivos tienen unfinal
• Por ejemplo:
-ful que anadidoa unsustantivo,
beauty nosda .beautiful
-able que anadidoal verbo
enjoy nosda - enjoyable
• Lasformasde gerundio a menudo hacen el
oficio de adjetivos (speeding car).
• Muchas deestas formas adjetivadas tienen
adjetivos que terminan en -ed (boring/
• Algunos participios irregulares funcionan
como adjetivos (fallen).
• Losprefijosquese anaden a los adjetivos
generalmente tienen un efecto negative.
• Por ejemplo:
• dis- anadido a continue
nos da discontinue
• Notodos losadjetivos 'positives' danuno
negativo al ahadir un prefijo. A veces es
necesario el uso de not (nottaxable).
De la misma forma, no todos los adjetivos
'negativos' (sobre todo los que estanforma-
dos por un participio) tienen un equivalente
• Parejas deadjetivos queterminan en
•ed y -ing: annoyed - annoying
tired - tiring
We were bored by the film. It was very
Participios presente y pasados
que se usan como adjetivos.
• Muchos participios presentes (gerundios) se
pueden usar como adjetivos:
• Tambien muchos participios pasados se
pueden usar como adjetivos:
• Losparticipios regulares siguen las reglas
de pronunciacion normales. Sin embargo, hay
algunos adjetivos que terminan en -ed, pero
que no son participios, y de ahi que la
pronunciacion sea /id/, como en:
• Algunos adjetivos formados con sufijos:
Algunos adjetivos formados con prefijos:
1. A continuacion tienes unos prefijos. Busca por lo menos dos adjetivos que
empiecen con ese prefijo: omni, peri, fore, non, post, pre, anti, multi, inter, ante,
Example: omni omnipotent, omnipresent, omnivorous.
2. Busca por lo menos dos sustantivos que empiecen con los prefijos: mono, over,
super, trans, sur, out, mal.
Example: Mono: monoplane, monomania, monochord.
3. Busca por lo menos dos palabras formadas con cada sufijo que se te da a
continuacion: -ess, -some, -ship, -meter, -less, -ory, -logy, -let, -hood.
Example: -ess: waitress, actress, mattress.
UNIT 43 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• Muchos sustantivos en ingles estan forma-
dos por dos palabras.
A veces se pone guion, otras veces no, y
otras veces se juntan:
hitchhiker river bank cupboard
• Sustantivos formados con adjetivo
greenhouse shorthand redskin
• Sustantivos formados con gerundio
waiting room diving board
frying pan booking office
visiting card swimming pool
• Sustantivos formados con sustantivo
water skiing weightlifting
• Algunos sustantivos se forman con
• Sustantivos formados con 'sustantivo +
a) El segundo pertenece o es parte del
church bell kitchen door
car key garden fence
gear lever doorknob
b) El primer sustantivo indica el lugar
town hall country road
kitchen sink corner shop
street market river bank
C) El primer sustantivo indica el tiempo
Sunday dinner evening dress
spring flower night watchman
a two-week holiday summer holiday
e) El primer sustantivo indica el material
cotton shirt gold medal
(Con wool y wood se usan sus adjetivos: woollen
y wooden. Gold tambien tiene sus forma adjeti-
vada, golden, pero se usa solofigurativamente.)
f) La primera palabra indica el proposito
de la segunda.
sheep dog can opener
football club notice board
bookcase petrol can
g) El primer sustantivo puede mostrar
sobre que trata el segundo.
horror film ghost story
plane ticket entry fees
parking fine peace talks
h) Algunos sustantivos se forman con
las palabras man, woman, self, etc.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Forma un sustantivo compuesto con las palabras que tienes.
Example: The clothes used in winter are winter clothes.
1. A tank containing petrol is a 19. A house made with stones is a
2. The door going into the kitchen is 20. A walk of two hours is a
3. The bell of the church is the 21. A holiday of three weeks is a
4. Flowers which grow in spring are 22. The key of the car is the
5. The driver of a taxi is a 23. The sink in the kitchen is the
6. The room where you have dinner 24. A story of detectives is a
7. The window of a shop is called 25. A field to play football on is a
8. The knob of the door is the 26. A stamp costing five pence is a
9. A device for opening tins is a 27. A shirt made of silk is a
10. A man who sells books is a 28. A door made of wood is a
11. A mine of gold is a 29. A cardigan made of wool is a
12. A match of football is a 30. Hair like gold is
13. A rally of cars is a 31. A club for people who play golf is a
14. A pot for tea is a 32. A bill for using the telephone is a
15. A cup for coffee is a 33. A film full of mystery is a
16. A man who works is a 34. A ticket you buy to travel on the bus
17. A man who rides a horse is a 35. A tin to keep biscuits is a
18. A blouse made of cotton is a 36. A dress to wear in the evening
Tenses: General revision
Do I eat?
I do not eat
Am I eating?
I am not eating
Did I eat?
I did noteat
I was eating
Was I eating?
I was not eating
'Going to' form - Past
I wasgoing toeat
Was I going to eat?
I was not going to eat
I will eat
Will I eat?
I will noteat
I will be eating
Will I be eating?
I will not be eating
'Going to' form
I am going to eat
Am I going to eat?
I am not going to eat
I would eat
Would I eat?
I would noteat
I would be eating
Would I be eating?
I would not be eating
I have eaten
Have I eaten?
I have not eaten
Present perfect continuous
I have been eating
Have I been eating?
I have not been eating
Had I eaten?
Past perfect continuous
I had been eating
Had I been eating?
I had not been eating
I will have eaten
Will I have eaten?
I will not have eaten
Future perfect continuous
I will have been eating
Will I have been eating?
I will not have been eating
I would have been eating
Would I have been
I would not have been
Let me eat
Let him/her/it eat
Let us (let's) eat
Let them eat
Don't let me eat
Don't let him/her/it eat
Don't let's eat (Let's not
Don't let them eat
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo que se te pida.
.pers. sing, present continuous run. He is running.
past perfect simple
future perfect continuous, neg.
present continuous, int.
past simple, neg.
present perfect, continuous, int.
conditional simple, int,
conditional perfect, neg.
past continuous, int.
past perfect, neg.
future perfect, int.
present continuous, neg.
conditional continuous int.
present perfect continuous int.
future continuous neg.
past simple int. neg.
past perfect int. neg.
Phrasal verbs 1*
Ver el libro "GUIDE TOPHRASAL VERBS"
de esta mlsma editorial.
• Aunque muchos gramaticos difieren de ladefinition exacta de unphrasalverb, generalmente usamos
estetermino para lacombination: verb + preposition o verb + adverb participle.
