Esh grmr 4


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Esh grmr 4

  1. 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 by Edward R. Rosset
  2. 2. Written by/ Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: BITEZ® LOGOS® Published by/ Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseho y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Diseno (runes © Editorial Stanley Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-196-2 Dep. Leg. BI-2919-02 Third edition /Terceraedicion 2003 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza
  3. 3. I N D E X 1 Adjective order 2 2 Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes. 4 3 Prefixes 6 4 Adjectives: Comparison 8 5 Adjective: Comparison (cont.) 10 6 Adjectives: degrees of intensity _ _ 12 7 Adverbs of manner 14 8 Adverbs of degree 16 9 As well as + ing - Although - As long as - As (cause) 18 10 Used to + gerund 20 11 Because of - Bound to 22 12 By + time phrase - By the time + past perfect 24 13 The causative 26 14 Clauses of reason 28 15 Clauses of comparison 30 16 Clauses of concession 32 17 Condition clauses 34 18 Clauses of purpose 36 19 Clauses of purpose (cont.) 38 20 Clauses of time 40 21 Conditionals type 1 42 22 Conditionals type 2 44 23 Conditionals type 3 46 24 Comparisons 48 25 Connective relative clauses 50 26 Discourse markers 52 27 Relative clauses: defining 54 28 Relative clauses: non-defining 56 29 Future tense: contrasts 58 30 Future tense: contrasts (cont.) 60 31 Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs 62 32 Gerund after prepositions 64 33 Infinitive after certain verbs _ 66 34 Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs _ 68 35 Modal verbs. Revision 70 36 The one who / that / which - The one with 72 37 Once + Present perfect 74 38 Passives: All tenses - is considered / thought / said to be 76 39 Reported speech 78 40 Reported speech (cont.) 80 41 Remember (and other verbs) + gerund or infinitive 82 42 Suffixes and prefixes 84 43 Compound nouns 86 44 Tenses: General revision 88 45 Phrasal verbs 1 90 Phrasal verbs 2 91 Phrasal verbs 3 93 Phrasal verbs 4 94 Phrasal verbs 5 95 Phrasal verbs 6 97 Phrasal verbs 7 98 APENDIX 1 Exercise. Idiomatic expressions. __ 101 APENDIX 2 Exercise. Idiomatic expressions with colours 103 APENDIX 3 Expressions with: to do • to make 104 Phrasal verbs 8 99
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  5. 5. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 by Edward R. Rosset
  6. 6. UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adjective order • Aunque es muydificil dar unorden exacto, y hay ligeras variaciones entre las gramaticas mas usuales hoy en dfa,se puede considerar que el orden que damos a continuationes el mas aceptado. A big black cat. A long wide avenue. Cruel blue eyes, A small blue metal box. An old iron bucket. Yellow silk curtains. 1° Tamano excepto little. 2° Descripcion general incluyendo adjetivos de personalidad y emocidn. 3° Edad y el adjetivo little. 4° Forma 5° Color 6° Material 7°Origen 8°Proposito generalmente gerundios: winding road, running shoes. • Losadjetivos depersonalidad y emotion vienen detras de los adjetivos dedescription fisica, pero antes que los colores: A small, nervous man. A large, patient group of men. A fierce, black dog. A kind, white doctor. • A menudo usamos little, young y old,no para dar informacion, sino como una combina- tion de adjetivo/sustantivo: Jimmy is such a nice, little boy. An athletic, suspicious, young man stood at the door. 2 STANLEY • Cuando young y oldse usan paradar information, ocupan la position num. 3. A young, black woman. An old, Italian clock. • Siqueremos poner enfasis enel tamano es mejor usar small, que little. He was a small ambitious man. • Cuando losadjetivos sonpredicatives,es decir, van detras del verbo, generalmente se pone and. The tea was sweet and strong. Examples I had a black and white Italian chessboard. They sat at a big, round, conference table. She wore black, Spanish, leather boots. He played with an expensive steel- framed tennis racket. The day was dark, wet and cold.
  7. 7. 1. Pon los adjetivos entre parentesis en la posicion correcta. Example: We saw a Japanese film, (new) We saw a new Japanese film. 1. an old picture (expensive/Italian) 19. a little restaurant (French/nice) 2. short hair (black/attractive) 20.a kitchen cupboard (handmade/ wooden) 3. a large town (new/exciting) 21. a leather handbag (small/black/shiny) 4. a small dog (thin/white) 22. a huge milkshake (ice-cold/ 5. a narrow street (small) strawberry) 6. a white face (fattish) 23. a Spanish waiter (little/friendly) 7. a wooden box (brown/large) 24. a clean room (bright/beautiful) 8. a black car (new/large) 25. a daring pilot (handsome/young/Air Force) 9. a pretty dress (blue) 26. A curious dog (little/brown) 10. a cold shower (refreshing) 27. A tall cowboy (handsome/dark/Texan) 11. a rainy day (miserable) 28. a green ashtray (Chinese/glass) 12. large eyes (red) 29. a conference hall (large/glass) 13. a British film (funny) 30. a carving knife (long/sharp) 14. a black skirt (leather) 31. a handy little calculator (black) 15. an old mansion (decrepit) 32. a curious monkey (little) 16. a beautiful woman (young) 33. an inexpensive dirty hotel (little) 17. an old man (grumpy) 34. a kindly coloured doctor (old) 18. a rare bracelet (emerald) STANLEY EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 3
  8. 8. UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes. • Algunas palabras hacen la funcion solamente de adjetivos (small). Otras pueden ser sustantivos o adjetivos (cold). Muchos adjetivos que se relacionan con verbos o sustantivos tienen un final caracteristico (suffix). care careful change changeable enjoy enjoyable truth truthful • Losparticipios de presente tambien actuan como adjetivos: amuse amusing amused astonish astonishing astonished • Adjectives ending in -ible •able susceptible irresponsible unanswerable inseparable inescapable indispensable irreconcilable inexorable implacable incompatible regrettable defensible estimable indomitable unshakeable negligible understandable inedible irreplaceable conceivable irreparable indelible irrevocable enviable inimitable impassable uncontrollable negotiable convertible enjoyable pitiable punishable unsaleable • Adjectives ending abortive abusive acquisitive deceptive defective defensive in -ive discursive evasive excessive formative indicative intensive lucrative pervasive plaintive repulsive submissive successive • Adjectives ending boisterous capricious extraneous fallacious fastidious homogeneous in -ous ingenious ludicrous malicious miscellaneous monstrous obnoxious • Adjectives ending insubordinate elaborate desperate appropriate intimate precocious presumptuous specious strenuous supercilious in -ate deliberate moderate duplicate desolate separate 4 STANLEY
  9. 9. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. En letra cursiva tienes una explicacion de la palabra que tienes que poner terminando en ble. Example: This word is impossible to pronounce. It is unpronounceable. 1. He had followed a course in elocution. His speech was quite without faults. It was 2. I think that this plan will be impossible to put into practise. It will be 3. A masterpiece is impossible to define or explain. It is 4. The number 13 can't be divided by any other number. It is 2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos que terminan en ous. Example: Teachers prefer a class with pupils of the same level. It is an homogeneous class. 1. Children who develop faculties at an early age don't always become Einsteins. They are 2. Many children are difficult to please. They are 3. Her arguments seemed right, but they were not so. They were 4. The weather here is unpredictable and ever-changing. It is very 3. Haz lo mismo con adjetivos que terminan en ate. Example: Keep these ones apart from the others. Keep them separate.. 1. It was a very complicated plan. It was very 2. The place was deserted and uninhabited, it was 3. They are very close friends. They are 4. That word was just the right word. It was very 5 STANLEY
  10. 10. UNIT 3 Prefixes ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • Losprefijos a menudo tienen unefecto negative: Prefixes with: agreeable honest DIS- disappointed disconnected disdainful disgusted dishonest disillusioned disloyal disobedient dissatisfied distinct, IL- illegal illegitimate illicit illiterate illogical. IR- irrational irregular irrelevant irreligious irresponsible irreversible. IM- immoral immovable impatient imperfect important impractical improvised imprudent impure impudent. IN- incessant incidental incompatible incomplete incomprehensible inconsistent inconspicuous inconvenient incorrect incurable indecisive indefinable indented independent indescribable indifferent indirect indispensable indisputable ineffective inevitable inexperienced informal inseparable insignificant insincere invisible. NON- non-interference non-military non-religious non-violent. ANTI- antiaircraft anticommunist antiseptic antisocial. UN- unable unbroken unarmed uncertain unclear unconcerned uncomfortable unconnected unconquerable uncons-cious uncontrolled unconventional uncooperative uncultivated undecided undignified undisciplined uneasy uneducated unexcitable unexpected unexplored unfaithful unfavourable unfinished unfriendly unhappy unharmed unimportant uninjured unknown unlucky unmarried unnecessary unnoticed unpaid unplanned unpleasant unreal unreliable. HYPER- hyperactive hypersensitive. MAL- maladjusted. OVER- overdue overcharging overdeveloped over-elaborate. PRE- prewar. PRO- pro-American. SUB- subnormal submarine subtitle. SUPER- superman superhuman superwoman supernatural. UNDER- underdone undercooked undfirdfi-velonerl disagreeable dishonest 6 STANLEY
  11. 11. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. Pon el adjetivo contrario al que se te da. Example: This person is not very honest. 1. Smuggling tobacco is, of course, not legal. It js 2. That boy is not responsible. He is 3. This person doesn't care about morals. He is a very person. 4.1 was not injured in the accident, I was 5. In America many people were against communism. They were 6. This thing is impossible to eat. It's 7. I'm afraid he is not very loyal. He is 8. He is lacking education. He is 9. You can dispense with him. He is not 10. The bill was due to be paid some time ago. lt is 11. It is not logical to do that. It is 12. 'Is he satisfied?' 'No, he is 13. It was not at all planned. It was 14. He is not very religious. On the contrary, he is 15. They are not going to interfere. They have an Usa los sufijos que has aprendido. He is dishonest. 16. He is not very well known. In fact, he is 17. He was not a very social man. He was 18. She is an extremely sensitive person. She is 19. It is not very well adjusted. It is 20. This gold is not very pure. It 21. He has no illusions left in this life. He is rather 22. This treatment is not very effective. It 23. Johnny has never been very formal. He is 24. It was not a very real situation. It _was_quite_ 25. The meat is not done yet. It is 26. This man is extraordinary. He is a 27. It was not very consistent. It was rather 28. The report was not complete. It was 29. It wasn't a regular situation. It was quite 30. The situation is not very favourable. It is 7 STANLEY is is rather
  12. 12. UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adjectives: comparison • La mayor parte de losadjetivos monosila- bos anaden er y est para formar el comparati- ve y el superlative: cleaner greater colder cleanest greatest coldest • Muchos monosilabos queterminan envocal + consonante duplican la consonante: bigger biggest sadder saddest thinner thinnest wetter wettest fatter fattest • Losmonosilabos queterminan ene anaden ryst: nicer nicest later latest freer freest safer safest • Para formar el grado comparative y superla- tivo de los adjetivos de dos o mas silabas, se anade more/less para los comparativos, y most/least para los superlativos. • Less se puede usar conadjetivos deuna sflaba (less cold). adjective comparative superlative gentle beautiful gentler more gentle less gentle more beautiful less beautiful gentlest most gentle east gentle most beautiful least beautiful • Asi como gentle, otros adjetivos bisflabos pueden formar el comparative y el superlative • Algunos adjetivos terminan eny precedida de consonante. El comparative y superlative se forman con i: - pretty prettier - prettiest Otros ejemplosson: - tidy busy ready heavy La exception es: -shy shyer * shyest quantifier much-many little easy early dry sleepy comparative more ess - empty - funny - dirty superlative most least common clever narrow happy tired pleasant - handsome - quiet simple - stupid • Los puestos detales palabras (unpleasant, etc.)tambien forman el comparativo y el superlative de dos formas: unhappier unhappiest - more unhappy the most unhappy Adjetivos compuestos He is more quick-witted than she is. John is better-looking than Peter. (more good-looking) He is worse-tempered than she is. (more bad-tempered) 8 STANLEY
