I N D E X
1 Adjective order 2
2 Adjectives. Formation,
prefixes and suffixes. 4
3 Prefixes 6
4 Adjectives: Comparison 8
5 Adjective: Comparison (cont.) 10
6 Adjectives: degrees of intensity _ _ 12
7 Adverbs of manner 14
8 Adverbs of degree 16
9 As well as + ing - Although -
As long as - As (cause) 18
10 Used to + gerund 20
11 Because of - Bound to 22
12 By + time phrase -
By the time + past perfect 24
13 The causative 26
14 Clauses of reason 28
15 Clauses of comparison 30
16 Clauses of concession 32
17 Condition clauses 34
18 Clauses of purpose 36
19 Clauses of purpose (cont.) 38
20 Clauses of time 40
21 Conditionals type 1 42
22 Conditionals type 2 44
23 Conditionals type 3 46
24 Comparisons 48
25 Connective relative clauses 50
26 Discourse markers 52
27 Relative clauses: defining 54
28 Relative clauses: non-defining 56
29 Future tense: contrasts 58
30 Future tense: contrasts (cont.) 60
31 Gerunds after "for" and
certain verbs 62
32 Gerund after prepositions 64
33 Infinitive after certain verbs _ 66
34 Inversion of the verb
after certain adverbs _ 68
35 Modal verbs. Revision 70
36 The one who / that / which -
The one with 72
37 Once + Present perfect 74
38 Passives: All tenses -
is considered / thought /
said to be 76
39 Reported speech 78
40 Reported speech (cont.) 80
41 Remember (and other verbs) +
gerund or infinitive 82
42 Suffixes and prefixes 84
43 Compound nouns 86
44 Tenses: General revision 88
45 Phrasal verbs 1 90
Phrasal verbs 2 91
Phrasal verbs 3 93
Phrasal verbs 4 94
Phrasal verbs 5 95
Phrasal verbs 6 97
Phrasal verbs 7 98
APENDIX 1 Exercise.
Idiomatic expressions. __ 101
APENDIX 2 Exercise.
with colours 103
APENDIX 3 Expressions with:
to do • to make 104
Phrasal verbs 8 99
UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• Aunque es muydificil dar unorden exacto, y
hay ligeras variaciones entre las gramaticas
mas usuales hoy en dfa,se puede considerar
que el orden que damos a continuationes el
A big black cat.
A long wide avenue.
Cruel blue eyes,
A small blue metal box.
An old iron bucket.
Yellow silk curtains.
de personalidad y
y el adjetivo little.
• Losadjetivos depersonalidad y emotion
vienen detras de los adjetivos dedescription
fisica, pero antes que los colores:
A small, nervous man.
A large, patient group of men.
A fierce, black dog.
A kind, white doctor.
• A menudo usamos little, young y old,no
para dar informacion, sino como una combina-
tion de adjetivo/sustantivo:
Jimmy is such a nice, little boy.
An athletic, suspicious, young man
stood at the door.
• Cuando young y oldse usan paradar
information, ocupan la position num. 3.
A young, black woman.
An old, Italian clock.
• Siqueremos poner enfasis enel tamano es
mejor usar small, que little.
He was a small ambitious man.
• Cuando losadjetivos sonpredicatives,es
decir, van detras del verbo, generalmente se
The tea was sweet and strong.
I had a black and white Italian
They sat at a big, round, conference
She wore black, Spanish, leather
He played with an expensive steel-
framed tennis racket.
The day was dark, wet and cold.
1. Pon los adjetivos entre parentesis en la posicion correcta.
Example: We saw a Japanese film, (new) We saw a new Japanese film.
1. an old picture (expensive/Italian) 19. a little restaurant (French/nice)
2. short hair (black/attractive) 20.a kitchen cupboard (handmade/
3. a large town (new/exciting)
21. a leather handbag (small/black/shiny)
4. a small dog (thin/white)
22. a huge milkshake (ice-cold/
5. a narrow street (small) strawberry)
6. a white face (fattish) 23. a Spanish waiter (little/friendly)
7. a wooden box (brown/large) 24. a clean room (bright/beautiful)
8. a black car (new/large) 25. a daring pilot (handsome/young/Air
9. a pretty dress (blue)
26. A curious dog (little/brown)
10. a cold shower (refreshing)
27. A tall cowboy (handsome/dark/Texan)
11. a rainy day (miserable)
28. a green ashtray (Chinese/glass)
12. large eyes (red)
29. a conference hall (large/glass)
13. a British film (funny)
30. a carving knife (long/sharp)
14. a black skirt (leather)
31. a handy little calculator (black)
15. an old mansion (decrepit)
32. a curious monkey (little)
16. a beautiful woman (young)
33. an inexpensive dirty hotel (little)
17. an old man (grumpy)
34. a kindly coloured doctor (old)
18. a rare bracelet (emerald)
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes.
• Algunas palabras hacen la funcion solamente de
adjetivos (small). Otras pueden ser sustantivos
o adjetivos (cold). Muchos adjetivos que se
relacionan con verbos o sustantivos tienen un
final caracteristico (suffix).