• A menudo elsignificado original delverbo
cambia completamente cuando combina con una
preposition o particula; se forma un nuevo verbo.
look after (cuidar)
look for (buscar)
• Lamayoria de los phrasal verbs se formacon
los siguientes verbos:
be break bring come
do fall find get
give go help let
make put send stand
take tear throw turn
• Nosolamente puede unverbo combinarcon
along down in
off on out
over under up
sino que unasola combinationpuede tener
The plane took off. (despego)
He took off his shoes, (se quito)
• Los phrasal verbs pueden ser transitivos e
intransitivos.Cuando llevan complemento directo,
este se puede poner a veces antes o despues de
He gave away all his fortune.
He gave all his fortune away.
- Cuando el objeto es unpronombre avecesse
pone al final de la expresion: I'm looking for them.
Pero con particulas cortas:
up down in out
away off on
el objeto se suele poner inmediatamente despues
He put it down.
She took it off.
account for (explicar)
You must account for your actions.
allow for (tomar en consideration)
You must allow for those extra expenses.
answer for (serresponsable)
You have to answer for your deeds.
ask for (pedir)
I've asked for a gin and tonic.
be for (estar a favor)
I am for capital punishment.
be over (acabar)
The war is over.
be up to (tramar)
What is he up to?
1. Elige la preposicion adecuada para completar la frase.
Example: I am in for striking.
1. 'Is your husband at home?" 'No, he is not
2. I'm afraid we are for a bumpy flight.
3. 'Is Peter in?' 'No, ne"is3IIIIIIZI
4. Where were you? Everybody was asking you.
5. He didn't ask me ; he kept me standing at the door.
6. She has many boyfriends and she is usually asked every evening.
7. When you die you'll have to answer your acts.
8. 'Is he still in bed?' 'No, he is
9. The storm was finally
10. You have to allow these extra miles.
11. It's the government to do something.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
2. Sustituye las frases subrayadas por un phrasal verb.
Example: He had risen already. He was up already.
1. It's not my responsibility. It depends on the manager.
2. I favour strict measures.
3. The people around stepped backwards in fear.
4. You have to consider a possible delay.
5. Our headmaster always supports his teachers.
3. Rellena los huecos usando los siguientes phrasal verbs: allow for, be up to, be out,
be over, be back, be in for, back away.
Example: We'll get there at four, but we have to allow for a possible delay.
1. What will little Jimmy next!
2. 'Is your father at home?' 'No, he
3. In 1945 at last the war
4. He's out but he will by six.
5. I'm afraid we a shock.
6. The two children afraid.
7. You have to all this money.
Phrasal verbs 2
> break down (averiarse)
The car broke down on the motorway.
break down (derrumbarse moralmente)
The woman broke down on hearing
about her son's death.
' break in (interrumpir)
Jimmy, you must not break in when we
• break in/into (forzar)
- Burglars broke into theshop last night.
break off (romper compromisos, relaciones)
Peace talks have broken off after five
> break out (estallar: guerras,epidemias, incendios)
A war broke out between the two
> break up (separarse, deshacerse.fracasar,
The meeting broke up at aboutten.
bring about (ocasionar, producir, efectuar)
- Bad sanitary conditions brought about a
Antibiotics brought about changes in
bring down (abatir, rebajar)
- Hebrought down a wild boar withone
Shops usually bring down their prices
after the New Year.
bring forth (rendir)
The autumn brought forth a good
bring in (presentar, introducir)
Steam engines brought in a new way
bring up (vomitar, educar)
- Thenuns brought upthetwo orphans.
Phrasal verbs 2
come about (acontecer, producirse)
- Itcame about that thetribes went towar.
The cholera epidemic came about
through bad sanitary conditions.
come down (derribar, estrellarse, perder
The old buildings will have to come
The plane came down in the Alps.
The teacher came down on the children
for coming late.
- That family hascome down in the world.
come in (llegar primero, etc.)
He came in second.
come into (asociarse, heredar)
He came into a lot of money.
An American company decided to
come into the venture.
1. Elige la preposicion adecuada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: One of the prisoners has broken out.
1. Mrs Evans brought her nine children by herself.
2. The meeting broke at eight.
3. New Year has come at last.
4. This minister has brought many changes.
5. A skin rash broke
6. The town came sight when he turned the bend.
7. He brought a couple of hares and a rabbit.
8. Their marriage broke a year later.
9. The photocopier has broken again!
10. I didn't want to bring the subject
11. He came the conclusion that his wife had betrayed him.
2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otro verbo con el mismo significado.
Example: When his grandfather died he came into a small fortune. When his
grandfather died he inherited a small fortune.
1. This year has brought forth good business.
2. The business has broken up into several branches.
3. The fisherman came across a pool full of trout.
4. The hunter brought down some fowl.
5. The storm broke out suddenly with great fury.
3. Usa los verbos siguientes para rellenar los huecos: come to, bring down, come up,
come out, break in.
Example: This amount comes to £1000.
1. We'll have to the prices.
2. They against some serious problems.
3. The stains when he used the stain remover.
4. Look at the mess. Somebody must have last night.
Phrasal verbs 3
do away with (eliminar, abolir, suicidarse)
- Hedidaway with himself.
The Americans did away with slavery
a long timeago.
do for (matar, be done for estar moribundo)
The first thrust of the sword did for the bull.
- I'mafraid that the poor animal isdone for.
do up (renovar, redecorar, abrocharse, atarse)
Do your buttons up, will you?
We have to do up the kitchen.
do with (nada que ver con,aguantar, venir bien)
I could do with a cup of tea.
That has nothing to do with me.
- Formany years teachers hadto dowith
do without (prescindir de)
I can't do without a good secretary.
fall for (enamorarse de, dejarse engahar,
- They soon fell for each other.
He fell for the trick and lost £5.
The deal was attractive and the firm fell
fall to (serresponsable, sucumbir)
It falls to the sergeant to keep the troops
He fell to the temptation.
find out (averiguar)
I'll find out what time the trains is leaving.
give away (regalar, dar,vender barato)
He gives away a lot of money.
I'm going to give away these old clothes.
He gave the picture away for £1,000.
give out (distribuir, agotar)
His strength gave out after two weeks
He gave out the cards.
give up (dejar, renunciar, traicionar, abandonar)
I have to give up smoking.
My wife is giving up her job.
He gave his friend up to the police.
give way (ceder, hundirse)
At a roundabout in England, you have to
give way to traffic coming from your left.
1. Elige la parti'cula adecuada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: We have to do away with these old laws.
1.1 could do a drink.