  13. 13. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases con el comparative correspondiente. Example: Today is very wet. It is much wetter than yesterday. 1. He came very early. He came than yesterday. 2. This picture is very grey. It's than that one. 3. James is very shy. He is than his sister. 4. My boss is very busy. He is than I am. 5. This girl is very sad. She is than her sister. 6. This boy is very fat. He is than his friend. 7. These people are very free. They are than those. 2. Haz ahora lo mismo con el grado superlative. Example: April is very wet. It's the wettest month of the year. 1. This desk is very tidy. It's the desk in the classroom. 2. This man is very thin. He is the man in the country. 3. She is very funny. She is the girl in her class. 4. This land is very dry. It's the land in the state. 5. This picture is very grey. It's the in the auction. 6. This river is very long. It's the river in the world. 3. Usa er/est o more/most, less/least, etc. para completar las frases. Example: This street is very narrow. It's narrower/more narrow than those. 1. This situation is than that one. (common) 2. He is well built. In fact he is than me. (built) 3. This is not very expensive. In fact, it's than those, (expensive) 4. That joke was not very amusing. In fact, it was the of all. (amusing) 5. This boy is very bad-tempered. He is than his father, (tempered) 6. My boyfriend is very handsome. He is the boy I know, (handsome) 7. They were all beautiful, but she was, perhaps, the . (beautiful) 9 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  14. 14. UNIT 5 Adjective: Comparison (cont.) El uso de than en la forma comparativa • Si la referenda es clara no hace falta ponerlo: This sleeve is longer. • Si estamos hablando de doscosas podemos decir: Which is the longer? (of the two roads) • Si than va seguido de nombre o pronombre actua como preposicion; cuando va seguido de una oration, hace el oficio de conjuncion: I know her better than you. - I know herbetter than you know her. • Comparativos con er and er This girl is getting taller and taller. • The+ comparative +the+ comparative The more money you have, the more you want. Uso de la forma superlativa • Usamos elsuperlative cuando comparamos con mas de uno. This is the cleanest. That is the safest. • Casi siempre despues de un superlative ponemos in. London is one of the biggest towns in the world. - Heisthetallest inourclass. • Menos frecuentemente usamos of. John is the tallest of/in the family. August is the hottest month of the year. 10 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Superlative con ever This is the longest book (that) I have ever read. • Lossuperlativ-es pueden ser modificados con adverbios de grado: much, quite, almost, nearly, far, by far. - This isbyfarthemost expensive book in the shop. • Comparativo deigualdad as... as - Heisastall ashisbrother. • Ennegaciones se usa notas... as onot so/as as - Heis notso/as clever ashisbrother. • The same as y different from. My car is the same as yours. Our house is quite different from yours. Grados de parecido Those girls are exactly the same. The two brothers are completely different.
  15. 15. EXERCISES 1. Termina la frase como en los ejemplos. Example: He is growing. He is getting taller and taller. He is ambitious. The more he has, the more he wants. 1. This boy is very greedy. The more you give him (take). 2. Flights are getting cheaper. They are getting every day. 3. 'Sometimes you have a lot of time and do nothing.' 'Yes, the more time you have, 4. 'Computers are becoming very complicated.' 'Yes, they are getting every day.' 5. 'If you make a lot of money, you spend a lot money.' 'Yes, the more money you make, ' 2. Pon la preposicion que falta. Example: He is the tallest boy in our class. 1. My girlfriend is the most beautiful girl the world. 2. The 21st of December is the shortest day the year. 3. The Nile is the longest river Africa. 4. She is the most clever/cleverest her family. 5. That was the happiest day my life. 3. Termina la frase con ever. Example: She is the prettiest girl I've ever seen. 1. This is the most interesting book (that) . 2. Heis the most conceited man(that/whom) I . (meet) 3. That was the most expensive bicycle (that) . (ride) 4. Usa el comparativo de igualdad para completar las frases. Example: Your car is not as/so new as mine. 1. This house is just (big) ours. 2. No, this book is (interesting) that one. 3. My son is just (clever) yours. 4. No, he is (hard worker) his brother. 11 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  16. 16. UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adjectives: degrees of intensity Recuerda • Losadjetivossepueden dividir endosciases:ios que se pueden graduar y ios que no. • Unadjetivo esgraduabie cuando sepuede usar con palabras tales comovery, too, enough, excellent, etc. • Unadjetivo esnograduabie cuando nosepuede modificar: monthly, yearly, medical, dead. 12 Very • Very solo, no puede ir con comparativos y superlatives, pero very much si puede. This is very much faster than this one. • Con alone: The poor woman has been very much alone lately. • Very se puede usar congerundios y participios. She isa very interesting woman. She was very interested. Very much, so much, such a/an • Much overy much puede ir en el medio de la frase. She is very much/much loved in this country. • Si queremos ponerlo alfinal de lafrase tenemos que usar very much. I like hervery much. • Con unsustantivo podemos poner such a+ adjetivo, o so + adjetivo. Mrs Smith was such a nice woman!/ Mrs Smith was so nice! Indeed • Intensifica engrado sumo la accion del adjetivo. 'Was it good?' 'Yes, it was very good indeed!' • -ly intensifiers. He is a particularly good element. The news was terribly confusing. This man works really slowly. She was extremely helpful. Jolly, pretty, dead + adjectives. He is a jolly good fellow. This train is moving pretty slowly. And he was dead right! STANLEY
  17. 17. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. En todas las frases tienes adjetivos. Tienes que aumentarlos o disminuirlos de intensidad si se puede. Example. She was a nice person. She was a very nice person. 1. This is a very good cake. That one is good. 2. This newspaper is daily. It is a newspaper. 3. The pot is hot. It is hot to touch. 4. Your answer is wrong. It is not right. 5. The water in the pool is warm to swim in. 6. I get paid every month. I get paid . 7. Byron is admired in Greece. 8. It was nice party! 9. I enjoyed the party . 10. The masterpiece was the only was . 11. Nothing could be heard. The place was quiet. 12. We all like him. He is a fellow. 13. 'You were very wrong.' 'Yes, I know I was wrong.' 14. The wounded needed a doctor. They needed attention. 2. Usa estos adverbios de intensidad y juntalos con la oracion que creas va mejor. 1 All the bodies were A extremely comfortable 2 He is an honest man ', extremely tight 3 He has been manyyears with the firm as he is a D well lined-up E mostly wrong 4 The situation wasF incredibly cheap 5 The poor girt felt 6 He djdn't trust him^ He felt H completely mistaken 7 Sheis getting old and I perfectly planned 8 The raid into enemy J bad|y needed territory was K works really slowly 9 They all missed her L deePly suspicious She was M terribly confusing 10 You are wrong.Youare N terrib|y confused 0 particularly good worker 11This leather bag is [. *,_ _ .. _ _ _? p highly respectable 12 Your answers were 13 The soldiers were 14 That pullover is 15 Those sheets are 16 This armchair is STANLEY B whiter than white tight F incredibly cheap G horribly mutilated 13
  18. 18. UNIT 7 Adverbs of manner • La mayoria de losadverbios de manerase forman ahadiendo "ly" a losadjetivos: - glad . gladly mad . madly • Los adjetivos que terminan enIduplican laI: careful . carefully • Siterminan eny despues deconsonante: busy busily • Losqueterminan ene ahaden ly: possible possibly Prases preposicionales usadas como adverbios • Cuando noexiste unadverbio para loque queremos expresar recurrimos a unafrase adverbial. We came here by train. They all came to us in a rush. Adjetivos que terminan en "ly" ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adjetivos y adverbios con la misma forma y el mismo significado A fast (adjective) car is a car that goes fast (adverb). She works hard (adverb) because she likes hard (adjective) work. brotherly cowardly * elderly fatherly - friendly * heavenly likely lively lovely * manly motherly sickly silly sisterly unfriendly - unlikely ugly He is a friendly man. (adjective) - He always greets me in afriendly way. (adverb) 14 STANLEY Adverbios con dos formas que se usan de la mismamanera cheap. cheaply clean . cleanly - clear .clearly close . closely dear .dearly fair .fairly ^fine .finely firm .firmly first .firstly loud . loudly quick.quickly quiet. quietly slow .slowly thin .thinly We bought the house cheap/cheaply. Posicion de los adverbios de manera 1. Despues del objeto: They watched us curiously. 2. Despues del verbo: It rained heavily last night. 3. Despuesde una particulaadverbial: He put the ladder upcarefully. • Ennarrativa aveces empezamos lafrase con adverbios de manera, tales como: gently slowly suddenly • Estos adverbios vanseguidos por una coma. Suddenly, he heard a voice behind him.
  19. 19. 1. Completa las frases siguientes con adverbios. Example: This is, possibly, the show in town (possible). 1. It was an difficult situation (extreme). 2. This boy is in love with that girl (mad). 3. This is the same thing (basic). 4. We didn't go out because it was raining (heavy). 5. We pay our bills (month). 6. I always drive very (careful). 7. They all left (hurry). 8. I'm sorry, I hear very (bad). 9. It was a very evening (live). 10. That girl speaks quickly (incredible). 11. They decided to leave town (secret). 12. It was not a successful book (whole). 13. I was in love with you (true). 14. The train didn't go very (fast). 15. They didn't work very (hard). 2. En este ejercicio tienes que decidir cual de las dos palabras es la apropiada. Tacha la que no lo sea. Example: He spoke'tyti&/quietly in the dark. 1. She is terribly/terrible upset about losing her boyfriend. 2. He drove very careful/carefully along the narrow road. 3. All those people were very colourful/ colourfully dressed. 4. After years in Paris she speaks very good/well French. 5. His English is not very good but his German is almost fluent/fluently. 6. Both of them are very happy/happily married. 7. It has rained continuously/ continuous for two weeks. 8. Why is that girl so unfriend/ unfriendly? 9. She waited nervous/nervously in the waiting room. 10. The two men were seriously/serious injured. 11. She was bitter/bitterly disappointed. 12. It's a reasonable/reasonably cheap hotel. 13. The food in here is extremely/ extreme good. 14. I'm terrible/terribly sorry. I didn't mean it. 15. The exam was surprising/ surprisingly easy. 15 STANLEY EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 y
  20. 20. UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Adverbs of degree • Losadverbios de grado mascorrientesson: almost altogether - barely a bit enoug fairly - hardly nearly quite rather somewhat too • Se pueden usar como adverbios de grado. a little a lot much - very much etc. I don't like her very much. They don't drink much wine in this country. Quite • El sentido de quite depende de la clase de palabra que lo modifica. • Puede expresar el sentido de 'completamente, mucho' con: all right determined empty finished full right wrong etc... The bottle is quite full. You were quite right. Con palabras tales como: amazingly perfectly unique astoundingly etc. This man is quite amazing. He plays quite amazingly. 16 STANLEY quite le da a la palabra un valor superlative. • Sinembargo, cuando quitese usa con adjetivos como good o strong,el resultado es ligeramente mas debit. The play was good. The play was quite good. (ligeramente inferior) • Detodas formas depende mucho del entasis que le damos a la palabra. Rather y fairly • Ambos significan 'moderadamente', pero fairly se usa generalmente con adjetivos y adverbios favorables (nice,good, well, etc.) mientras que rather se usa generalmente con adjetivos y adverbios desfavorables (ugly, bad, silly, etc.): Jimmy is fairly clever, while his sister is rather stupid. • Estos se pueden usar con participios: She was fairly comfortable; he was rather astonished. He is a fairly good speaker, but rather lazy. Hardly, barely y scarcely • Lostres son muyparecidos, con unsentido generalmente negative. • Hardly se suele usar conever, any, at all,o con el verbocan. She can hardly speak. The soup was barely warm. hardly barely scarcely ever puede ser reemplazado por almost never. I hardly ever go to London. I almost never go to London.