• Losparticipios de presente tambien actuan
amuse amusing amused
astonish astonishing astonished
• Adjectives ending in -ible
• Adjectives ending
• Adjectives ending
• Adjectives ending
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. En letra cursiva tienes una explicacion de la palabra que tienes que poner
terminando en ble.
Example: This word is impossible to pronounce. It is unpronounceable.
1. He had followed a course in elocution. His speech was quite without faults.
2. I think that this plan will be impossible to put into practise.
It will be
3. A masterpiece is impossible to define or explain.
4. The number 13 can't be divided by any other number.
2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos que terminan en ous.
Example: Teachers prefer a class with pupils of the same level. It is an homogeneous
1. Children who develop faculties at an early age don't always become Einsteins.
2. Many children are difficult to please.
3. Her arguments seemed right, but they were not so.
4. The weather here is unpredictable and ever-changing.
It is very
3. Haz lo mismo con adjetivos que terminan en ate.
Example: Keep these ones apart from the others. Keep them separate..
1. It was a very complicated plan.
It was very
2. The place was deserted and uninhabited,
3. They are very close friends.
4. That word was just the right word.
It was very
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el adjetivo contrario al que se te da.
Example: This person is not very honest.
1. Smuggling tobacco is, of course, not
2. That boy is not responsible.
3. This person doesn't care about
He is a very person.
4.1 was not injured in the accident,
5. In America many people were against
6. This thing is impossible to eat.
7. I'm afraid he is not very loyal.
8. He is lacking education.
9. You can dispense with him.
He is not
10. The bill was due to be paid some
11. It is not logical to do that.
12. 'Is he satisfied?'
'No, he is
13. It was not at all planned.
14. He is not very religious.
On the contrary, he is
15. They are not going to interfere.
They have an
Usa los sufijos que has aprendido.
He is dishonest.
16. He is not very well known.
In fact, he is
17. He was not a very social man.
18. She is an extremely sensitive
19. It is not very well adjusted.
20. This gold is not very pure.
21. He has no illusions left in this life.
He is rather
22. This treatment is not very effective.
23. Johnny has never been very formal.
24. It was not a very real situation.
25. The meat is not done yet.
26. This man is extraordinary.
He is a
27. It was not very consistent.
It was rather
28. The report was not complete.
29. It wasn't a regular situation.
It was quite
30. The situation is not very favourable.
UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
• La mayor parte de losadjetivos monosila-
bos anaden er y est para formar el comparati-
ve y el superlative:
cleaner greater colder
cleanest greatest coldest
• Muchos monosilabos queterminan envocal
+ consonante duplican la consonante:
• Losmonosilabos queterminan ene anaden
• Para formar el grado comparative y superla-
tivo de los adjetivos de dos o mas silabas, se
anade more/less para los comparativos, y
most/least para los superlativos.
• Less se puede usar conadjetivos deuna
sflaba (less cold).
adjective comparative superlative
• Asi como gentle, otros adjetivos bisflabos
pueden formar el comparative y el superlative
• Algunos adjetivos terminan eny precedida
de consonante. El comparative y superlative
se forman con i:
- pretty prettier - prettiest
La exception es:
• Los puestos detales palabras
(unpleasant, etc.)tambien forman el
comparativo y el superlative de dos formas:
the most unhappy
He is more quick-witted than she is.
John is better-looking than Peter.
He is worse-tempered than she is.
1. Completa las frases con el comparative correspondiente.
Example: Today is very wet. It is much wetter than yesterday.
1. He came very early. He came than yesterday.
2. This picture is very grey. It's than that one.
3. James is very shy. He is than his sister.
4. My boss is very busy. He is than I am.
5. This girl is very sad. She is than her sister.
6. This boy is very fat. He is than his friend.
7. These people are very free. They are than
2. Haz ahora lo mismo con el grado superlative.
Example: April is very wet. It's the wettest month of the year.
1. This desk is very tidy. It's the desk in the classroom.
2. This man is very thin. He is the man in the country.
3. She is very funny. She is the girl in her class.
4. This land is very dry. It's the land in the state.
5. This picture is very grey. It's the in the auction.
6. This river is very long. It's the river in the world.
3. Usa er/est o more/most, less/least, etc. para completar las frases.
Example: This street is very narrow. It's narrower/more narrow than those.
1. This situation is than that one. (common)
2. He is well built. In fact he is than me. (built)
3. This is not very expensive. In fact, it's than
4. That joke was not very amusing. In fact, it was the
of all. (amusing)
5. This boy is very bad-tempered. He is than
his father, (tempered)
6. My boyfriend is very handsome. He is the boy I
7. They were all beautiful, but she was, perhaps, the
Adjective: Comparison (cont.)
El uso de than en la forma comparativa
• Si la referenda es clara no hace falta
This sleeve is longer.
• Si estamos hablando de doscosas podemos
Which is the longer?