2. The poor woman has done with herself.
3. I'm afraid the poor man is done
4. Do the zip, will you?
5. The miners had to do small wages for many years.
6. You can't do heating in winter in this country.
7. It falls the teacher to keep the class quiet.
8. He has to look his lost wallet.
9. Why don't you find the truth?
10. He has given his inheritance.
11. I'm afraid one of the engines of the plane has given
12. You have to give drinking, I'm afraid.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
2. Sustituye el phrasal verb por otro verbo del mismo significado.
Example: I could do with another cigarette. I should like to smoke another cigarette.
1. Do up your overcoat, will you?
2. One coffee will do for us, thank you.
3. The first bullet did for him.
4. The boy fell for her at once.
5. She gave out the leaflets.
3. Rellena los huecos con uno de los phrasal verbs: give away, give way, give out, give
up, do with, do without.
Example: Don't be so stubborn. Someone has to give way.
1.They are selling these carpets at prices.
2. the cards, will you!
3. I've smoking many times. It's very easy.
4. We could another hand to move this piano.
5. I can't you, darling.
Phrasal verbs 4
- get away (escaparse, evadirse)
- Theprisoner got away.
get back (volver)
We didn't get back until Sunday night.
- gethurt (hacerse daho)
He didn't get hurt when he fell down
get off (bajarse)
He got off the bus.
- getold (envejecer)
- Heisgetting old.
get rich (enriquecerse)
This man is getting quite rich.
- getsick (ponerse enfermo)
He got sick after eating that meat.
get tired (cansarse)
I'm getting tired of repeating the
get ready (prepararse)
- Getready, it's getting late.
- get tosleep (dormirse)
I finally got to sleep.
get together (juntarse)
The whole family get together for
' get up (levantarse)
I usually get up at seven.
• get wet (mojarse)
Don't go out.You'll get wet.
' get at (insinuar, atacar)
- What areyougettingat?
get down (tragar, deprimir, ir al grano)
This rainy weather gets you down.
These people can get down a lot of beer.
> get in (entrar, llegar, meter)
I just couldn't get a word in.
• get off (quitar, ligar, salir del trabajo)
I couldn't get the stains off.
He got off the bus at Paddington
< get on (progresar)
How are you getting on with your
' get out (salir, apearse)
- Hegot outof theroom.
get over (superar, terminar de una vez,
He got over his illness.
1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: He got away from it all.
1. The sea is getting We'll have a rough crossing.
2. A good speaker always gets his audience.
3. Don't let the cat get the chickens.
4. What are you getting ?
5. Don't let the loss of your job get you
6. What time did your train get ?
7. He got with just a small fine.
8. It's getting for nine o'clock.
9. He is getting my nerves.
10. Get the bus, will you!
11. He can't get the crisis.
12. I can't get on the phone.
2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otras palabras del mismo significado.
Example: He got to the office very late. He arrived at the office very late.
1. He is getting on very well in his school.
2. Come on, Lassie, get at them!
3. She got into the room laden with parcels.
4. Get on with your work, you, lazy boy!
5. The convict got away over the wall.
6. He gets up every day at seven.
7. The forest fire got up with the wind.
8. He got off the bus at Victoria Station.
9. They didn't the hay in get until September.
Phrasal verbs 5
* goafter (perseguir)
- Thedogwent after thecats.
go away (alejarse, marcharse, desvanecerse)
- I'llgo away in the morning.
go back (volver)
- I'llgo back to mycountry in summer.
go by (a juzgar por,pasar cerca,
- Trains go byhere every hour.
To go by his clothes, he is not very rich.
go for (atacar, entusiasmarse, va por ti)
- Andthat goes foryou too.
- Watch that dog,it maygo for you.
go off (estallar)
- Thebomb went off at nine o'clock.
go on (pasar, seguir, proseguir, progresar)
What's going on?
- gothrough (penetrar, sufrir)
- Wecan't gothrough that crowd.
go up (subir, estallar)
The tanks went up in flames.
help oneself to (servirse)
Help yourself to the whisky.
let down (bajar, desinflar)
He let the basket down from the balcony.
They let the tyres down.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Phrasal verbs 5
How did the team make out?
make up (componer, aplicar maquillaje,
- We'll have to make upthe list.
- You'll have to make upfor thetime lost.
- They quarrel a lot butthey always make
let in (dejar entrar)
- Isthat Jimmy? Let him in.
let off (dejar escapar, disparar)
- Theboss let us off without finishing the
let out (dejar salir, ensanchar,soltar un grito,etc.)
The old woman let out a groan.
make after (perseguir)
- Shemade after the dog when it stole the
make for (dirigirse)
The boat is making for the shore.
1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar los huecos.
Example: All the lights of the house went off due to the storm.
1. How is Jimmy getting in his new school?
2. We'll have to go that hole.
3. The bomb went in the terrorist's hands.
4. Frank is going with Linda tonight.
5. Let's go the plans again.
6. This car has never let me
7. He lets steam by shouting at everybody.
8. When you're alone in the house, don't let anybody
9. They had a quarrel but now they have made
10. He always tries to make that he is poor.
11. We'll have to make for the losses.
2. Sustituir el phrasal verb por otro verbo con el mismo significado.
Example: The boat is making for the shore. The boat is going towards the shore.
1. Don't make fun of old people. You'll be old one day.
2. Don't let go of the reins.
3. He let out a groan as he was hit on the chin.
4. Help yourselves to the cakes, children.
5. John is at the door. I'll let him in.
3. Escribe otras frases usando phrasal verbs sin que cambie el significado.
Example: The bomb exploded. The bomb went off.
1. Don't disappoint me, boy!
2.1 can't understand what he is saying.
3. What's happening in here?
4. The programme has passed several stages.
(distinguir, convencer, fingir, portarse
Phrasal verbs 6
put away (guardar, ahorrar, envainar)
They put some money away for their old
put back (retrasar, devolver)
- Wehave to putthe clocks back one hour.
put down (anotar, hacer un primer pago,
Put down everything theysay.
They put down fifty pounds.
put off (aplazar, expulsar, dejar pasajeros,
They put off their wedding till the spring.
The taxi driver put the passengers off at
put on (ponerse, adelantar, encender, engordar)
- Heis putting on weight.
- Don't putonthat pullover.
put up (alojar, izar, fijar, aguantar)
They are putting up notices everywhere.
We put up in a hostel for the night.
set alight (prender fuego)
He set the paper alight.
set aside (anular, desestimar, rechazar)
They set my petition aside.
> set back (costar, retrasar)
The incident set back the talks for over a
set forth (ponerse en camino, presentar)
- Sheset forth her ideas on the project.
set off (poner rumbo, detonar, acentuar)
- Theexplosives were set offfrom a safe
set out (ponerse en camino)
They set out at five.
set up (organizar, establecerse, proporcionar)
He set up a business in town.
stand by (estar alerta, defender, apoyar)
- Soldiers, stand byfor action!