  21. 21. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. A continuacion tienes unas frases con fairly y rather. Tacha la que creas que no esta bien. Example: This man is rather/fairly stupid. 1. During the driving test she was fairly/rather relaxed. 2. The old woman walks fairly/rather slowly. 3. This book is rather/fairly interesting. 4. It was a rather/fairly boring film. 5. The box was fairly/rather light. 6. It was a rather/fairly heavy box. 7. Johnny is rather/fairly intelligent. 2. Completa las frases que van a continuacion con el adverbio apropiado: fairly, rather, quite, hardly. Example: The meal was quite good. I enjoyed it. 1. That old man is an expert on Roman coins. 2. It's a shame that we have to work on Sundays. 3. like raw fish. 4. They spoke on the way. 5. She knows a word of French. 6. He is certain that she'll come back to him. 7. I was sure that you'd come. 8. The case was so heavy that he could lift it. 9. Frank is clever but lazy. 10. It's a good play. I wouldn't go again though. 11. The job was finished. 12. There was anybody left. 13. It's a nuisance that we can't park here. 3. Vuelve a escribir estas frases usando almost. Example: I hardly ever see him nowadays. / almost never see him nowadays. 1. There's hardly any good news in the newspapers today. 2. We hardly ever go out nowadays. 3. Your son barely ever knows his lesson. 17 STANLEY I
  22. 22. UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 As well as + ing - Although - As long as - As (cause) As well as + ing • Cuando as well as se usa con un verbo va seguido de gerundio. As well as breaking his arm, he hurt his leg. He worked at night as well as working during the day. - Aswell asrunning a marathon,he went to the disco. • Hayunapequena diferencia entre: They act as well as dance, (actuan y tambien bailan) They act as well as they dance, (actuan tan bien como bailan) As long as • Despues de as long as en ingles se usael presents de indicative, mientras que la misma frase en espafiol se pondria en presente de subjuntivo: We'll go with them as long as there is room for us. (siempre que haya sitio) • Lomismo ocurre conotras conjunciones: after before when if until You can take my book as long as you don't lose it. (mientras no lo pierdas) 18 STANLEY Although y though • A menudo se usan indistintamente: He's a nice chap though/although I don't like the way he behaves. Though/although he lacks official support, he continues the fight. • Though es mas informal y a menudo se pone at final de lafrase: The weather didn't help. I enjoyed myself, though. • Eneste caso se puede traducir por'sin embargo' y hace el oficio de adverbio. • A veces usamos even con though para darle mas enfasis: Even though I didn't understand her, I liked her voice. As • A veces tiene el sentido de although. <* Raining as it was, we went out. (Although it was raining) Tired as he was, he went on walking. (Although he was tired) • A veces tiene el sentido de because. As there is little demand, we don't keep a big stock. As she is very old, she doesn't go out any more. • A veces tiene el sentido desince. As you can't do it yourself, ask somebody else. As you are young, you can help me.
  23. 23. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas con as well as. Example: She washed the dishes. She made the bed. As well as washing the dishes, she made the beds. 1. He plays the guitar. He sings. 2. He speaks Chinese. He writes it. 3. They feed you. They let you have a bed. 4. They smash the place. They laugh at you. 5. He swims in the sea. He lies in the sun. 6. In a triathlon you swim. You run and you cycle. 2. Completa la frase usando as long as. Example: I'll go there as long as you come with me. 1. We'll go for a picnic (not/rain) 2. I'll go with you (not/go over/speed limit) 3. We'N be able Jo do it (you come/in time) 4. I'll have a word with him (you/not/interrupt us) 5. You won't have any problems (you/pay/on time) 3. Tacha la palabra que consideres mal. Example: Our argument, alfoetmi/though, is the need for economic independence. 1. Even though/although we haven't met for years, we still love each other. 2. It was a quiet party. I had a good time, though/although. 3. Cold though/although it was, I went out. 4. Even though/although it was raining, we went for a walk. 19 STANLEY
  24. 24. UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Used to + gerund • Puede que nos parezca raro que en algunas oraciones el verbo que va detras de to vaya en gerundio en vez de infinitive. Lo que pasa es que hay dos clases de to. • Unoes el signo de infinitive: I like to stay at home at the weekend. Do you want to come with us? • Elotro to es unapreposicion. I'm going to London. I'm not used to this traffic. • Cuando esta preposicion va seguida deun verbo, este verbo lo ponemos en gerundio. I'm not used to driving in this traffic. Do they object to working on Saturday mornings? • Laforma de saber si el to es preposicion o no, es poner un sustantivo detras. Si se puede poner, es preposicion. I'm looking forward to Christmas. (preposicion) I object to loud music. (preposicion) • Si el to no puede ir seguido por un sustanti- vo no es preposicion. • Nose puede decir: 'I want to Christmas'. • Tampocose podria decir, por lotanto: 'I want to speaking'. 20 STANLEY • Losejemplos mascorrientesde to + gerundioson: look forward to ...-ing, in addition to ... -ing, be accustomed to... -ing, object to... -ing, used to... -ing. I'm not used to driving on the left. I object to having so many interruptions. - Heis accustomed toenduring this harsh climate. In addition to having difficulties with the language, he is mentally handicapped. I'm looking forward to hearing from you. Recuerda • Quelostres tipos defrases siguientes dan lugar a confusion: I'm not used to speaking in public, (no estoy acostumbrado) I used to speak inpublic, (solia hablar...) I usually speak in public, (suelo hablar...)
  25. 25. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. Completa estas frases con gerundio o infinitive. Example: I'm not used to eating out.(eat) 1. I object to (have) loud music played in my ear. 2. I'm looking forward to (hear) from you. 3. She wants to (eat) fish. 4. I used to (speak) in French when I met her. 5. They usually (speak) in her mother language when they are alone. 6. She objects to (be) laughed at. 7. We have to (drive) on the left in England. 8. In addition to (come) late, he came dirty. 9. Are you used to (get up) early? 10. He used to (get up) early when he was in the army. 11. When they were little they used to (come) to see me quite often. 12. In addition to (speak) four languages, he can understand several others. 13. I strongly object to (be) spoken to like that. 14. Are you looking forward to (see) them again? 15. I don't usually (smoke) a pipe. 16. When I was young I used to (smoke) a pipe. 17. Well, the trouble was that I wasn't used to (smoke) a pipe. 18. I'd like to (go) riding in the morning. 19. She expects me to (visit) her every time I go to London. 20. I'm not looking forward to (pay) those bills. 21. I object to (be) treated like a slave. 22. I would like to (have) fish, please. 23. The poor girl was not used to (live) in a caravan. 24. The gypsy girl used to (live) in a caravan. 25. Those gypsies usually (live) in caravans. 26. Are you looking forward to (go) on holiday? 27. I'm not used to (be) insulted. 28. He used to (insult) everybody. 29. He doesn't usually (stay) here long. 30. I'm not looking forward to (meet) him. 31. They expect us to (invite) them to dinner. 32. I object to (be) kept waiting for hours. 33. I used to (go) there often when I was young. 34. Are you used to (drive) on the left? 21 STANLEY EXERCISES
  26. 26. UNIT 11 Because of - Bound to Because • Esunaconjuncion queintroduceuna oracion, con sujeto y verbo. I couldn't sleep because I had drunk a cup of coffee. Because of • Esunapreposicion quese pone delante de un sustantivo opronombre. They were late because of traffic problems. Bound • Es un sinonimo de confident, sure, certain. My brother is sure/certain/bound to win this match, (esta segurodeganar) Confident • No puede ir seguido de un infinitive. I'm confident that you will win. Bound + infinitive • Tambien puede significar estar bajouna obligacion. According to the contract, they are bound to supply the materials. Ejemplos con bound to. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 The weather is bound to get better tomorrow. You've worked so hard that you're bound to pass your exam. I feel bound to tell you that you are drinking too much. I'm bound to say that I disagree with you on that point. 22 STANLEY Recuerda • Queboundfor signified algomuy distinto. <? The ship is boundfor port. (se dirige a) We are bound for home. Where are you boundfor? • Tambiensepuedenformaradjetivos compuestos. Eastbound traffic will bedelayed. That's the northbound lane. Diferencias entre bound y likely. He is likely to come tonight. (quiza venga) He is bound to come tonight. (seguro que viene) • Porotra parte likely admite tambien una oracion introducida por that. It's likely that he will come tonight.
  27. 27. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases con because o because of. Example: He was very happy because he had won the lottery. 1. They separated certain differences in opinion. 2. He won't be here tonight he missed the train. 3. He won't be here today a strike. 4. She was sad her dog had been run over by a car. 5. She doesn't go out any more her age. 6. He left her he didn't love her any more. 7. We haven't been able to finish it the holidays. 2. Completa las frases con bound o bound for. Example: 'Where are you going?' 'Well, we are bound for London.' 1. 'i,ls she going to tell you?' 'Yes, she is tell me sooner or later.' 2. According to his letter, our order is arrive any time. 3. I feel tell you that you are driving too fast. 4. Those people were New York and Miami. 5. I knew it! Those two were get married. 6. That ship is Liverpool. 7. Don't worry. He'll tell. He is tell the truth sooner or later. 8. We've finished for today. We are home. 3. Completa las frases con bound to o likely to. Example: 'Do you think he'll sell the car?' 'Well, yes. He is likely to sell it. 1. Look at those black clouds. It is to rain any minute. Take the umbrella. 2. 'Will he ring today?' 'Probably. He is to give us a ring tonight.' 3. I knew it. It was to happen. He couldn't lead that sort of life forever. 4. It's quite that she will come with us. 5. I was sure of it.That hooligan was to finish up in jail! 6. I'm to finish reading it tonight. I'll probably give it to you tomorrow. 7. According to the contract, he is to supply the material. 23 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  28. 28. UNIT 12 By + time phrase - By the time + past perfect By the time phrase ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • By, seguido de unahora, significa'para', es decir, 'no mas tardede'. I have to be at home by ten o'clock. Where is she? She should be here by now. Take the car,but I want it back by six o'clock. By seven o'clock in the morning, I'm already working. • Se puede usar con el futureimperfecto simple. By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be in Benidorm. I'll be able to tell you by seven o'clock this evening. • Y confuture imperfecto continue. By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be lying on the beach in Miami. By seven tomorrow, I'll be telling you the whole story. • Conel future perfectosimple. I will probably have finished this job by eight. By eight o'clock, we'll have already finished dinner. • Y future perfectocontinue. By eight o'clock tonight, I will have been working on this job for 20 hours. By four o'clock, we will have been eating for two hours. 24 STANLEY By the time • Sepuede usar conpresente. By the time you come here, he'll have disappeared. We'll have finished breakfast by the time you get up. • Enpasado. By the time you came here, he had disappeared. They had stolen all the jewels by the time the police arrived. • Enpreteriteanterior. By the time she had finished speaking, the little boy had vanished. I had made all the beds by the time she had finished shopping. By the time the policeman had realized what was happening, the burglar was already on the roof. The boys had already eaten all the cakes by the time their mother went back to the kitchen.