(of the two roads)
• Si than va seguido de nombre o
pronombre actua como preposicion; cuando va
seguido de una oration, hace el oficio de
I know her better than you.
- I know herbetter than you know her.
• Comparativos con er and er
This girl is getting taller and taller.
• The+ comparative +the+ comparative
The more money you have, the more you
Uso de la forma superlativa
• Usamos elsuperlative cuando comparamos
con mas de uno.
This is the cleanest.
That is the safest.
• Casi siempre despues de un superlative
London is one of the biggest towns in
- Heisthetallest inourclass.
• Menos frecuentemente usamos of.
John is the tallest of/in the family.
August is the hottest month of the year.
Superlative con ever
This is the longest book (that) I have
• Lossuperlativ-es pueden ser modificados
con adverbios de grado: much, quite, almost,
nearly, far, by far.
- This isbyfarthemost expensive book
in the shop.
• Comparativo deigualdad as... as
- Heisastall ashisbrother.
• Ennegaciones se usa notas... as onot
- Heis notso/as clever ashisbrother.
• The same as y different from.
My car is the same as yours.
Our house is quite different from yours.
Grados de parecido
Those girls are exactly the same.
The two brothers are completely
1. Termina la frase como en los ejemplos.
Example: He is growing. He is getting taller and taller. He is ambitious. The more he
has, the more he wants.
1. This boy is very greedy. The more you give him
2. Flights are getting cheaper. They are getting
3. 'Sometimes you have a lot of time and do nothing.' 'Yes, the more time you have,
4. 'Computers are becoming very complicated.' 'Yes, they are getting
5. 'If you make a lot of money, you spend a lot money.' 'Yes, the more money you
2. Pon la preposicion que falta.
Example: He is the tallest boy in our class.
1. My girlfriend is the most beautiful girl the world.
2. The 21st of December is the shortest day the year.
3. The Nile is the longest river Africa.
4. She is the most clever/cleverest her family.
5. That was the happiest day my life.
3. Termina la frase con ever.
Example: She is the prettiest girl I've ever seen.
1. This is the most interesting book (that) .
2. Heis the most conceited man(that/whom) I .
3. That was the most expensive bicycle (that)
4. Usa el comparativo de igualdad para completar las frases.
Example: Your car is not as/so new as mine.
1. This house is just (big) ours.
2. No, this book is (interesting) that one.
3. My son is just (clever) yours.
4. No, he is (hard worker) his brother.
UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adjectives: degrees of intensity
• Losadjetivossepueden dividir endosciases:ios
que se pueden graduar y ios que no.
• Unadjetivo esgraduabie cuando sepuede usar
con palabras tales comovery, too, enough,
• Unadjetivo esnograduabie cuando nosepuede
modificar: monthly, yearly, medical, dead.
• Very solo, no puede ir con comparativos y
superlatives, pero very much si puede.
This is very much faster than this one.
• Con alone:
The poor woman has been very much
• Very se puede usar congerundios y
She isa very interesting woman.
She was very interested.
Very much, so much, such a/an
• Much overy much puede ir en el medio de
She is very much/much loved in this
• Si queremos ponerlo alfinal de lafrase
tenemos que usar very much.
I like hervery much.
• Con unsustantivo podemos poner such a+
adjetivo, o so + adjetivo.
Mrs Smith was such a nice woman!/
Mrs Smith was so nice!
• Intensifica engrado sumo la accion del
'Was it good?' 'Yes, it was very good
• -ly intensifiers.
He is a particularly good element.
The news was terribly confusing.
This man works really slowly.
She was extremely helpful.
Jolly, pretty, dead + adjectives.
He is a jolly good fellow.
This train is moving pretty slowly.
And he was dead right!
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. En todas las frases tienes adjetivos. Tienes que aumentarlos o disminuirlos de
intensidad si se puede.
Example. She was a nice person. She was a very nice person.
1. This is a very good cake. That one is good.
2. This newspaper is daily. It is a newspaper.
3. The pot is hot. It is hot to touch.
4. Your answer is wrong. It is not right.
5. The water in the pool is warm to swim in.
6. I get paid every month. I get paid .
7. Byron is admired in Greece.
8. It was nice party!
9. I enjoyed the party .
10. The masterpiece was the only one.lt was .
11. Nothing could be heard. The place was quiet.
12. We all like him. He is a fellow.
13. 'You were very wrong.' 'Yes, I know I was wrong.'