His best friend stood by him throughout
• stand for (preconizar, significar, representar)
He stands for freedom.
• stand out (sobresalir, destacarse, oponerse)
He stands out as one of the nation's
> stand up (ponerse de pie,defender)
He stood up for his friend.
- Heput his book down and stood up.
1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: Put that sword away.
1. Today we have to put the clocks one hour.
2. They put their holidays until autumn.
3. They haven't put the fire yet.
4. I'll put you for the night.
5. I can't put with this noise any longer.
6. He set his own business in this town.
7. They set on a very long journey.
8. Stand for an emergency.
9. My son stands as one of the best athletes in his school.
10. What does the 'N' stand ?
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
2. Sustituye el phrasal verb por otro verbo del mismo significado.
Example: They have put aside a large sum of money over the years. They have saved a
large sum of money over the years.
1. The rebellion was put down by the army.
2. They had to put off their wedding date.
3. The taxi put them off at the station.
4. He is putting on weight. He must go on a diet.
5. They are going to set off early in the morning.
3. Escribe otra frase con el mismo significado usando un phrasal verb.
Example: That cruise cost me £10,000. That cruise set me back £10,000.
1. You have to be alert in case of an emergency.
2. This man is putting his name down for parliament.
3. The old man rose to his feet slowly.
4. They laid the blame on his nerves.
Phrasal verbs 7
run about (corretear)
It's good for the children to run about in
run across (cruzar corriendo)
Don't run across the street.
run after (perseguir)
Dogs like to run after cats.
run away (escaparse, evadirse)
The two convicts ran away.
run down (criticar, atropellar, acabar la cuerda)
He was run down by a car.
run in (rodar)
You have to run the new car in.
run into (toparse, chocar)
The car ran into a tree,
run out (acabar, agotar)
We ran out of petrol.
run over (atropellar, ensayar)
Let's run over this part of the music
run to (extenderse, permitirse gastar)
The book ran to300 pages.
run up against (tropezar con dificultades,
The bill ran up to £500.
They ran up against the opposition of her
take after someone (seguir el ejemplo)
She dances beautifully. She takes after
take back (devolver, retractarse, readmitir)
Itake back all I said about you.
take care (cuidar)
I'll take care of the children while you
take in (alojar, enganar)
Are you trying to take me in?
take off (despegar, quitarse)
The plane has taken off.
take on (coger empleados, desafiar)
He says he'll take anyone on.
take over (hacerse cargo, suplir)
He took over the business.
take up (acortar, investigar, reanudar)
You have to take up the skirt.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: The prisoner has run away from prison.
1. They ran the escaped convict when he reached the sea.
2. You have to run your new car.
3. This book has run five editions.
4. We've run of petrol, I'm afraid.
5. The cat was run by a lorry.
6. Let's run the whole plan again.
7. That boy takes his father.
8. Take what you said about me or you'll regret it.
9. Do you take guests?
10. He took me , I'm afraid.
11. He took his father's business.
2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otros verbos del mismo significado.
Example: He's has taken on three mechanics. He has hired three new mechanics.
1. He took off his clothes.
2. She has taken in new guests.
3.1 was taken for a ride, I'm afraid.
4. Take care not to miss the bus.
5. The child ran across the road.
3. Cambia las frases siguientes usando un phrasal verb.
Example: She escaped with a classmate. She ran away with a classmate.
1. We met one of our old teachers this morning.
2. The programme continued for hours.
3. We'll have to rehearse this part again.
4. He faced many difficulties.
Phrasal verbs 8
tear away (arrancar, arrebatar, alejarse de prisa)
The floods tore away the old barn.
tear down (arrancar, derribar)
- They tore theflag down.
tear up (romper, rasgar)
He tore up the contract.
throw about (derrochar, esparcir)
She is throwing food for the birds about.
throw a party (hacer una fiesta)
They are throwing a party.
throw down (arrojar, dejar, deponer)
- Thesoldiers threw down their arms.
throw in (echar las cartas, la toalla)
He threw in the towel.
throw out (deshechar, expulsar)
- Hewasthrown out of hisjob for causing
throw over (derrocar, dar calabazas, abandonar)
- They decided to throw over theplan.
turn about (darmedia vuelta)
The soldiers turned about,
turn aside (apartarse, desviarse)
- Sheturned himaside from the group.
Phrasal verbs 8
turn on/off (apagar, encender)
Turn on the light, please.
- Turn off the radio, I'm going to sleep.
turn out (producir, expulsar, resultar)
- Heturned outto be a criminal.
They turn out 100 cars a day.
turn up (aparecer)
He turned up at five o'clock in the
turn away (despedirse, rechazar, despedir)
- The newboss refused to turn away anyof
turn back (repeler, volver, hacer volver)
- They were turned back byenemy fire.
We'll have to turn the clock back,
turn down (rechazar, bajar el volumen)
His application was turned down.
- Please, turn thevolume down,
turn in (acostarse)
- It's very late. I'm going to turn in.
turn into (convertir en, transformar)
She was turned into a little mouse by the
1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar los huecos.
Example: He tore his hair out.
1. She tore the letter in a fit of fury.
2. You mustn't throw all your plans.
3. The old government was thrown
4. The dogs were thrown by the scent.
5. The people soon turned the new ruler.
6. She turned me from my friends to tell me that.
7. She turned the volume It was too loud.
8. I'm tired. I'm going to turn
9. She was turned a frog.
10. We turned the main road a mile from town.
11. In this factory they're turning washing machines.
2. Cambia el phrasal verb por otro verbo con el mismo significado.
Example: She threw over her boyfriend. She abandoned her boyfriend.
1. They are throwing a party.
2. She tore away from him.
3. He turned a deaf ear to our request.
4. He turned away from gambling for good.
5. The prince was turned into a little dog.
3. Cambia la frase por otra igual usando un phrasal verb.
Example: He stopped the engine. He turned off the engine.
1. He reduced the gas.
2. Hewas picturing it in his mind again and again.
3. He rejected the job because it involved travelling.
4. They are producing car accessories.
5. Increase the volume. I can't hear anything.
Exercise, Idiomatic expressions.
Sustituye las palabras en negrita por otras palabras del mismo significado.