  29. 29. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases en future simple. Example: By six o'clock this evening I will be back (be back). 1. By nine o'clock, the children (be) in bed. 2. (finish) the job by four o'clock. 3. Your father (be) back by Saturday. 4. The flight (arrive) in NewYork by nine o'clock. 2. Completa las frases en future perfecto. Example. They will have arrived bynow. 1. I posted the letter last week, so they (receive) it by now. 2. They started at seven this morning, so they (finish) by now. 3. I told him yesterday, so he (do) something about it by now. 4. The plane took off at five, so it (arrive) by now. 3. Completa las frases en forma continua en future imperfecto o perfecto. Example: By this time tomorrow we'll be flying to the Costa Brava. 1. By nine o'clock tonight I (finish) this job. 2. By the end of this month, I (work) here for twenty years. 3. By the time you arrive, I (sleep) in my bed. 4. By the end of the year, I (fight) in the Trade Unions for 40 years. 4. Completa las frases con el past perfect. Example: By the time they got to the cinema, the film had already started. 1. By the time she arrived, most of the guests (leave). 2. By the time you started, I (finished) already. 3. By the time she got to the supermarket, they (close) already. 4. By the time she got, the children up already (have) breakfast. 25 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 I
  30. 30. UNIT 13 The causative • Esta estructura gramatical seformacon: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 have + object + past participle • present: I have my car serviced every month. I'm having my car serviced now. • past: I had my car serviced last week. • present perfect: I have just had my car serviced. • future: • I will have my carserviced tomorrow. • modals: • I may have my carserviced tomorrow. I may be having my car serviced soon. Recuerda • Que esmuy facil confundir el pluscuamperfecto con la estructura gramatical 'causative'. I hadmade atable. (past perfect) I had atable made. (causative) • Laforma causativa es parecida a lavoz pasiva. Nos fijamos en lo que se le hace a algo o alguien, no en lo que alguien hace. active: We are painting our house. passive: The house is being painted by us. causative: We're having our house painted. 26 STANLEY • Losverbos que a menudo se usan conesta estructura son: • Con los verbos: teach train prepare instruct coach nos referimosa cosas que causamos que sean hechas por otros: active: I'm training my son. passive: My son is being trained, causative: I'm having my son trained. • Otros usos de have + object + past participle. She's stupid! She had that explained to her three times. Last week I had my radio cassette stolen. The Prime Minister had rotten eggs thrown at him. Why don't you have your hair cut? We had our house remodelled. service paint clean decoral deliver mend repair develop iron wash cut etc. e
  31. 31. EXERCISES 1. A continuacion tienes unas frases en voz activa. Ponlas en voz pasiva y en causativa. Example: I'm cleaning my room. My room is being cleaned. I'm having my room cleaned. 1. I built a house on the hill. 2. They'll develop the photos. 3. I mended my socks. 4. I'm going to cut the hedges. 5. She's photocopying the book. 6. She will press her skirt. 7. I did the job last night. 8. We'll paint the fence. 9. We are decorating the room. 2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos: teach, train, instruct, coach, show, prepare. Example: I'm coaching the team. The team is being coached by me. I'm having the team coached. 1. I'm teaching my daughter. 2. She is instructing the boys. 3. i prepared them for the test. 4. We'll train the children. 5. I'll show you the house. 6. He'll coach them. 27 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  32. 32. UNIT 14 Clauses of reason • Estas oraciones responden a la pregunta <,por que? y se pueden introducir con las siguientes conjunciones: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 as because since seeing (that) As/Because/Since there were few people, the show was cancelled. We don't keep a stock of those books because they don't sell well. Posicion • Porregla general si queremos darle entasis la ponemos al final. • A menudo empezamos frases conaso since porque las razones a las que nos referimos no necesitan ser enfatizadas. <? As/Since you can't do it yourself, you'll have to ask somebody else to do it for you. As/Since you're very busy, I'll ask your brother to come with me. • Because suele ir a continuationde la oracion principal para poner entasis a una razon que no es conocida por la persona a la que nos dirigimos: He is taking driving lessons because he wants to buy a car. I am studying because I want to become an engineer. • Because se puede usar siempre en vez de as, since, for pero estas conjunciones no siempre se pueden usar en lugar de because. 28 STANLEY • In view of the fact that puede ser expresa- do por as/since/seeing that, pero no por because. As/Since/Seeing that you're here, let's go over the figures. As/Since/Seeing that you're younger, you can carry the case. As/Since/Seeing that they've finished, we can go home. • Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una aseveracion anterior, o ya entendida,se puede reemplazar por if. As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like him, why do you go out with him? • If so/not puede reemplazar un sujeto previamente mencionado + verbo. Will you be coming to the party? If so, bring a couple of bottles of wine. Do you want to drive? If not, I'll do the driving. Do you want to pass your exam? If so, work harder. Are you going to collect the prize? If not, I'll collect it.
  33. 33. EXERCISES 1. A continuacion tienes dos frases, unelas con una conjuncion de razon. Example: The strike was not successful. There was little support.The strike was not successful since/as/because there was little support. 1. They camped there. It was too dark to go on. 2. The problem was too difficult. I left it blank. 3. You are here. You may as well give me a hand. 4. The fuse blew. She had switched on all the heaters. 5. She was angry. We were late. 6. Wehad dinner very late. I was not hungry. 7. You don't like him. Why did you invite him? 8. It had frozen. There was ice everywhere. 9. You can't cook. You'll have to hire a cook. 10. He wants to find a flat. He wants to be independent. 11. He is studying at night. He works during the day. 12. He knows Italian. He can do the talking. 13. You don't love him. Why did you marry him? 2. Completar con "if so"o "if not". Example: Do you love Jim? If so, why don't you marry him? 1. Will you stay tonight? , hand in the key. 2. Is he going to New York? , tell him to bring mea souvenir. 3. Canyou lend me£1? , I'll ask Peter. 4. Have you got any money? , why didn't you lend me some? 29 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  34. 34. UNIT 15 Clauses of comparison • Estas oraciones a menudo responden ala pregunta <,como? • Laformation es de: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 as + adjetivo + as (as good as) as + adverbio + as (as well as) not so/as... as -er... than more... than less... than the... the • Normalmente omitimos el verbo dela segunda parte de la comparacion. She is as pretty as her sister (is). Mary types as quickly as Jennifer (does). He is not so/as good as his sister (is). His brother is faster than he (is). She moves more slowly than her brother (does). The more exercise you take, the better you feel. • A veces omitimos tanto el sujeto como el verbo. This morning he looked happier than (he looked) last night. 30 STANLEY Comparacion con adjetivos y verbos conjugados. It's warmer today than it was yesterday. My wife spends more money than I earn. He doesn't pay as much as we do. Comparacion con adverbios y verbos conjugados. He didn't run as fast as we expected. She works harder than I did at her age. Comparacion con adjetivos e infinitives o gerundios. • A menudo se usan indistintamente, pero es mejor usar el infinitive para una action en particular, mientras que los gerundios se usan mas para cosas engeneral. Nowadays it's as cheap to buy a new watch as (it is) to repair the old one. Buying a new watch is as cheap as repairing the old one. It's always safer to do it oneself than to let others do it. Doing things oneself is usually safer than letting others do them. • Sitenemos unverbo conjugado +this/that/ which antes de as/than podemos poner un gerundio detras. I'll do it myself; this will be cheaper than calling a plumber. She helped me in the kitchen, which was better than watching TV.
  35. 35. EXERCISES 1. A continuacion tienes dos frases con adjetivos. Unelas. Example: He is clever. His sister is just as clever. He is as clever as his sister. 1. He is slow. His brother is faster. He is 2. He is quick. His sister is quicker. His sister 3. Today it's dark. Yesterday was not so dark. It's 4. He earns a lot of money. He spends more. He spends 5. We pay a lot in taxes. He doesn't pay so much. He doesn't 2. Haz ahora lo mismo con adverbios. Example: We played well. You play better. We didn't play as well as you did. 1. i work hard. You work harder. You 2. I heard people singing before. She sings louder. She sings 3. He answers quickly. His sister answers just as quickly. He answers 4. He moves slowly. His friend moves faster. He moves 3. Completa las frases siguientes. Example: Buying a new watch is cheaper than repairing it. To buy a new watch is cheaper than to repair it. 1. I think that lying on the beach is as boring as , (watch) television. 2. To drive a car is easier than , (pilot) a plane. 3. Eating cereals is much healthier than , (drink) wine. 4. To sweep the streets is better than , (do) nothing. 31 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  36. 36. UNIT 16 Clauses of concession • Lasoraciones deconcesion estan introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 - although »though even if even though no matter however whatever much as while Although/Though/Even though I wassorry for her, I must saythatshe deserves it. We intend to go to the book fair even if we don't sell any books. However far it is, we'll get there. No matter what you do, don't touch this. Whatever you do, don't tell anybody you saw me. Much as I'd like to help you, I can't do anything for you. However rich people are, they always want more. While I disapprove of the wayyou do it, I agree to the idea. • Podemos usar mayencasos hipoteticos despues de todas las conjunciones que introducen oraciones de concesion. However clever she may be, she isn't as clever as he is. Even though you may be sorry for him, he doesn't deserve it. Whatever you maythink, I won't change my decision. - However frightened youmay be, you must never show it. 32 STANLEY • Maypuede significar "puede quesi". 'But he is your friend!' 'He may be my friend, but I still don't trust him.' • Detodas formas, may usado asi es parte de la oracion principal, no es una oracion de concesion. • As y though pueden ir detras de algunos adjetivos, adverbios y verbos para introducir oraciones de concesion en un estilo formal. Beautiful though she was, she wasa very unreliable woman. Try as we might, we couldn't get a word out of him. • Even if se puede usar delante de should + infinitive, lo mismo que if en frases condicio- nales. Expresa la idea de que no es facil que ocurra. Even if she should hear it on the news, there's nothing she can do about it. • Loscompuestos de ever pueden introducir oraciones de concesion de la misma manera que no matter. Whatever I do, it always seems to be wrong. Whenever you see her, she always seems to be busy.