14. The wounded needed a doctor. They needed attention.
2. Usa estos adverbios de intensidad y juntalos con la oracion que creas va mejor.
1 All the bodies were A extremely comfortable
2 He is an honest man
', extremely tight
3 He has been manyyears
with the firm as he is a D well lined-up
E mostly wrong
4 The situation wasF incredibly cheap
5 The poor girt felt
6 He djdn't trust him^ He felt H completely mistaken
7 Sheis getting old and I perfectly planned
8 The raid into enemy J bad|y needed
territory was K works really slowly
9 They all missed her L deePly suspicious
She was M terribly confusing
10 You are wrong.Youare N terrib|y confused
0 particularly good worker
11This leather bag is [. *,_ _ .. _ _ _? p highly respectable
12 Your answers were
13 The soldiers were
14 That pullover is
15 Those sheets are
16 This armchair is
B whiter than white
F incredibly cheap
G horribly mutilated
Adverbs of manner
• La mayoria de losadverbios de manerase
forman ahadiendo "ly" a losadjetivos:
- glad . gladly
mad . madly
• Los adjetivos que terminan enIduplican laI:
careful . carefully
• Siterminan eny despues deconsonante:
• Losqueterminan ene ahaden ly:
Prases preposicionales usadas
• Cuando noexiste unadverbio para loque
queremos expresar recurrimos a unafrase
We came here by train.
They all came to us in a rush.
Adjetivos que terminan en "ly"
Adjetivos y adverbios con la misma
forma y el mismo significado
A fast (adjective) car is a car that goes
She works hard (adverb) because she
likes hard (adjective) work.
He is a friendly man. (adjective)
- He always greets me in afriendly
Adverbios con dos formas que se
usan de la mismamanera
clean . cleanly
- clear .clearly
close . closely
loud . loudly
We bought the house cheap/cheaply.
Posicion de los adverbios de manera
1. Despues del objeto:
They watched us curiously.
2. Despues del verbo:
It rained heavily last night.
3. Despuesde una particulaadverbial:
He put the ladder upcarefully.
• Ennarrativa aveces empezamos lafrase
con adverbios de manera, tales como:
gently slowly suddenly
• Estos adverbios vanseguidos por una
Suddenly, he heard a voice behind him.
1. Completa las frases siguientes con adverbios.
Example: This is, possibly, the show in town (possible).
1. It was an difficult situation (extreme).
2. This boy is in love with that girl (mad).
3. This is the same thing (basic).
4. We didn't go out because it was raining (heavy).
5. We pay our bills (month).
6. I always drive very (careful).
7. They all left (hurry).
8. I'm sorry, I hear very (bad).
9. It was a very evening (live).
10. That girl speaks quickly (incredible).
11. They decided to leave town (secret).
12. It was not a successful book (whole).
13. I was in love with you (true).
14. The train didn't go very (fast).
15. They didn't work very (hard).
2. En este ejercicio tienes que decidir cual de las dos palabras es la apropiada.
Tacha la que no lo sea.
Example: He spoke'tyti&/quietly in the dark.
1. She is terribly/terrible upset about
losing her boyfriend.
2. He drove very careful/carefully along
the narrow road.
3. All those people were very colourful/
4. After years in Paris she speaks very
5. His English is not very good but his
German is almost fluent/fluently.
6. Both of them are very happy/happily
7. It has rained continuously/
continuous for two weeks.
8. Why is that girl so unfriend/
9. She waited nervous/nervously in the
10. The two men were seriously/serious
11. She was bitter/bitterly disappointed.
12. It's a reasonable/reasonably cheap
13. The food in here is extremely/
14. I'm terrible/terribly sorry. I didn't
15. The exam was surprising/
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Adverbs of degree
• Losadverbios de grado mascorrientesson:
• Se pueden usar como adverbios de grado.
- very much
I don't like her very much.
They don't drink much wine in this
• El sentido de quite depende de la clase de
palabra que lo modifica.
• Puede expresar el sentido de
'completamente, mucho' con:
The bottle is quite full.
You were quite right.
Con palabras tales como:
This man is quite amazing. He plays
quite le da a la palabra
un valor superlative.
• Sinembargo, cuando quitese usa con
adjetivos como good o strong,el resultado
es ligeramente mas debit.
The play was good.
The play was quite good.
• Detodas formas depende mucho del entasis
que le damos a la palabra.
Rather y fairly
• Ambos significan 'moderadamente', pero
fairly se usa generalmente con adjetivos y
adverbios favorables (nice,good, well, etc.)
mientras que rather se usa generalmente con
adjetivos y adverbios desfavorables (ugly,
bad, silly, etc.):
Jimmy is fairly clever, while his sister is
• Estos se pueden usar con participios:
She was fairly comfortable; he was
He is a fairly good speaker, but rather
Hardly, barely y scarcely
• Lostres son muyparecidos, con unsentido
• Hardly se suele usar conever, any, at all,o
con el verbocan.
She can hardly speak.
The soup was barely warm.
puede ser reemplazado por almost never.
I hardly ever go to London.
I almost never go to London.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes unas frases con fairly y rather. Tacha la que creas que no esta bien.
Example: This man is rather/fairly stupid.
1. During the driving test she was fairly/rather relaxed.
2. The old woman walks fairly/rather slowly.
3. This book is rather/fairly interesting.
4. It was a rather/fairly boring film.
5. The box was fairly/rather light.
6. It was a rather/fairly heavy box.
7. Johnny is rather/fairly intelligent.
2. Completa las frases que van a continuacion con el adverbio apropiado: fairly,
rather, quite, hardly.