1. I can't make himout.
2. He'sjust made that story up.
3. You've made yourself up.
4. He took the money and
5. This won't make up for it.
1. She did everybody down.
2. We've done the house up.
3. I could do with a cup oftea.
4. I can't do without a
5. They did away with the bad
1. We'll bring the job off.
2. Who brought it about?
3. Who brought down the
4. They'll bring your article out.
5. We'll bring him round.
6. You brought your son up
7. Don't bring that up again.
1. He carried itoff.
2. We'll carry out a test.
1. My watch loses ten minutes
2. Get lost!
3. Sarcasm is lost on her.
4. He was lost in thought.
1. You really get about/around,
2. I'vealways wanted to get
3. He got off lightly.
4. We really get on.
5. It'stime you got up.
6. He got away with it.
7. He got back at me in the
8.1 got down to work.
9. I'll get in touch with him.
10. He's getting into trouble.
11. He got his message across.
12. The news got me down.
13. Get a builder in.
14. Get her around here.
15. Stop getting at me.
16. She got into trouble/debt.
17. He's got over his illness.
18. You can't get around me.
19. How can we get around this
1. She gave away the secret.
2. She gave herself away.
3. Who's giving the bride
4. I've given up smoking.
5. They gave themselves up.
6. I'll never give in.
1. Don't take it out on me.
2. I'll take the matter up with
3. She's taken up with Frank.
4. The plane is takingoff.
5. I'm not taken in by this.
6. How many are they taking on?
APPENDIX 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Exercise. Idiomatic expressions.
7. He is going to take her out.
8. She takes after her mother.
9. She took to English quickly.
1. We'll have to look into this.
2. I'd like to look over the
3. She looked right through me.
4. I hope we can look to you for
5. Please, look over this essay.
6. Look this word up.
7. Look me up when you get
8. Look out!
9. Things are looking up.
10. He looks down on us.
11. I look forward to it.
12. I'll look out for him.
13. She looks up to you.
1. I'll see about fixing that TV.
2. She saw to the customers?
3. I saw through it.
4. I'll see to the dinner.
5. I'll come and see you off.
1. I came across this old book.
2. He came at me with a knife.
3. Where did you come by this?
4. He came into a lot of money.
5. What came over you?
6. How did that come about?
7. Prices have come down.
8. My plan came off.
9. The subject came up again.
10. Come across with the
11. It comes down to this.
12. His work has come in for
13. She came up with a good
1. I won't go back on my word.
2. She's gone in for painting.
3. I can't go through with it.
4. The bomb went off.
5. What's going on?
6. Will this food go round?
7. I'm going about my
8. Let's go after him.
9. The dog went for the
10. The picture went for £5,000.
11. I'll go into the matter.
1. I ran across/into her.
2. Will he run for president?
3. We'd better run for it.
4. A lorry ran into my car.
5. We've run into problems/
6. The project runs into
7. He ran through a fortune.
8. We can run to a new car this
9. She always runs me down.
10. The cat was run over by a
11. Our supplies have run out.
12. We've run out of sugar.
13. He has run out on her.
14. I'm running up against
APPENDIX 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Exercise. Idiomatic expressions with colours
1. He was white with fear.
2. She was as white as a
3. To bleed someone white.
4. I'll have a white coffee,
5. He was dressed/clad in
1. It was black with age.
2. It was a black year.
3. It was a black deed.
4. As black as coal.
5. I'll have a black coffee.
6. The Black Death came over
7. They were taken in a Black
8. He is in a black mood.
9. She was dressed in black.
1. His face was blue with
2. He has blue blood.
3. It'sa blue joke.
4. There was a blue streak.
5. I'vetold you till I'm blue in
6. You look blue.
7. He sings the blues.
8. He came out of the blue.
1. He is green with envy.
2. He is very green.
1. He is a grey eminence.
2. The first grey of dawn.
3. He's turning grey.
1. He is as brown as a berry.
2. I'm browned off with that
1. It turned yellow with age.
2. The news was published in
the yellow press.
3. He's yellow.
1. He was red with anger.
2. He is red as a beetroot.
3. She is as red as a lobster.
4. The clue proved to be a red
5. There is a lot of red tape.
6. She turned red.
7. I'm in the red at the bank.
8. She makes me see red.
Expressions with: to do • to make
- one's military
- adeal with
- one's duty
- one's job/work
- the gardening
- the shopping
- the washing-up
- a kindness
- an experiment
- your homework
- a lesson
- Paris (ina day)
my car does 100 miles
- thirty miles to the gallon
- the beds
- the flowers
- the kitchen
- one's hair
- one's nails
- one's teeth
a (phone) call
- a decision
- a deduction
- an error
- a fortune
- a habit of something
- an inquiry
- a journey
- (somebody) laugh
- themost of something
- a name foroneself
» a reference
- a request
- a success of
- it intime
- oneself understood
- use of
- one's way to a place
FONDO EDITORIAL STANLEY
3000TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL
1500 TESTS ESTRUCTURADOS
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3
KEYS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS
2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES •PRASES
TRANSLATIONS • TRADUCCIONES
• NIVELES 1, 2, 3 Y 4
FILL IN THE GAPS • NIVELES 1,2 Y 3
KEYS FILL INTHE GAPS
DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS NIVEL 1
GUIDE TO PHRASALVERBS
EXERCISES - GUIDE TO PHRASAL
• NIVELES 1,2, 3 Y4
GUIDE TO PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH TO
ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE
IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS
MY ENGLISH TELLTALE
DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH
• NIVELES 1 Y 2
CONVERSATION IN ACTION
NEW GUIDE TO BUSINESS LETTERS
A TO ZED, A TO ZEE A GUIDE TO THE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND
EVERYDAY IDIOMS IN BUSINESS
EL INGLES PROHIBIDO
• NIVELES 1 , 2, 3, 4 Y 5
CLAVES TESTS ESPANOL
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3
DICTADOS EN ESPANOL
• NIVELES A, B Y C
GRAMATICA ESPANOLA EN MARCHA
LOS VERBOS ESPANOLES
DIFERENCIAS ENTRE SER 0 ESTAR
CLAVES DIFERENCIAS SER 0 ESTAR
NIVEL o LA FAMILIA PEREZ
TESTS FRANCES NIVEL 1
• NIVELES 1, 2, 3, 4 Y 5
KEYS TESTS FRANCES
TRADUIRE AUJOURDOHUI NIVEL 1
• NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3
CARTAS COMERCIALES FRANCES
MOTS CROISES NIVEL 1
MON BILAN GRAMMATICAL
• NIVELES 1-A, 1-BY1-C
FRANQAIS - LIVRE DU PROFESSEUR
FRANQAIS - ELEVE
FRANQAIS - CAHIER D'ACTIVITES
NIVEL o LAFAMILLELENOIR
NIVEL 1 L'lLE MYSTERIEUSE
20.000 LIEUES SOUS LES MERS
LE COMTE DE MONTE-CRISTO
NIVEL 2 LES TROIS MOUSQUETAIRES
UN CAPITAINE DE QUINZE ANS
NIVEL 1 LA ISLA MISTERIOSA
20.000 LEGUASVIAJE SUBMARINO
EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO
DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA
NIVEL 2 LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS
GUIAS PARA VIAJAR
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL INGLES
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL FRANCES
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ESPANOLALEMAN
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL ITALIANO
GUIA DELVIAJERO ESPANOL PORTUGUES
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL INGLES-USA
GUI'A DE CONVERSACION FRANCES ESPANOL -LESPAGNE EN PARLANT
GUI'A DE CONVERSACI6N INGLES ESPANOL
GUI'A DE CONVERSACION ALEMAN ESPANOL
GUIA DE CONVERSACION ITALIANO ESPANOL
EDITORIAL STANLEY • Apdo. 207 • 20300 (RUN • Tel. 943 64 04 12 • Fax. 943 64 38 63
KEY PMfil ICU n D A M M A D tl.