  37. 37. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. A continuacion tienes dos columnas. Casa las de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. Whatever you do, A. I'm going ahead with the plans. 2. No matter what you do, B. it is difficult to avoid accidents. 3. However frightened you may be, C. don't give him money. 4. Even though you may feel sorry for him, must remain calm. 5. However carefully one drives, E. don't touch this switch. 6. Whatever your opinion is, F.don't tell him what I told you. 7. No matter where you are, G. the practise is always different. 8. Much as I'd like to help, H.everybody knew about it. 9. Although it was supposed to be a secret, I. I'm powerless to do anything. 10. While what they say is the ideal thing, J. you'll always be the same. 2. A continuacion tienes unas oraciones concesivas. Completalas con la conjuncion correspondiente. Example: Beautiful though the necklace was, it was too expensive. 1. Unlikely it may sound, what I'm saying is true. 2. Rich the man was, he had not attraction to her. 3. Try they might, they couldn't move the rock. 4. poor you are, there's always someone poorer than you. 5. you do, don't touch the bomb. 6. he was condemned for robbery, he only got a couple of years. 7. I disapprove of the wayyou do it, I think you're right about it. 8. it is, we'll get there in time. 9. she should find out, she won't do anything about it. 10. happens, don't forget to write. 11. I'll find her, she's gone. 12. gains most points, wins the competition. 13. My roof leaks it rains. 14. team gains most points, wins the set. 15. hard I worked, my teacher was never satisfied. 16. what they are, stick to your beliefs. 17. Unlikely it may seem. I saw it with my own eyes. 18. Poor he was, he was honest. 19. difficult it is, I'll solve it. 20. he was guilty, he got off lightly. 33 STANLEY
  38. 38. UNIT 17 Condition clauses ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • Lasoraciones de condition puedenser introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones: as long as assuming that even if if only on condition that provided/providing that » so long as - unless suppose that supposing that whether... or otherwise but for that • Even if We must leave even if you aren't ready. • Whether... or = if... or We must leave now, whether you are ready or not. • Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative Unless we leave now, we'll be late. If we don't leave now, we'll be late. • On condition that They'll lend us their car on condition that we pay for the petrol. • Provided/Providing that You can have the rest of the day off provided / providing that you finish the job. • Suppose/Supposing (that) Supposing that you miss the plane, what will you do? • Otherwise I must finish the job bytomorrow, otherwise I won't get paid for it. • But for that My uncle pays the fees; but for that I wouldn't be here. 34 STANLEY Recuerda • Quehaydiferencias entre in case yif I'll bring some beer in case you need some. I'll bring some beer if you need some, • Enel primer caso traer6 la cerveza de todas formas (por si acaso). • Enel segundo caso la traere solo si hace falta. Implied conditionals Type 1 With patience, you'll teach him something. (if you have patience) - Given anopportunity, they'll succeed. (if they are given) Type 2 But for his friends he would have problems, (if he didn't have) Type 3 Without their help we wouldn't have reached the top. (if they hadn't helped us) if
  39. 39. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases con una conjuncion condicional. Example: We must be back by 12, otherwise we'll be locked out. 1. She used her calculator, she would have taken longer. 2. we leave at once, we'll be late. 3. We must leave at once, you are ready or not. 4. You can borrow my car, I have it back by tomorrow morning. 5. I miss the train. What shall Ido? 6. They'll lend us their villa we look after it. 7. that it is true, what can we do about it? 8. you start at once, you won't get there in time. 9. I don't mind what you talk about you speak in English. 10. I wouldn't marry him he was/were a millionaire. 11. Come with me, they won't let me in. 12. I don't mind what he does he sends me a cheque every month. 2. En este ejercicio tienes que casar las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. I'll ask your father A. it has nothing to do with me. 2. Suppose there are no flights, B. even if you say it's true. 3. I'll be back to work tomorrow C. provided you buy some petrol. 4. We must be early, D. otherwise/or else we won't get a seat. 5. You can borrow my car E. whether I feel well or not. 6. I find it difficult to believe F.what shall Ido? 7. Assuming that what you say is true, G. unless you prefer that I ask your mother. 3. Indica si los implied conditionals son del tipo 1, 2, o 3. Example: With luck we'll be there in time. Type 1 1. In different circumstances, I would have gone with you. 2. I would telephone her, but I don't know her number. 3. To hear her talk, you'd think she was the Queen of Sheba. 4. I'll speak to her, if I see her. 5. We would have eaten that if we had been hungry. 6. She'll marry me if I ask her. 7. You'd do it if you had to. 35 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  40. 40. UNIT 18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Clauses of purpose • Estas oraciones indican unproposito yson introducidas por: so that in order that in case lest for fear that • Responden a laspreguntas ^para que?y para que proposito? • In order to y so as to nos dan idea de proposito, pero no son conjunciones, sino una variante del to de infinitive. Secuencias del verbo • Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta en presente, preterite perfecto o future, so that y in order that puede ir seguido de may, can, o will. • So that es mas usado que in order that. We've come early so that/in order that we can/may/will get good seats. • So that y in order that pueden ir seguidos de presente. Make a knot in your handkerchief so that/in order that you remember to give me a ring. • Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta en pasado simple, pasado progresivo, o pluscuamperfecto, so that y in order that van seguidos de should, could, might, o would. We came early so that/in order that we should/could/might/would get good seats. 36 STANLEY Recuerda • Laforma negativa de inorder that yso that. We came early so that/in order that we might not miss the train. • Tambien podrfamos poner should not y would not. • No podri'amos poner, sinembargo, could not. • Sepueden hacer construccionesde infinitivo con not to, so as not to, y in order not to. She wore an apron in order not to get dirty. We were behind the goalkeeper so as not to miss our team's goals. • Despues de in case se puede poner should, might o presente. The building has an emergency exit in case there is (there should/might be) a fire. • Should con lest He ran away lest he (should/might) be seen, (para que no) • Forfear suele ir seguido de might, aunque la misma idea se puede expresar con in case. He left in a hurry for fear(that) she might change her mind. He left in a hurry in case she changed her mind.
  41. 41. EXERCISES 1. Casa las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. They've arrived early A. so that we should have quiet. 2. I've opened the window B. in order to get fresh air. 3. I closed the door C. so they can get a good view. 4. They arrived early D. so as not to miss anything. 5. I'm taking an umbrella E. in order that we may live. 6. They have a memorial service that future generations might every year know who they were. 7. i left a note on his pillow that blind people can tell the 8. The banknotes are different difference. 9. They carved their names on the so that he would be sure to see it' rock I. lest they should forget their dead. 10. They have died J. in case I need it. 2. A continuacion completa las frases con lest, in case, for fear, so that. Example: I bought it quickly, for fear she might change her mind. 1. We avoided mentioning her husband she should be grieved. 2. We bought the house at once he changed his mind. 3. We arrived early we might not miss anything. 4. She hid her diary her husband wouldn't be able to find it. 5. We hid in the cave we might be seen. 6. We slipped away silently that he might wake up. 7. She's taking a raincoat she needs it. 8. I'm lighting the fire the house will be warm when the children get home. 9. There were telephone points drivers could summon help. 10. She asked us to ring first she was out. 11. She came early that she might not miss anything. 12. I'll take a gun with me I need it. 13. We left in a hurry he should change his mind. 14. He uses public telephones the police won't be able to trace his calls. 15. We left in a hurry he'd come after us. 16. We left in a hurry he might come after us. 17.1 rang him up to tell him the news. 37 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 H. it.
  42. 42. UNIT 19 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Clauses of purpose (cont.) • Estas oraciones describen consecuenciasy pueden ser introducidas por because o as. She was sacked because she didn't work hard enough. As it froze, there was ice everywhere. • Tambien pueden ser expresadas por dos oraciones unidas por so: It was too late, so we stopped for the night. It had rained hard, so there were pools everywhere. • Thereforetiene el mismo sentido, peroes mas formal. They haven't arrived yet. Therefore, we're leaving. • Lasoraciones deresultado se pueden introducir con that despues de so +adjetivo. His hands are so fast (that) the eye can't follow them. • Tambien se puede formar conthat despues de so + adverbio. His hands move so quickly (that) the eye can't follow them. • Se pueden formar tambien consuch (a)+ (adjective) noun + that. She issuch a pretty girl that everybody stares at her. They have such good players that they are unbeatable. • Such +that se pueden usar en un lenguaje formal. Her temper is such that no one wants to be near her. 38 STANLEY • Lasoraciones de resultado se pueden usar despues de so much, so many, so few, so little, etc. There was so much to see that we stayed two more days. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in. • Enambos cases se puede usar such a lot (of). Recuerda • Que cuandolaoracionesunaexclama- cion el soy el suchse pueden usarsin el that. * He isso tall...! They made sucha mess ...! She makessuchhorrible coffee ...! • Such + a + adjective+ noun sepuede reemplazar por so + adjective+ a + noun. Such a kind woman. . Sokinda woman. • A veces encontramos el so al principio dela frase. Esto va seguido de una forma invertida del verbo. So terrible was the news that she broke down. So conceited was the girl that nobody went out with her.
  43. 43. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases con so, such, such a, so much, so many, so few,so little. Example: That man is such a fool that everybody laughs at him. 1. This woman is pretty! 2. It was raining that we stayed in. 3. I was cold that I couldn't sleep. 4. Children make mess! 5. They are handsome boys that all the girls love them. 6. I've never heard terrible news. 7. Thumbelina was that she lived in a nutshell. 8. Never in the history of humanity have achieved so much. 9. We have money that we'd better stay home. 10. It's strange to see you here! 11. There are things to do on this farm! 12. He gets money and works so little! 13. I, however, get money and work so much! 14. He spoke for long time that we all fell asleep. 15. You seldom drink good coffee. 16. Mrs Cohn is kind. She is a good person. 17. There was a lot of rain last night! 18. I've never seen nonsense in my life. 19. That girl is nuisance! 20. They were that it's difficult to imagine how they could have won the battle. 21.I didn't know the problem was difficult! 22. The dog was fierce that no one dared to get near. 23. It was fierce dog that no one dared to get near. 24. They had rain that the rivers overflowed. 25. There were questions to answer! 26. They were that they couldn't do the job in time. 27. They had time that it was impossible that they'd do it in time. 28. He had water left that he could hardly wet his lips. 29. She had boyfriends that she didn't know which one to choose. 30. You've made mess, children! 31. She speaks fast that it's difficult to follow her. 32. Never have achieved so much. 33. He worked hours that his wife hardly ever saw him. 39 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  44. 44. UNIT 20 Clauses of time • Lasoraciones de tiempo se introducencon las siguientes conjunciones: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 after -as - aslongas - assoonas before hardly... when once - since - immediately no sooner... than since the sooner till/until when whenever - while • ambien pueden serintroducidas con: the minute the moment • Cuando la oracion adverbial va enprimer lugar se pone una coma. After she got divorced, her life changed. His life changed completely after he got married. You can keep the book as long as you like. Once you've seen one of his films, you've seen them all. • Cuando la oracion temporal se refiere al futuro, generalmente usamos el presente despues de: - after as soon as by the time - immediately till until - directly - before when. They'll emigrate to Australia when their papers are ready. As soon as we get there, I'll light a huge fire. 40 STANLEY • A menudo usamos el preterite perfecto con un futuro perfecto. By the time they've finished, we'll already have disappeared. • A menudo usamos el preteriteperfecto despues de once y now that. Once we have painted the kitchen, we'll move to the sitting room. Now that we know the truth, we can act accordingly. Recuerda • Queaunque generalmente nousamos el futuro en las oraciones temporales, se puede usar will despues de when. The secretary wants to know when she will be taking her holidays. • Normalmente, sinembargo, usamos el presente. When I come back home, I'll bring you a present. He'll tell us about the match when he gets here. • After vaseguido generalmente de tiempos compuestos. After/When you've finished reading it, give it back to me. After/When the train had left, he remembered leaving the lights on. • Hardly/scarcely... when, no sooner.... than. He could hardly breathe when he entered the room. No sooner had they finished painting at one end than they had to start at the other.