Example: The meal was quite good. I enjoyed it.
1. That old man is an expert on Roman coins.
2. It's a shame that we have to work on Sundays.
3. like raw fish.
4. They spoke on the way.
5. She knows a word of French.
6. He is certain that she'll come back to him.
7. I was sure that you'd come.
8. The case was so heavy that he could lift it.
9. Frank is clever but lazy.
10. It's a good play. I wouldn't go again though.
11. The job was finished.
12. There was anybody left.
13. It's a nuisance that we can't park here.
3. Vuelve a escribir estas frases usando almost.
Example: I hardly ever see him nowadays. / almost never see him nowadays.
1. There's hardly any good news in the newspapers today.
2. We hardly ever go out nowadays.
3. Your son barely ever knows his lesson.
UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
As well as + ing - Although - As long as - As (cause)
As well as + ing
• Cuando as well as se usa con un verbo va
seguido de gerundio.
As well as breaking his arm, he hurt
He worked at night as well as working
during the day.
- Aswell asrunning a marathon,he
went to the disco.
• Hayunapequena diferencia entre:
They act as well as dance,
(actuan y tambien bailan)
They act as well as they dance,
(actuan tan bien como bailan)
As long as
• Despues de as long as en ingles se usael
presents de indicative, mientras que la misma
frase en espafiol se pondria en presente de
We'll go with them as long as there is
room for us. (siempre que haya sitio)
• Lomismo ocurre conotras conjunciones:
You can take my book as long as you
don't lose it. (mientras no lo pierdas)
Although y though
• A menudo se usan indistintamente:
He's a nice chap though/although I
don't like the way he behaves.
Though/although he lacks official
support, he continues the fight.
• Though es mas informal y a menudo se
pone at final de lafrase:
The weather didn't help. I enjoyed
• Eneste caso se puede traducir por'sin
embargo' y hace el oficio de adverbio.
• A veces usamos even con though para
darle mas enfasis:
Even though I didn't understand her, I
liked her voice.
• A veces tiene el sentido de although.
<* Raining as it was, we went out.
(Although it was raining)
Tired as he was, he went on walking.
(Although he was tired)
• A veces tiene el sentido de because.
As there is little demand, we don't keep
a big stock.
As she is very old, she doesn't go out
• A veces tiene el sentido desince.
As you can't do it yourself, ask
As you are young, you can help me.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas con as well as.
Example: She washed the dishes. She made the bed. As well as washing the dishes,
she made the beds.
1. He plays the guitar. He sings.
2. He speaks Chinese. He writes it.
3. They feed you. They let you have a bed.
4. They smash the place. They laugh at you.
5. He swims in the sea. He lies in the sun.
6. In a triathlon you swim. You run and you cycle.
2. Completa la frase usando as long as.
Example: I'll go there as long as you come with me.
1. We'll go for a picnic
2. I'll go with you
(not/go over/speed limit)
3. We'N be able Jo do it
(you come/in time)
4. I'll have a word with him
5. You won't have any problems
3. Tacha la palabra que consideres mal.
Example: Our argument, alfoetmi/though, is the need for economic independence.
1. Even though/although we haven't met for years, we still love each other.
2. It was a quiet party. I had a good time, though/although.
3. Cold though/although it was, I went out.
4. Even though/although it was raining, we went for a walk.
UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Used to + gerund
• Puede que nos parezca raro que en algunas
oraciones el verbo que va detras de to vaya
en gerundio en vez de infinitive. Lo que pasa
es que hay dos clases de to.
• Unoes el signo de infinitive:
I like to stay at home at the weekend.
Do you want to come with us?
• Elotro to es unapreposicion.
I'm going to London.
I'm not used to this traffic.
• Cuando esta preposicion va seguida deun
verbo, este verbo lo ponemos en gerundio.
I'm not used to driving in this traffic.
Do they object to working on Saturday
• Laforma de saber si el to es preposicion o
no, es poner un sustantivo detras. Si se puede
poner, es preposicion.
I'm looking forward to Christmas.
I object to loud music.
• Si el to no puede ir seguido por un sustanti-
vo no es preposicion.
• Nose puede decir:
'I want to Christmas'.
• Tampocose podria decir, por lotanto:
'I want to speaking'.
• Losejemplos mascorrientesde
to + gerundioson:
look forward to ...-ing,
in addition to ... -ing,
be accustomed to... -ing,
object to... -ing, used to... -ing.
I'm not used to driving on the left.
I object to having so many interruptions.
- Heis accustomed toenduring this
In addition to having difficulties with the
language, he is mentally handicapped.
I'm looking forward to hearing from you.
• Quelostres tipos defrases siguientes
dan lugar a confusion:
I'm not used to speaking in public,
(no estoy acostumbrado)
I used to speak inpublic,
I usually speak in public,
1. Completa estas frases con gerundio o infinitive.
Example: I'm not used to eating out.(eat)
1. I object to (have) loud music played in my ear.
2. I'm looking forward to (hear) from you.
3. She wants to (eat) fish.
4. I used to (speak) in French when I met her.
5. They usually (speak) in her mother language when
they are alone.