1. An expensive,
2. Attractive, short,
3. An exciting,
large, new town.
4. A small, thin,
5. A small, narrow
6. A white, fattish
7. A large, brown,
a A large,new,
9. A pretty, blue
10. A refreshing,
11. A miserable,
12. Large, red eyes.
13. A funny, British
14. A black, leather
15. A decrepit, old
16. A beautiful
17. A grumpy old
18. A rare, emerald
19. A nice, little,
20. A handmade,
21. A small, shiny,
22. A huge, ice-cold,
23. A little, friendly,
24. A beautiful,
25. A daring,
young Air Force
26. A curious, little
27. A tall, dark,
28. A green,
29. A large, glass
so. A long, sharp
31. A handy, little,
32. A curious, little
33. An inexpensive,
dirty little hotel.
34. A kindly, old,
1. earlier 5. sadder
2. greyer 6. fatter
3. shyer 7. freer
1. tidiest 4. driest
2.thinnest 5. greyest
3.funniest 6. longest
2. better built
a less expensive
4. least amusing
6. most handsome
7. most beautiful
1. the more he
2. cheaper and
3. the less you do.
4. more and more
5. the more you
1. in - 2. of - 3. in
4. in/of - 5. of
1. I have ever read.
2. have ever met.
a I hadever
1. as big as
2. not so/as
3. as clever as
4. not as hard a
1. not as
7. very much
a such a
9. very much
12. jolly good
1. G 9.J
2. P 10. H
a 0 11. F
4. M 12. E
5. N 13. D
6. L 14. C
7. K 15. B
8. I 16. A
1 _i .
1.fairly 5. fairly
2. rather 6. rather
a fairly 7. fairly
1. quite a hardly
2. rather 9.rather
a rather 10. fairly
4. hardly 11.quite
5. hardly 12.hardly
e. quite 13. rather
1. There's almost
no good news ...
2. We almost never
go out ...
3. Your son almost
1. As well as
guitar, he sings.
2. As well as
3. As well as
they let you
have a bed.
4. As well as
KEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR
5. As well as
swimming in the
sea, he lies in
6. As well as
swimming in a
run and cycle.
1. as long as it
2. as long as you
don't go over the
3. as long as you
come on time.
4. as long as you
5. as long as you
pay in time.
9. getting up
10. get up
1 because of
3 because of
5 because of
7. because of
1. bound to
2. bound to
3. bound to
4. bound for
5. bound to
6. bound for
7. bound to
a bound for
1. bound 5. bound
2. likely 6.likely
3. bound 7. bound
1. will be
2. will finish
3. will be
4. will arrive
1. will have
2. will have
3. will have done
4. will have arrived
1. will be finishing
2. will have been
3. will be sleeping
4. will have been
1. had left
2. had finished
3. had closed
4. had already had
1. A house was
built on the hill. /
I had a house
built on the ...
2. The photos will
be developed. /
I'll have my
3. My socks were
mended./ 1 had
4. The hedges are
going to be cut. /
I'm having the
5. The book is
a Her skirt will be
pressed. / She is
having her skirt
7. The job was
done last night. /
I had the job
done last night.
8. The fence will be
painted. / We'll
have the fence
9. The room will be
We'll have the
1. My daughter is
being taught by
me./ I'm having
2. The boys are
by her./ She is
having the boys
3. They were
prepared for the
test by me./ 1
was having them
prepared for the
4. The children will
be trained by
us./ 1 will have
5. The house will
be shown to you
by me./ 1 will
have the house
shown to you.
6. They will be
him./ He will
1. They camped
was too dark to
2. As/Since the
problem was too
difficult, I left it
that/As you are
here, you may
as well give me
4. The fuse blew
had switched on
all the heaters.
5. She was angry
e. I was not hungry
had dinner very
that you don't
like him, why do
you invite him?
8. There was ice
because it had
9. Since/As you
can't cook .you'll
have to hire a
10. He wants to find
a flat as/
wants to be
11. He is studying at
as he works
during the day.
that he knows
Italian, he can
do the talking.
that you don't
love him, why
did you marry
1. if not - 2. if so
3. if not - 4. if so
1. slower than his
2. is quicker than
3. darker today
than it was
4. more money
than he earns.
5. pay as much in
taxes as we do.
1. harder than I do.
2. louder than the
people I heard.
3. as quickly as his
4. more slowly
than his friend
2. to pilot
4. to do
1. F 6. A
2. E 7. J
3. D 8. I
4. C 9. H
5. B 10. G
5. No matter what
9. Even if
16. No matter
e. on condition/
9. as long as
10. even if
12. as long as/
1. G 5. C
2. F 6. B
3. E 7. A
1. Type 3 5. Type 3
2. Type 2 6. Type 1
3. Type 2 7. Type 2
4. Type 1
. r i1. C 6. I
2. B 7. H
3. A 8. G
4. D 9. F
5. J 10.E
2. in case
a in order that
4. so that
e. for fear
7. in case
a so that
9. so that
11. in order
12. in case
13. for fear
14. so that
15. in case
16. for fear
17. in order
2. so much
4. such a
7. so little
8. so few
9 so little
11. so many
12. so much
13. so little
14. such a
16. so / such a
17. such a
19. such a
20. so few
23. such a
24. so much
25. so many
26. so few
27. so little
28. so little
29. so many
so. such a
32. so few
33. so many
1. as long as
2. during the time
a By the time
6. as soon as
10. during the time
12. as soon as
5. the sooner
a the sooner
1. we'll leave early.
2. if you open the
a I'll buy that
4. if I see him.
5. I'll tell you.
6. if the train
leaves in time.