  45. 45. 1. Completa las frases con una conjunction correspondiente. after, when, as, as long as, as soon as, during the time, before, by the time, once, since, until, till, the moment, whenever, while. Example: Before John arrives, I'll give the children their tea. 1. I won't say a word, you do the same. 2. We never met I lived there. 3. they come, we'll have finished our dinner. 4. you have seen one,you've seen them all. 5. you insist, I must tell you something. 6. Let me know he arrives. 7. She was making the bed he was preparing breakfast. 8. Finish one thing you start another. 9. They were working late at night. 10. Martha and John were always fighting they lived together. 11. you get into the habit of smoking, it's very difficult to get rid of it. 12. I'll give you a call I finish. 13. She answered the phone almost 2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar: scarcely, hardly, no sooner, the sooner. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo. Example: Hardly had he begun to talk when he was told to keep quiet. 1. No sooner had she drunk the coffee she began to feel drowsy. 2. Scarcely had she entered the room the phone rang. 3. Hardly had he finished his coffee he got back to work. 4. No sooner does she get money she spends it. 5. The sooner we start, we'll get to Santiago. 6. Scarcely had he got to sleep the telephone woke him up. 7. We had hardly began our walk it started to rain. 8. The sooner we get married, we'll have a family. 9. Scarcely had I got into the bathtub there was a knock at the door. 10. No sooner had she heard the news she broke down in tears. 11. We had hardly crossed the bridge it collapsed. 12. No sooner had she got the injection she began to lose consciousness. 13. Hardly had he finished speaking to her on the phone she appeared at the door. 41 STANLEY EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  46. 46. UNIT 21 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Conditionals type 1 • Usamos las condicionales delTipo 1que sucedera o no sucedera, si creemos que un acontecimiento future es probable. If he comes early, we'll go to the theatre. If he doesn't come early, we won't go to the theatre. Variation 1 • Si no estamos seguros de lo que sucedera podemos usar un verbo 'modal'. If he comes early, we may/could/can/ may/might/should/ought to/ must go to the cinema. If + should + imperative If you should see her, tell her to come at once. Should you see her, tell her to come at once. If you should happen to see her, tell her to come at once. Should you happen to see her, tell her to come at once. • Laoration principal puede noserun imperativo. If I should see Mary, I'll tell her to come at once. 42 STANLEY Variation 2: If + should + imperative • Seusasobre todo para peticiones y sugerencias. If you should go to Barcelona, go to see the Olympic City. - If youshould write to them, send them my regards. • Tambien se pueden usar imperatives enel Tipo 1 ordinario. Speak to them if you want. If you want, speak to them. • Sepuede expresar unacondicion sin if, empezando una frase con should. Esto es una forma de expresion muy formal. Should you be interested in taking part in our book fair, please fill in this form. Should you wish our agent to call on you, just drop this slip in the letter box. Variation 3: Imperative + conjunction + clause • Se pueden usar imperatives envezde oraciones de if para peticiones, comentarios, ofertas, amenazas, etc. - Keep doing that and you'll geta fine. Tell them what to do and they'll do it. Stop shouting, or you'll get smacked. Take the shortcut, or you'll never get there in time. Give us the materials, and we'll do the job.
  47. 47. EXERCISES 1. Completa la segunda parte de la oracion con las palabras entre parentesis. Example: If the weather is good, we'll go for a walk. 1. If we arrive early, (we/leave/early). 2. It will be cold (you/open/window). 3. If I win the pools, (I/buy/that house). 4. I'll tell him that (I/see/him). 5. If you stop talking, (I/tell/you). 6. We'll be there by 9 (the train/leaves/time). 7. If she comes with you, (she/be/welcome). 8. I'll lend you the book (you/want/read it). 9. If it's cold, (close/window). 10. I'll fill in the form (you/hand/it/to/me). 11. If you pay cash, (you/get/reduction). 12. You will get more money (learn/languages). 13. If I am hungry, (eat/sandwiches). 14. You'll catch a cold (stand/rain). 2. En las frases siguientes vas a usar el imperativo. Example: If you see her, give her my regards. 1. If you should happen to see him, (teII/he/I want/speak/he). 2. Should he call, (tell/he/l/rmg/back). 3. If you should write to Jennifer, (send/she/my/love). 4. Should you go to Madrid, (go/see/Prado Nluseum). 5. Should you be interested in our offer, (lej/we/know). 6. If you want our agent to call, (contact/we^ 7. If she should get in touch with you, (telMshe/l/sti 1I/love/she). 8. Should they come early, (let/l/know). 9. Should you receive a letter, (let/l/read/it). 43 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  48. 48. UNIT 22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Conditionals type 2 • Este tipo defrases habla acerca de situaciones imaginarias y especula sobre sus consecuencias. If you took a taxi, you would get there in time. If you didn't go to that place, you wouldn't get in trouble. • A veces describimos cosas completamente imposibles. If I had your ears, I'd be able to fly. Variation 1 • Se puede usar were envez dewas des- pues de I/he/she/it. No hay diferencia en el significado, pero were es mas formal. If I was/were taller, I'd be a policeman. • Sinembargo, para frases imaginarias es preferible were. If I were the King ... • Tambien usamos were para darconsejos. If I were you/in your position, I'd take the money. • Con la expresion if it were not for/were it not for, no usamos was. If it weren't for his charity, I would have starved. • De una forma mas formal, If it were notfor, se puede expresar por Were it not for. Were it not for the Red Cross, they would have died. Were it not for the fact that they helped us, we would have died. 44 STANLEY Variation 2 • Cualquier verbo modal puede reemplazar a would cuando creemos que las consecuen- cias son menos posibles que ocurran. If they were here, they could give us a hand, (ability) If they were here, they might give us a hand, (possibility) If he lost, he should train harder, (duty) Variation 3 • Podemos usar were + infinitivo en vezde un verbo ordinario. If I were to ask you, would you lend me some money? • Sepueden usar verbos modales enla oration principal. If you were to ask her, she might accept. If your son were to make an effort, he could do much better. • Unaforma comun de inversion, quitando el if es: Were the government to cut taxes, petrol would be very cheap. • Laforma negativa es posible. - I'd do it, were it notlikely to make things worse for us.
  49. 49. 1. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo. Example: I would be a policeman if I were taller. 1. If you went by plane, [get/there/earlier). 2. We'd stay at home, (it/rain). 3. If you saw it, (see/difference). 4. You would get there quicker, (go/train). 5. If I were taller, (run/faster). 6. I would live in Miami, 7. If they were^ vegetarians, (eat/any meat). 8. I would buy that dress 9. If they needed money, (sell/car). 10. The policeman would find me (park/car/here). 11. If I asked her, (marry/me). 12. I'd go to the pub (want/play/cards). 13. If I had money, (put/it/bank). 14. I'd put them in the sitting room (I/have/flowers). 15. If I had scisssors, (cut/it). 16. Iwouldn't^go to Benidorm (l/can/go/tp the/Bahamas). 17. If I liked pmons, (eat/them). 18. Td spread the butter (have/knife). 19. If you looked after jtL (it/look/much/better). 20. [ would jnarry him. 21. Were it not for your help, (I/be/homeless). 22. I would leave him (I/be/in her place). 23. If you were to ask her, (may/help). 24. If he were here, (can/help us). 25. If he were to make an effort, (can/do/better). 26. I'd be king (you/be/my/queen). STANLEY 45 EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 (have/money). (like it). (I/be/you).
  50. 50. UNIT 23 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Conditionals type 3 • Estas oraciones decondicional asumen algo completamente imaginario. • Tanto en el tipo 2 como en el 3, soncondi- ciones hipoteticas. If I hadbeen taller, I would have been a policeman. If I hadn't been carrying an umbrella, I would have got wet. - If I had won thelottery, Iwould have bought a new house. If I had been you/in your position • Expresamos lo quehabrfamoshechosi hubieramos sido otro. - If I had been you/in your position, I would have married him. If it hadn't been for • Sinohubiera sido poralgo... If it hadn't been for the cold, we would have gone to the beach. Inversion con "had" • Hadhe es unavariacionde if he had: Had the workers gone on a strike, the production would have stopped. • Sepuede hacer unainversion negativa. Had it not been for his reluctance to leave, we would have been able to reach the others in time, (no se puede decir hadn't) 46 STANLEY Variation 1: if + past perfect + modal. If I had known the facts, I could have told you what to do. If I could have got the facts, I might have told you what to do. Recuerda Que podemos reemplazar would con otro verbo modal cuando sentimos que las consecuencias imaginadas son menos probables que ocurran, o cuando nos referimos ahabiiidad, posibilidad, etc. If Ihad been here, Icould have defended you, (ability) if Ihad been here, I might have told you. (possibility) If he had received the note, he should have goneto the meeting. (duty) • Sepuede combinar laforma progresivay tiempos compuestoscon losverbos modales. If I had been there, I could have been helping with the harvest. If they had been there, they could have met my teacher.
  51. 51. 1. Completa las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo. Example: If it had rained, we would have stayed home. 1. You would have got a better job (you/work/harder at school). 2. If you hadn't had an umbrelja (you/get wet). 3. Life would have been easier (win/lottery). 4. If I had had time (go/with/you). 5. The children would have broken many things (play/house/ball). 6. If we had liked the film (go/cinema). 7. It would have seemed easier (you/know/it). 8. If you had been a vegetarian ? (you/eat/that/fish). 9. We would have had a good harvest (rain). 10. If I had panted to play cards^ (go/to/pub). 11. I would have liked to go by bicycle, (we/be able). 12. If I had been him (leave/her/ages ago). 13. He might 14. Had the management acted sooner 15. The garden would have looked much better (you/look/after it). 16. If I had had a knife (I/spread/butter/bread). 17. Had it not been for the bad weather (we/be able/save/climber). 18. She could have met my brother, (she/be/here) STANLEY EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 47 have told us (he/be/here/yesterday). (strike/have/not/hapen).
  52. 52. UNIT 24 Comparisons • Lascomparaciones adverbiales se pueden hacer con los siguientes adverbios: as - John runs asfastas his brother. not as/so... as: She can't dance as well as you (can). I can't speak so fluently as you (can). the... the: The more you study, the more you learn. comparative: He is taller than anyone I know. superlative: - Heisthetallest man in the country. Jimmy is the youngest of/in the family. • A menudo usamos el comparativo +than ever, than anyone, thananything. The athlete ran faster than ever. He runs faster than anyone else. • Most + adjetivo (sin the) significa very. You are most kind. significa .Youare very kind. • Este tipo defrases seforma conadjetivos demasdedossilabas: annoying - disobedient - encouraging - exciting - helpful important misleading etc. • Lascomparaciones conlike y alike. Jim is very like his father. Jim and his father are very alike. Look at those plants! This is like living in the jungle. 48 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 Comparaciones entre "like" y "as" • Like (preposition) se usacon nombres, pronombres y gerundios. He drinks like a fish. You look like a princess. Why aren't you like him? house is like being in a prison. • As (conjuncion) introduce oraciones con un verbo infinitive. Do as your brother does: go jogging. Why don't you study foreign languages as we do? • Sinembargo, a veces en ingles coloquial usamos like en vez de as. Walk to the office like wedo. Recuerda Que hayunadiferencia entre like + sustantivo y as + nombre: She works like a slave in that kitchenof hers, (trabaja muchfsimo) Cervantes worked as a slave for five years in Algiers, (fueesclavo) The murderer used the heavy ashtray as a weapon.