6. She objects to (be) laughed at.
7. We have to (drive) on the left in England.
8. In addition to (come) late, he came dirty.
9. Are you used to (get up) early?
10. He used to (get up) early when he was in the army.
11. When they were little they used to (come) to see
me quite often.
12. In addition to (speak) four languages, he can
understand several others.
13. I strongly object to (be) spoken to like that.
14. Are you looking forward to (see) them again?
15. I don't usually (smoke) a pipe.
16. When I was young I used to (smoke) a pipe.
17. Well, the trouble was that I wasn't used to (smoke)
18. I'd like to (go) riding in the morning.
19. She expects me to (visit) her every time I go to London.
20. I'm not looking forward to (pay) those bills.
21. I object to (be) treated like a slave.
22. I would like to (have) fish, please.
23. The poor girl was not used to (live) in a caravan.
24. The gypsy girl used to (live) in a caravan.
25. Those gypsies usually (live) in caravans.
26. Are you looking forward to (go) on holiday?
27. I'm not used to (be) insulted.
28. He used to (insult) everybody.
29. He doesn't usually (stay) here long.
30. I'm not looking forward to (meet) him.
31. They expect us to (invite) them to dinner.
32. I object to (be) kept waiting for hours.
33. I used to (go) there often when I was young.
34. Are you used to (drive) on the left? 21
Because of - Bound to
• Esunaconjuncion queintroduceuna
oracion, con sujeto y verbo.
I couldn't sleep because I had drunk a
cup of coffee.
• Esunapreposicion quese pone delante de
un sustantivo opronombre.
They were late because of traffic
• Es un sinonimo de confident, sure,
My brother is sure/certain/bound to
win this match, (esta segurodeganar)
• No puede ir seguido de un infinitive.
I'm confident that you will win.
Bound + infinitive
• Tambien puede significar estar bajouna
According to the contract, they are
bound to supply the materials.
Ejemplos con bound to.
The weather is bound to
get better tomorrow.
You've worked so hard that you're bound
to pass your exam.
I feel bound to tell you that you are
drinking too much.
I'm bound to say that I disagree with
you on that point.
• Queboundfor signified algomuy
<? The ship is boundfor port.
(se dirige a)
We are bound for home.
Where are you boundfor?
Eastbound traffic will bedelayed.
That's the northbound lane.
Diferencias entre bound y likely.
He is likely to come tonight.
He is bound to come tonight.
(seguro que viene)
• Porotra parte likely admite tambien una
oracion introducida por that.
It's likely that he will come tonight.
1. Completa las frases con because o because of.
Example: He was very happy because he had won the lottery.
1. They separated certain differences in opinion.
2. He won't be here tonight he missed the train.
3. He won't be here today a strike.
4. She was sad her dog had been run over by a car.
5. She doesn't go out any more her age.
6. He left her he didn't love her any more.
7. We haven't been able to finish it the holidays.
2. Completa las frases con bound o bound for.
Example: 'Where are you going?' 'Well, we are bound for London.'
1. 'i,ls she going to tell you?' 'Yes, she is tell me sooner or
2. According to his letter, our order is arrive any time.
3. I feel tell you that you are driving too fast.
4. Those people were New York and Miami.
5. I knew it! Those two were get married.
6. That ship is Liverpool.
7. Don't worry. He'll tell. He is tell the truth sooner or later.
8. We've finished for today. We are home.
3. Completa las frases con bound to o likely to.
Example: 'Do you think he'll sell the car?' 'Well, yes. He is likely to sell it.
1. Look at those black clouds. It is to rain any minute. Take the
2. 'Will he ring today?' 'Probably. He is to give us a ring tonight.'
3. I knew it. It was to happen. He couldn't lead that sort of life
4. It's quite that she will come with us.
5. I was sure of it.That hooligan was to finish up in jail!
6. I'm to finish reading it tonight. I'll probably give it to you
7. According to the contract, he is to supply the material.
By + time phrase - By the time + past perfect
By the time phrase
• By, seguido de unahora, significa'para', es
decir, 'no mas tardede'.
I have to be at home by ten o'clock.
Where is she? She should be here by
Take the car,but I want it back by six
By seven o'clock in the morning, I'm
• Se puede usar con el futureimperfecto
By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be in
I'll be able to tell you by seven o'clock
• Y confuture imperfecto continue.
By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be lying
on the beach in Miami.
By seven tomorrow, I'll be telling you
the whole story.
• Conel future perfectosimple.
I will probably have finished this job by
By eight o'clock, we'll have already
• Y future perfectocontinue.
By eight o'clock tonight, I will have been
working on this job for 20 hours.
By four o'clock, we will have been eating
for two hours.
By the time
• Sepuede usar conpresente.
By the time you come here, he'll have
We'll have finished breakfast by the
time you get up.
By the time you came here, he had
They had stolen all the jewels by the
time the police arrived.