7. she'll be
s. if you want to
9. I'll close the
10. if you hand it to
11. you'll get a
12. if you learn
I'M «„*13. I IIeat
14. if you stand in
1. tell him I want to
speak to him.
2. tell him I'll ring
a send her my
4. go and see the
5. let us know.
e. contact us.
7. tell her I still love
a let me know
9. let me read it
1. you'd get there
2. it rained.
3. you'd see the
4. if you went by
5. I'd run faster.
e. if I had money.
7. they wouldn't
eat any meat.
a if I liked it.
9. they'd sell the
10. if I parked my
11. she'd marry me.
12. if I wanted to
13. I'd put it in the
14. if I had flowers.
15. I'd cut it.
16. if I could go to
17. I'd eat them.
18. if I had a knife.
19. it would look
20. if I were you.
21. I'd be homeless.
22. if I were in her
23. she might help.
24. he could help
CINUI-ian UHAMIVIAH T
25. he could do
26. if you were my
1. if you had
2. you would have
3. if I had won the
4. I would have
gone with you.
5. if they had
played in the
house with a
L _ II
6. I would have
gone to the
7 if you had
a would you have
eaten that fish?
9. if it had rained.
10. I would have
gone to the pub.
11. if I had been
12. I would have left
her ages ago.
13. if he had been
14. the strike would
15. if you had
looked after it.
16. I would have
butter on the
17. we would have
been able to
18. if she had been
1. can't swim as/so
well as you
KEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
2. can't jump as/so
high as his
a colder than 1
4. as fast as my
5. the worst film 1
have ever seen.
e. the fastest
typist in her
1. and colder
2. more expensive
a quickly than I
4. and less
6. as easy as
1. like -2. as- 3. as
4. alike - 5. like
1. She bought a
dozen eggs, five
of which broke
on the way.
2. The old man
slipped on a
a I threw the ball
to my brother,
who threw it to
4. The wall
collapsed on top
of the children,
some of whom
had to be taken
5. She went out
with her boss,
whose car broke
down on the
e. I told my mother,
who said it
7. The teacher
introduced me to
of whom offered
to show me
a The rain rattled
on the roof all
night, which kept
g. She said she
had no money,
which was not
10. Some of the
been blown up,
which made the
11. He met all Tom's
sisters, some of
whom took a
fancy to him.
12. I bought two
lamps, one of
when I dropped
13. The singer let
out a squawk,
14. He ate only
kept him fit.
15. The roads were
16. He said he was
which was not
1 _i .
1. to start with.
3. All the same,
e. for instance
7. so forth
a Talking about
1 on the other
2. on top of that,
3 As for
4 In nthpr wnirta. Ill Ullltsl WUIUO,
7 As A rule. ro d lulc?,
8. I say
9 /Vo for. ro IUI
10. On the other
13. I say!
14. As for
1. The pools
winner used a
he said, had
won him a lot of
2. Immigration is
an issue which
3. I know the very
person who will
do the job
4. The gales that
a lot of damage.
5. The problem is
to build houses
at a price which/
afford to pay.
e. Some frogmen
came across a
had lain on the
seabed for 1 00
1. Any person who/
be sent to
2. The yacht that/
3. The house
on the corner
4. The man (Whom/
was my uncle.
5. I enjoy talking to
anyone who has
e. This skirt (that)
you are wearing
is identical to
the one my
1. Her first speech,
better than the
which she gave
2. The cabinet,
which has now
members, will be
3. The Book
which was set
up in 1950,
4. This industrial
it lasted, has
5. The English
with rain and fog,
is not as bad as
6. The new London
guide, which will
appear in the
a lot of
1. The cliffs of
Dover, which are
famous all over
the world, are a
2. The winning
to win, was
3. Joseph Conrad,
who was Polish,
wrote all his
books in English.
4. Bernard Shaw,
who was one of
writers of the
died in 1950.
5. Not many people
could follow the
e. He was advised
to change to an
which would be
good for his
7. The wrecked
ship, whose crew
is safe on shore,
1. Shall I get
2. will win
3. will work
4. will be working
5. won't pay
e. will be paying
7. will take place
a Shall we go
9. am seeing him
10. will get
11. will change
1. She is to do it
2. We are to give it
to him tonight.
a They are to
report at five
4. The boys are to
meet at four.
5. You are to tell
him the truth.
e. They are to let
us know as soon
7. We are to see
1. We will be
working in the
2. I'll be speaking
to him in the
a I'll be doing the
shopping in the
4. We'll be
listening to the
eight o clock
5. I'll be looking for
a new job.
a I'll be seeing her
1. I'm going to
2. is going to be
a will go and see
4. are going to get
5. will change
e. is going to rain
7. are going
1. are on the point
2. are about to get
4. are to be taken
5. is about
7. due to
1. was to
2. were to
a was about to
4. was due
7. was about to
a was due
a getting up
1. The whole
2. My old car
a These children
4. The grass wants
1. I dislike their
wasting so much
2. I hate them
speaking to me
a I can't imagine
such a fuss.
4. I can't
5. She can't forget
me leaving her.
1 fond of
2. interested in
3 afraid of
4. sorry for
5. happy about
6. used to
7. bored with
1. to live
2. to go out
5. to think
e. to write
7. to accept
a to do
9. to speak
1. to know
2. to go
a tfi hftthprlu uuiiitri
5. to pass
7 tpll/. IC/II
8. to smoke
9. to De
1. I warned her not
to do that.
2. She made me
wash my face.
a I told them not
to say that.
4. Would you tell
her to come
5. She expects me
to visit her when
I come to
e. I expect them to
obey me at
7. They don't allow
people to smoke
in the office.
1. what to
2. how to
a where to
4. which / to
5. how to
6. how to
7. how to
a how to
9. when to
1. Never again
should such a
allowed to arise.
2. Hardly had he
than he was
a Not only did the
4. No sooner had
he put down the
5. Little did the
e. Not for a
moment would I
7. Not until many
years later did
a So dense was
9. Rarely have we
seen such ...
10. Nowhere else in
the word will you
find a ...
11. Only when the
he agree to ...
12. Only if both
sides accept the
treaty will peace
1. It was not until
six months ago
that the ...
2. It was only
a It was only
recently that I ...
1. could have given
2. could give me
a could have
4. could speak to
1. he must have
2. he can't have
a they must have
listened to our
4. 1must have
forgotten to turn
5. she can't have
1. a) He might
b) He may not
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
rvc. i APMrillCU ttDAMMAD £1
know about it.
2. a) He may be
going to the
b) He could be
going to a party.
3. a) Someone
b) It could have
1. Those pictures
are the ones that
were stolen ...