  53. 53. EXERCISES 1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas en una tal como en el ejemplo. Example: She sings sweetly. Her sister sings sweetly too. She sings as sweetly as her sister. 1. I can't swim well. You can swim better. I 2. Jim can't jump high. His friend jumps higher. Jim 3. The weather is getting cold. I didn't expect it to get so cold. It is getting 4. My father drives fast. No one drives so fast. Nobody drives 5. This film is very bad. I have never seen a worse one. This is 6. Susan types fast. No one in her class types faster. Susan is 2. Completa las frases siguientes. Example: The faster she types, the more mistakes she makes, 1. This weather is getting colder every day. 2. Things are getting more and every year. (expensive) 3. The rain cleared more (quick/l/expect) 4. He is becoming less in physics, (interest) 5. The bigger the bed, the we'll sleep. (comfortable) 6. Riding a horse is not a motorcycle, (easy/ ride) 3. En las frases siguientes vas a elegir entre like, alike y as. Example: She runs like a gazelle. 1. Why don't you do your mother? 2. Why don't you cook she does? 3. You should train every day we do. 4. Mark and his brother are very much . 5. These twins are two peas. 49 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  54. 54. UNIT 25 Connective relative clauses ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • Lospronombres son: who whom whose which • Se usan comas igual que enlas non-defining clauses. • Lasoraciones 'conectivas' nodescriben a los sustantivos sino que continuan la historia. Generalmente se colocan detras del objeto del verbo principal: I asked my father, who said it had nothing to do with him. • O detras de unapreposicion +sustantivo: • I gave thesalt to my father, who passed it on to my mother. • Elpronombre relative puede reemplazarse por and/but + he/she etc. I gave the salt to myfather and he passed it on ... I gave the salt to my father, but he ... • A veces es dificil distinguir si unaoracion es connective o non-defining, puesto que las dos formas son iguales. Ejemplos de oraciones conectivas. He eats a lot of bacon and eggs, which produce cholesterol. She went out with Jill, whose boyfriend had just left her. Se pueden usar one/two, etc., few/several/ some, etc. + of + whom/which. They had twenty goats, two of which were killed by wolves. Mrs Evans introduced us to her daughters, one of whom offered to show us the town. The explosion injured many people, several of whom had to be taken to hospital. Oracion con "which" She ate a lot of cakes, which made her sick. The alarm clock went off an hour earlier, which annoyed me quite a lot. My girlfriend kept playing about with other boys, which made me mad. A dog was barking all night, which kept everybody awake. Recuerda • Queel pronombre relative what no tiene nada que ver con el pronom- bre relative conectivo which. • Which tiene como antecedente a unapalabra o grupo de palabras en la frase anterior, mientras que what no se refiere a nada anterior. • What suele ser objeto, mientras que which es generalmente sujeto. He said he was poor, which was not true. What I saw astonishedme. 50 STANLEY
  55. 55. EXERCISES 1. Une las dos frases que tienes a continuacion en unasola. Example: She drank beer. The beer made her fat. She drank beer, which made her fat. 1. She bought a dozen eggs. Five broke on the way. 2. The old man slipped on the banana skin. It made everybody laugh. 3. I threw the ball to my brother. My brother threw it to Jim. 4. The wall collapsed on top of the children. Several children had to be taken to hospital. 5. She went out with her boss. Her boss's car broke down on the way 6. I told my mother. My mother said it wasn't my business. 7. The teacher introduced me to my new classmates. One of my classmates offered to show me around. 8. The rain rattled on the roof all night. This kept us awake all night. 9. She said she had no money. It was not true. 10. Some of the bridges had been blown up. It made the army's advance more difficult. 11. He met all Tom's sisters. Some of them took a fancy to him. 12. I bought two lamps. One of the lamps broke when I dropped the box. 13. The singer let out a squawk. It made everybody laugh. 14. He ate only cereals. That kept him fit. 15. The roads were flooded. That made our journey very dangerous. 16. He said he was an orphan. That was not true. 51 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  56. 56. UNIT 26 Discourse markers • Talking about' y 'with reference to' muestran una conexion entre lo que quieres decir y lo que se dijo antes. I saw Susan this morning. Talking about Susan, did you know that she is getting married? With reference to your letter, I should like to point out that.. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • Otras expresiones tratan de'enfocar'la atencion. Well, regarding past results, I don't think it is advisable ... That goes for production. Now, as regards marketing, I think ... As far as marketing is concerned, I leave the decisions up to you. As for Janet, the less I see her, the better. Structuring • Hay un gran numero de expresiones que se pueden usar para mostrar la estructura de lo que estamos diciendo: • Dividiendo: - firstly secondly finally first of all - tobegin with in the first place for one thing moreover in addition similarly as well as besides • Contrastando con lo que acabamos de decir: all the same yet and yet still on the other hand however He is not very clever. All the same, he's a nice chap. He is a socialist, and yet he has a villa in Spain. • Dando ejemplosy excepciones: for instance for example such as including in particular apart from with the exception of and so on and so forth • Generalizando: on the whole - ingeneral - asa rule in most cases broadly speaking to some extent mostly • Consecuencia logica: thus therefore They didn't do it. Therefore, we'll have to do it. • Aclarando: I mean, that is to say, in other words. • Cambiando de tema: By the way, incidentally, I say. 52 • Cuando nosreferimos alas expectativas de otro: 'Was it good?' 'Yes, as a matter of fact, it was very good.' 'Did you go?' 'No, we didn't, actually.' • A menudo criticamos con: Honestly, darling, the meal today was terrible. Frankly, John, your marks could have been better. STANLEY
  57. 57. EXERCISES 1. Completa las frases con una de las expresiones que van a continuacion: to start with, all the same, talking about, therefore, honestly, actually, for instance, and so forth, on the whole. Example: Corporal Evans is not a bad soldier. On the whole, I think he is quite good. 1. 'What shall I do?' 'Well, you can clean this room, ' 2. darling, this is the worst meal I have ever eaten. 3. She's not very clever. you've got to admit she is very pretty. 4. 'Did you have a good holiday?' 'Well, we didn't go on holiday.' 5. She had an accident. She was unable to meet him. 6. Several of my friends came: Carol and Susan, . 7. They discussed investments, the state of the economy and 8. 'I saw John yesterday,' 'did you?. . John, did you know he's leaving the firm?' 2. Completa las frases con las expresiones adecuadas. Example: He claims he is a socialist and yet he lives in a mansion. 1. The flat is not very good; it's very cheap. 2. He had an accident, he was ruined and, his wife left him. 3. I invited John, Jim and Alan. Mark, I couldn't care less about him. 4. We'll have to do without your services, you're fired. 5. There was a little whisky, but it was soda . 6. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, I enjoyed it very much 7. I am home by six. 8. ! What a nice girl is coming this way! 9. I like Mary her husband, I think he is quite a bore. 10. The car is not very new. it's not expensive. 11. There were a few Italians, but there were Americans 12. 'Did you like the party?' 'Yes, I did like it ' 13. ! This is not what I ordered. 14.1 like Susan, Leslie and Carol. Linda, I couldn't care less about her. 15. There are some poplars and oak trees, but there are pine trees 53 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  58. 58. UNIT 27 Relative clauses: defining • Unaoracion de relative 'definida' es laque nos da una referenda de la palabra que le antecede. A doctor is a person who has been trained in medical science. - A liar isa person whohabitually tells lies. • Elpronombre relative that se usasolo para oraciones 'definidas' y se refiere a personas o cosas. Para personas, por supuesto tambien se usa who, y para cosas which. I don't like children that are noisy. I dislike women who chatter incessantly. Unemployment is a problem that/which concerns us all. • Usamos indistintamente that o whosiel antecedente es un sustantivo vago o generali- zado o un pronombre. She is the sort of woman who/that will go out with anyone. We need someone that/who can speak good English. • Si el antecedente es masdefinido usamos who: The woman who came to see you yesterday is a friend of my mother's. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 54 STANLEY • Cuando nosreferimos a cosas solemos usar that o which pero en algunos casos preferimos that: a) Cuando el antecedente es un pronombre indefinido: The doctors will do all that lies in their hands. b) Cuando el antecedentelleva unsuperlative: That was the funniest joke that has ever been told here. C) Cuando el antecedente lleva un numero ordinal: The first answer that was given was the rightone. d) Cuando el antecedente es el complemento de to be. It's an antique that will fetch a lot of money. Recuerda • A menudoomitimosel relativecuandono es sujetode laoracion. They didn't have the book I wanted. • Lomismoocurre conwhom. Was the woman you spoke to just now a friend of yours? • Eningles coloquial, encaso dedecir el pronombre decimos who en vez de whom, excepto cuando va precedido de preposicion. • Enel lenguaje hablado casisiempre usamos oraciones de relative 'definidas'. Es mas,la mayoria de las oracionesde relative son del tipo en el que podemos suprimir elrelative.
  59. 59. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 1. Une las dos frases en una usando un pronombre relative. Pon el relative entre parentesis si no es sujeto y se puede omitir. Example: The offer is still open. I made it last week. The offer (that) I made last week is still open. 1. The pools winner used a system. This system, he said, had won him a lot of money. 2. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises strong emotions. 3. I know the very person. He will do the job quickly. 4. The gales caused a lot of damage. They swept across southern England last night. 5. The problem is to build houses at a price. Young couples can afford to pay this price. 6. Some frogmen came across a wreck. It had lain on the seabed for 100 years. 2. Anadir oraciones de relative que definan la palabra en negrita. Example: They are asking every tenant to move to a smaller flat, (have/house/bigger than he needs). They are asking every tenant who has a house bigger than he needs to move to a smaller flat. 1. Any person should be sent to prison, (commit/crimes) 2. The yacht arrived first, (command/captain Marryat) 3. The house has been demolished, (stand/on the corner) 4. The man was my uncle, (you/see/yesterday) 5. I enjoy talking to anyone, (he/have/personality) 6. This skirt is identical to the one my sister bought yesterday, (you/wear) 55 STANLEY
  60. 60. UNIT 28 Relative clauses: non-defining • Estas oraciones proporcionan unainforma- cion extra y van encerradas entre comas. En realidad, las dos oraciones, la de relative y la principal se pueden presentar por separado. The wax museum is one of the main attractions. It was opened in 1900. The wax museum, which was opened in 1900, is one of the main attractions. • El hecho de que omitamos o no las comas puede representar un significado diferente en dos frases identicas. He has a brother who plays with the Rangers, (defining) He has a brother, who plays with the Rangers, (non-defining) • La ausencia de la coma en la primera frase indica que tiene mas de un hermano; uno de ellos, al que nos referimos en este caso juega con los Rangers. Podriamos aclarar la frase mas diciendo: He has a brother who plays with the Rangers and another one who plays with Glasgow. • La presencia de unacoma en la segunda frase implica que tiene solamente un hermano (por lo tanto no se puede 'definir' cual de ellos es). La oracion de relative simplemente da mas informacion sobre el. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 56 STANLEY Recuerda • Que conlasoracionesde'non-defining' no se puede omitir el relativo, aunqueno sea sujetodeoracion. The wax museum,which opened in 1900, is one of the attractions of the town, (which es el sujeto) The wax museum, which the King opened in 1990, is one of the attractions of the town, (which es complemento) • Para versi unaoracionde relativoes 'defining' o 'non-defining', lo mejor es omitirla y ver si tiene sentido el resto de la frase. En las oraciones 'non-defining', la frase tiene perfecto sentido sin la oracion de relativo, que al fin y al cabo no es nada mas que una informacion extra. Mientras que la oracion 'defining' de relativo no se puede suprimir. • Defining: * Myuncle is a manwho never stops working. • Non-Defining: My uncle, who will be 60 tomorrow, never stops working.