By the time she had finished speaking,
the little boy had vanished.
I had made all the beds by the time she
had finished shopping.
By the time the policeman had realized
what was happening, the burglar was
already on the roof.
The boys had already eaten all the cakes
by the time their mother went back to
1. Completa las frases en future simple.
Example: By six o'clock this evening I will be back (be back).
1. By nine o'clock, the children (be) in bed.
2. (finish) the job by four o'clock.
3. Your father (be) back by Saturday.
4. The flight (arrive) in NewYork by nine o'clock.
2. Completa las frases en future perfecto.
Example. They will have arrived bynow.
1. I posted the letter last week, so they (receive) it by now.
2. They started at seven this morning, so they (finish) by now.
3. I told him yesterday, so he (do) something about it by now.
4. The plane took off at five, so it (arrive) by now.
3. Completa las frases en forma continua en future imperfecto o perfecto.
Example: By this time tomorrow we'll be flying to the Costa Brava.
1. By nine o'clock tonight I
(finish) this job.
2. By the end of this month, I
(work) here for twenty years.
3. By the time you arrive, I
(sleep) in my bed.
4. By the end of the year, I
(fight) in the Trade Unions for 40 years.
4. Completa las frases con el past perfect.
Example: By the time they got to the cinema, the film had already started.
1. By the time she arrived, most of the guests (leave).
2. By the time you started, I (finished) already.
3. By the time she got to the supermarket, they (close) already.
4. By the time she got, the children up already
• Esta estructura gramatical seformacon:
have + object + past participle
I have my car serviced every month.
I'm having my car serviced now.
I had my car serviced last week.
• present perfect:
I have just had my car serviced.
• I will have my carserviced tomorrow.
• I may have my carserviced tomorrow.
I may be having my car serviced soon.
• Que esmuy facil confundir el
pluscuamperfecto con la estructura
I hadmade atable.
I had atable made.
• Laforma causativa es parecida a lavoz
pasiva. Nos fijamos en lo que se le hace a
algo o alguien, no en lo que alguien hace.
active: We are painting our house.
passive: The house is being painted
causative: We're having our house
• Losverbos que a menudo se usan conesta
• Con los verbos:
nos referimosa cosas que causamos que
sean hechas por otros:
active: I'm training my son.
passive: My son is being trained,
causative: I'm having my son trained.
• Otros usos de have + object + past
She's stupid! She had that explained to
her three times.
Last week I had my radio cassette
The Prime Minister had rotten eggs
thrown at him.
Why don't you have your hair cut?
We had our house remodelled.
1. A continuacion tienes unas frases en voz activa. Ponlas en voz pasiva y en
Example: I'm cleaning my room. My room is being cleaned. I'm having my room
1. I built a house on the hill.
2. They'll develop the photos.
3. I mended my socks.
4. I'm going to cut the hedges.
5. She's photocopying the book.
6. She will press her skirt.
7. I did the job last night.
8. We'll paint the fence.
9. We are decorating the room.
2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos: teach, train, instruct, coach, show, prepare.
Example: I'm coaching the team. The team is being coached by me. I'm having the
1. I'm teaching my daughter.
2. She is instructing the boys.
3. i prepared them for the test.
4. We'll train the children.
5. I'll show you the house.
6. He'll coach them.
Clauses of reason
• Estas oraciones responden a la pregunta
<,por que? y se pueden introducir con las
As/Because/Since there were few
people, the show was cancelled.
We don't keep a stock of those books
because they don't sell well.
• Porregla general si queremos darle entasis
la ponemos al final.
• A menudo empezamos frases conaso
since porque las razones a las que nos
referimos no necesitan ser enfatizadas.
<? As/Since you can't do it yourself,
you'll have to ask somebody else to do it
As/Since you're very busy, I'll ask your
brother to come with me.
• Because suele ir a continuationde la
oracion principal para poner entasis a una
razon que no es conocida por la persona a la
que nos dirigimos:
He is taking driving lessons because he
wants to buy a car.
I am studying because I want to become
• Because se puede usar siempre en vez de
as, since, for pero estas conjunciones no
siempre se pueden usar en lugar de
• In view of the fact that puede ser expresa-
do por as/since/seeing that, pero no por
As/Since/Seeing that you're here, let's
go over the figures.
As/Since/Seeing that you're younger,
you can carry the case.
As/Since/Seeing that they've finished,
we can go home.
• Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a
una aseveracion anterior, o ya entendida,se
puede reemplazar por if.
As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like
him, why do you go out with him?
• If so/not puede reemplazar un sujeto
previamente mencionado + verbo.
Will you be coming to the party? If so,
bring a couple of bottles of wine.
Do you want to drive? If not, I'll do the
Do you want to pass your exam? If so,
Are you going to collect the prize? If not,
I'll collect it.
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases, unelas con una conjuncion de razon.
Example: The strike was not successful. There was little support.The strike was not
successful since/as/because there was little support.