2. Those players
are the ones
that won ...
a These people
are the ones
who want to ...
4. Those pictures
are the ones
which you have
5. These plugs and
this battery are
the ones that
you have ...
e This window is
the one that you
have to paint.
7. That man is the
one that you
have to play
s. Those trees are
the ones that
have to be
9. That branch is
the one that has
to be cut off.
10. That lecture is
the one I am so
11. That man is the
one who is
^2. That treasure is
the one which
was lost for so
1. The one with the
2 The one with the
3 The one with the
4. The one with the
1. Once you
sins, you feel
2. Once you cross
that line, there
is no return.
a Once she makes
up her mind,
4. Once you make
a deal, you can't
get out of it.
1. have confessed
2. have succeeded
a have bought a
4. have paid for the
1. have finished
2. have finished
a have told
4. have lived
1. Have you ever
2. Have you ever
3. Have you ever
been to Egypt?
4. Have you ever
spoken to the
1. This colour is
be the most
2. Our team is said
to be the best.
3. This picture is
thought to be a
4. This car is
considered to be
5. This restaurant
is thought to be
the best in the
1. He might have
2. She may not
3. She may have
gone to bed
4. She might have
gone to the
5. Someone may
have dropped a
1. will have been
2. will have been
a will have been
1. He asked me
how old I was.
2. She said (that)
she was tired
and (that) she
3. She said (that) it
4. He said (that) he
5. He said (that) he
hadn't seen her
before that day.
e. He said (that) he
7. She explained/
said that she
a He asked if it
9. He said that he
could do it the
10. He said (that) if
he had a
could mend it.
11. My boss advised
me to read the
1. "I'll take the car,"
2. "We were very
happy when we
lived in Paris,"
a "I'll be twenty
4. "We were/had
been thinking of
selling the car,"
5. "I never eat
meat," she said.
1. He suggested
nninn tn thpvjuniy lu ilit?
2. The teacher
they were to
stop that noise.
a The man
claimed that the
bicycle that he/I
was riding was
4. The boy
5. The man
he knew his
e. Her boyfriend
he would always
7. The treasurer
they didn't have
s. The student
didn't know what
he was talking
9. She exclaimed
that it was a
surprise to see
10. He agreed that if
the weather was
11. He insisted that
if I couldn't go
that day I had to
go the following
"2. He promised to
her he'd be
13. He announced
that the victory
14. He groaned that
his whole body
15. He threatened
that he would kill
16. He sneered that
listen to those
1. to give
2. to give
4. to write
KEY AEnglish GRAMMAR 4
5. tO put
9. to say
12. to lock
16. to wash
a to hang
e. to buy
9. to smoke
11. to win
5. prewar, prepaid,
5. outbreak, outcry,
1. petrol tank
2. kitchen door
a church bell
4. spring flowers
5. taxi driver
7. shop window
9. tin opener
12. football match
13. car rally
15. coffee cup
18. cotton blouse
19. stone house
20. two-hour walk
22. car key
23. kitchen sink
24. detective story
25. football field
26. fivepenny stamp
27. silk shirt
28. wooden door
so. golden hair
31. golf club
32. telephone bill
33. mystery film
34. bus ticket
35. biscuit tin
36. evening dress
1. You had spoken.
2. We will not have
3. Has he been
4. They didn't
5. Had I been
e. Would you
7. He would not
a We will be
9. Were you
10. They had not
11. Will I have
12. You are not
13. Would he be
14. Have we been
15. We will not be
16. Didn't they
17. Hadn't I closed?
1. in 7. for
2. in a up
3. out 9.over
4. for 10. for
5. in 11. up to
1. is up to
2. am for
3. backed away
4. allow for
5. backs up
1. be up to
2. is out
3. was over
4. be back
5. are in for
e. backed away
7. account for
1. up 7.down
2. Up 8. Up
3. in 9.down
4. about 10. up
5. out 11.to
1. bring down
2. came up
3. came out
4. broken in
1.with 7. to
2. away 8. for
3. for 9. out
4. up 10. away
5. with 11. out
6. without 12. up
1. button up
2. be enough/
3. killed him
4. fell in love
1. give away
2. give out
3. given up
4. do with
5. do without
H _i .
1.Up 7. Off
2.across to a on
a at 9.on
4.at 10. off
5. down 11. over
e. in 12. through
1. on 7. off
2. through a in
3. off 9. up
4. OUt 10. OUt
5. over 11. up
1. laugh at
3. he groaned
4. take the cakes
5. allow him to
1. let me down
2. make out
a going on
4. gone through
t. back 6. up
2. Off 7. OUt
3. out a by
4. up 9. out
5. up 10. for
1. stand by
2. standing for
3. stood up
4. put it down to'
1. down 7.after
2. in a back
a into 9.in
4. out 10.in
5. over 11. over
a was deceived
4. be careful
5. crossed the
1. ran into
2. ran on
a run over
4. ran up against
1. up 7.down
2. over a in
a over 9.into
4. Off 10. Off
5. against 11. out
2. left him in a
t. turned down
2. turning it over
3. turned down
4. turning out
5. turn up
a want one badly
1. succeed in
2. caused to
1. managed it
1. goes slow
a doesn't affect
3. wasn't punished
4. have a good
5. rose from bed
e. managed to
a began to tackle
9. contact him
13. to do the job
14. persuade her
16. had problems
17. recovered from
1. revealed it
2. showed she had
3. at the wedding
4. stopped the
1. treat me unfairly
2. discuss it
3. become friends
4. leaving the
7. escort on a date
9. learnt it easily
2. inspect it
a ignored me
6. in the dictionary
7. come to see me
a be careful -
9 imnrn/inn. in Improving
10. considers us
11. expect to enjoy
12. constant watch
13. admires you
a understood the
4. attend to it
5. say goodbye
1. found it
9. was mentioned
1. fail to honour
2. started as hobby
a do something
6. be enough
7. I am doing
10. was sold
1. by chance
2. try to be elected
5. had problems
7. spent quickly
9. criticizes unfairly
10. a lorry went over
11. been used up
12. we've used up
all we had
1. very afraid
2. very pale
3. take ail his
4. with milk
5. white clothes
1. with the years
2. bad year
3. bad action
4. very black
5. only coffee
7. prison van
a bad humour
1. very cold
2. he is of royal
a dirty joke
4. flash of lightning
5. till I'm tired
e. iood sad
7. negro songs
1. very envious
1. very clever
2. first lights of the
3. getting old
1. very tanned
2. fed up
1. getting old
willing to publish
1. very angry
2. very red
3. red from the sun
4. false trail
5. paper work
6. her face went
a gets me mad
English GRAMMAR 4