  61. 61. EXERCISES 1. Une las frases usando which o who en oraciones de relative 'non-defining'. Example: Queen Elizabeth II descends from King Egbert. He united all England in the year 829. Queen Elizabeth descends from King Egbert, who united all England in the year 829. 1. Her first speech was better than her second. The first speech was broadcast. She gave her second one before an audience. 2. The Cabinet will be reduced to twenty. It now has twenty-two members. 3. The 'Book Distributing Co.' provides a novelty service. It was set up in 1950. 4. This industrial dispute has now been settled. It stopped production while it lasted. 5. The English weather is not as bad as some people suppose. They associate it with rain and fog. 6. The new London guide contains a lot of information. It will appear in the bookshops next week. 2. Pon una oracion de relative a continuation de la palabra que va en cursiva. Example: Last night's meeting broke up in disorder. (I/not be able/attend) Last night's meeting, which I wasn't able to attend, broke up in disorder. 1. The Cliffs of Dover are a startling white, (be/famous/all over the world) 2. The winning horse was trained in Ireland, (nobody/expect/win) 3. Joseph Conrad wrote all his books in English. (be/Polish) 4. Bernard Shaw died in 1950. (be/one/greatest writers/the 20th century) 5. Not many people could follow the speaker, (speak/extremely quickly) 6. He was advised to change to an outdoor job. (be/good/his health) 7. The wrecked ship is listing dangerously, (the crew/safe/shore) 57 STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4
  62. 62. UNIT 29 Future tense: contrasts • Future simple: I will play. • Future progresivo: I will beplaying. • Futuroperfecto: I will have played. • Futuro perfectoprogresivo: I will have been playing. Will / Shall • Para predicciones, promesas, peticiones, ofertas, sugerencias y amenazas. Liverpool will win the league. I'll buyyou a bicycle for Christmas. Will you hold this for me, please? Shall I open the door for you, Madam? Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow? You'll regret this! • Para contecimientos formales usamos will en vez de going to. The reception will take place at the Hilton hotel. Will / Shall • Para expresar esperanza, expectation, etc. • Converbos y frases tales como: ENGLISH GRAMMAR • assume be afraid be sure believe doubt expect hope suppose 58 STANLEY I hope she'll marryhim. I suppose he'll get the job. • Conadverbios que indican falta de seguridad. Perhaps she'll change her mind. Otras formas de expresar el futuro • Begoing to: I'm going to see him later. • Be to: I'm to see him later. • Present progressive: I'm seeing him later. • Simple present: It opens tomorrow. Usos del futuro progresivo The children will be arriving at any minute. Recuerda • Que hayuna diferenciaentre: I'll dothe cookingtomorrow, (intention, posible promesa) I'll bedoing thecookingtomorrow, (indtea un hecho) • Aveceshay mucha diferencia: I won't paythe bill, (meniego) I won't bepaying the bill, (no me tocapagar) 4
  63. 63. EXERCISES 1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo y forma masconveniente. Example: He will possibly change his mind. 1. your coat for you, Mum? (I/get) 2. The Rangers the league, (win) 3. I promise you, I on this tomorrow, (work) 4. If you look at the work schedule, you can see that we on this tomorrow, (work) 5. We this invoice. That's for sure! (pay) 6. Look at the book, but I think we this invoice on the 26th. (pay) 7. The wedding at St. James's on June 25th. (take place) 8. for a swim tomorrow, boys? (we/go) 9. 'When are you seeing him?' 'Well, I first thing in the morning.' (see) 10. I am sure she the job she applied for. (get) 11. I suppose he his mind in the end. (change) 2. cambia estas frases por future. Example: I have to see him tomorrow. I'm to see him tomorrow. 1. She has to do it today. 2. We have to give it to him tonight. 3. They have to report at five o'clock. 4. The boys have to meet at four. 5. You have to tell him the truth. 6. They have to let us know as soon as possible. 7. We have to see him tonight. 3. cambia de futuro simple a futuro progresivo. Example: I will see the film tomorrow. / will be seeing the film tomorrow. 1. We will work in the same office. 2. I'll speak to him in the morning. 3. I'll do the shopping in the afternoon. 4. We'll listen to the 8 o'clock news. 5. I'll look for a new job. 6. I'll see her first thing tomorrow morning. STANLEY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 59
  64. 64. UNIT 30 Future tense: contrasts (cont.) Future perfecto • Usamos este tiempo para mostrar quela action estara ya completada para cierto momento en elfuture. We will all be dead by the year 2090. • Este tiempo se usaa menudo converbos que indican que se completa algo: ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 build complete finish etc... • Elfuture perfecto se usadespues deverbos tales como: believe expect suppose hope I suppose they will have finished by tomorrow. Futuro perfecto progresivo • Lo que esta en progreso ahora se puede considerar desde un punto de vista en el futuro: By this time next month, I will have been working for this company for 20 years. Usos del "going to" como futuro. Como prediccion It's going to rain. Look atthose clouds. They are going to get divorced, I'm afraid. • Tambien se usael going to para intencio- nes, planes, etc. I'm going to train tonight. 60 STANLEY • Laintention se puede enfatizarconlos adverbios now y just. I'm just going to change into something more comfortable. And now I'm going to show it to you. * Si decidimos hacer algo sin premeditation usamos el will. We are lost. I'll stop and ask the way. Recuerda • Que el presente progresivo se puede reemplazar por el going to. I'm having lunch with myboss today. I'm going to have lunch with my boss today. • Porrazones deestilo tratamos de evitar ei going to con los verbos go y come (going to go/going to come). I'm going/coming home late tonight. Sustitutos de futuro • Se usa be to para referirnosalfuturo cuando las acciones se pueden controlar. The Prime Minister is to meet the President in May. You are to deliver this letter in person. You are not to tell him anything. El futuro en el pasado They didn't know they were to be reunited years later. I was to see the personnel manager today, but the appointment was cancelled. His inventions were to change the whole way of life for humanity.
  65. 65. EXERCISES 1. Eiige entre going to y will. Example: I think we have a puncture. /'// stop the car and see. 1. the piano for a couple of hours this evening. (practise) 2. He an engine driver when he grows up. (be) 3. There's somebody at the door. I who it is. (go/see) 4. They in November, (get married) 5. So you've got a puncture! OK, I the tyre for you. (change) 6. Look at the sky. It tonight, I'm afraid, (rain) 7. We to stop on the way. 8. 'It's cold! 'OK, I take my coat.' 2. Forma sustitutos de future con las expresiones:to. due to, about to, on the point of. Example: The train at seven. The train is due to leave at seven. 1. Mr and Mrs Bridge leaving. 2.1 think you to get a big surprise. 3. You to meet Mr Gibson at nine o'clock sharp. 4. These tablets to be taken four times a day. 5. The race to start. 6. You to deliver the flowers this evening. 7. The bus is leave any moment now. 3. Vas a hacer lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2, pero con futuro en el pasado. Example: The train was about to leave when we arrived. 1. meet Mr Gibson at five, but he cancelled the meeting. 2. Little did we know we meet again 20 years later. 3. I couldn't go on that trip as I have a baby. 4. The plane at seven but it arrived at ten. 5. We to study the plans of the marketing manager but he didn't come. 6. They couldn't imagine that the two armies to fight again years later. 7. She didn't come with us as she to have an operation. 8. The advanced party to be back at dawn. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 61 STANLEY I I
  66. 66. UNIT 31 Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs ENGLISH GRAMMAR 4 • Usamos for+ gerundio cuando estamos hablando de un proposito en particular. - This isatool foropening cans. That's a gadget for opening bottles. This is a case for keeping records in. This is the knife for carving meat. This tool is used for cutting holes. • Detras de losverbos siguientes se pone gerundio, nunca infinitive: • Conalgunos verbos quevanseguidos de gerundio podemos poner otra palabra entre el verbo y el gerundio. Puede ser un acusativo, me o un nombre, Peter. A veces es tambien un posesivo como my; o's. When are you going to get him working? I don't want to see you doing that again. I don't enjoy your/his/Peter's teasing. admit appreciate -avoid celebrate consider contemplate defer delay deny detest -discontinue -dislike -dispute -endure -enjoy -escape -excuse -explain -fancy -feel like -finish -forgive -can't help -hinder -imagine -keep -loathe -mind -miss -pardon -postpone -practise -prevent -recall -report -resent -resist -risk -suggest -understand -mention I dislike going out with that girl. I regret having said that. Verbo (+ acusativo o posesivo) + gerundio. • Losverbos siguientes pueden ir seguidos tanto por un acusativo como por un posesivo antes de gerundio: - anticipate - contemplate - detest - dislike - dispute - endure - escape - excuse - fancy - forgive hate - hinder - imagine like love - mention mind miss - pardon - prevent - resent - resist - understand - can't bear - can't help - can't stand Despues de come y go con deportes, etc. I often go climbing/skiing/fishing/ riding/driving, etc. El gerundio de need y want. • Detras deestos dosverbos se puede poner gerundio. She needs a lotof encouraging. I can't bear him/his notwriting to you. Fancy you/your having noticed that. • Connombres. can't understand Peter/Peter's leaving her. 62 STANLEY
  67. 67. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Pon el verbo entre parentesis en el tiempo correspondiente. Example: I don't fancy (go) for a walk in the rain. I don't fancy going for a walk in the rain. 1. That woman keeps (nag) me all day long. 2. I dislike (answer) silly questions. 3. It means (get up) very early. 4. I suggest (go) earlier. 5. She detests (speak) in public. 6. I admit (come) here late at night. 7. They contemplate (pull) down the whole building. 8. Imagine not (know) the answer to such a question! 9. They risk (have) an accident on the way. 2. Cambia las frases siguientes a gerundio. Example: That wall needs to be painted. That wall needs painting. 1. The whole house wants to be redecorated. 2. My old car needs to be overhauled. 3. These children need to be encouraged. 4. The grass wants to be cut. 3. A continuacion tienes frases con acusativos y con posesivos. Cambialas. Si esta'n con acusativo ponlas con posesivo y viceversa. Example: Excuse him for not writing to you. Excuse his not writing to you. 1. I dislike them wasting so much money. 2. I hate their speaking to me like that. 3. I can't imagine Peter making such a fuss. 4. I can't understand his mother's approving that! 5. She can't forget my leaving her. 63 STANLEY