1. They camped there. It was too dark to go on.
2. The problem was too difficult. I left it blank.
3. You are here. You may as well give me a hand.
4. The fuse blew. She had switched on all the heaters.
5. She was angry. We were late.
6. Wehad dinner very late. I was not hungry.
7. You don't like him. Why did you invite him?
8. It had frozen. There was ice everywhere.
9. You can't cook. You'll have to hire a cook.
10. He wants to find a flat. He wants to be independent.
11. He is studying at night. He works during the day.
12. He knows Italian. He can do the talking.
13. You don't love him. Why did you marry him?
2. Completar con "if so"o "if not".
Example: Do you love Jim? If so, why don't you marry him?
1. Will you stay tonight? , hand in the key.
2. Is he going to New York? , tell him to bring mea
3. Canyou lend me£1? , I'll ask Peter.
4. Have you got any money? , why didn't you lend me
Clauses of comparison
• Estas oraciones a menudo responden ala
• Laformation es de:
as + adjetivo + as (as good as)
as + adverbio + as (as well as)
not so/as... as
• Normalmente omitimos el verbo dela
segunda parte de la comparacion.
She is as pretty as her sister (is).
Mary types as quickly as Jennifer
He is not so/as good as his sister (is).
His brother is faster than he (is).
She moves more slowly than her
The more exercise you take, the better
• A veces omitimos tanto el sujeto como el
This morning he looked happier than
(he looked) last night.
Comparacion con adjetivos y
It's warmer today than it was yesterday.
My wife spends more money than I
He doesn't pay as much as we do.
Comparacion con adverbios y
He didn't run as fast as we expected.
She works harder than I did at her age.
Comparacion con adjetivos e
infinitives o gerundios.
• A menudo se usan indistintamente, pero es
mejor usar el infinitive para una action en
particular, mientras que los gerundios se usan
mas para cosas engeneral.
Nowadays it's as cheap to buy a new
watch as (it is) to repair the old one.
Buying a new watch is as cheap as
repairing the old one.
It's always safer to do it oneself than to
let others do it.
Doing things oneself is usually safer
than letting others do them.
• Sitenemos unverbo conjugado +this/that/
which antes de as/than podemos poner un
I'll do it myself; this will be cheaper than
calling a plumber.
She helped me in the kitchen, which
was better than watching TV.
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases con adjetivos. Unelas.
Example: He is clever. His sister is just as clever. He is as clever as his sister.
1. He is slow. His brother is faster.
2. He is quick. His sister is quicker.
3. Today it's dark. Yesterday was not so dark.
4. He earns a lot of money. He spends more.
5. We pay a lot in taxes. He doesn't pay so much.
2. Haz ahora lo mismo con adverbios.
Example: We played well. You play better. We didn't play as well as you did.
1. i work hard. You work harder.
2. I heard people singing before. She sings louder.
3. He answers quickly. His sister answers just as quickly.
4. He moves slowly. His friend moves faster.
3. Completa las frases siguientes.
Example: Buying a new watch is cheaper than repairing it. To buy a new watch is
cheaper than to repair it.
1. I think that lying on the beach is as boring as ,
2. To drive a car is easier than , (pilot) a plane.
3. Eating cereals is much healthier than , (drink)
4. To sweep the streets is better than , (do) nothing.
Clauses of concession
• Lasoraciones deconcesion estan
introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones:
I wassorry for her, I must saythatshe
We intend to go to the book fair even if
we don't sell any books.
However far it is, we'll get there.
No matter what you do, don't touch this.
Whatever you do, don't tell anybody you
Much as I'd like to help you, I can't do
anything for you.
However rich people are, they always
While I disapprove of the wayyou do it,
I agree to the idea.
• Podemos usar mayencasos hipoteticos
despues de todas las conjunciones que
introducen oraciones de concesion.
However clever she may be, she isn't
as clever as he is.
Even though you may be sorry for him,
he doesn't deserve it.
Whatever you maythink, I won't
change my decision.
- However frightened youmay be, you
must never show it.
• Maypuede significar "puede quesi".
'But he is your friend!' 'He may be my
friend, but I still don't trust him.'
• Detodas formas, may usado asi es parte
de la oracion principal, no es una oracion de
• As y though pueden ir detras de algunos
adjetivos, adverbios y verbos para introducir
oraciones de concesion en un estilo formal.
Beautiful though she was, she wasa
very unreliable woman.
Try as we might, we couldn't get a word
out of him.
• Even if se puede usar delante de should +
infinitive, lo mismo que if en frases condicio-
nales. Expresa la idea de que no es facil que
Even if she should hear it on the news,
there's nothing she can do about it.
• Loscompuestos de ever pueden introducir
oraciones de concesion de la misma manera
que no matter.
Whatever I do, it always seems to be
Whenever you see her, she always
seems to be busy.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. A continuacion tienes dos columnas. Casa las de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. Whatever you do, A. I'm going ahead with the plans.
2. No matter what you do, B. it is difficult to avoid accidents.
3. However frightened you may be, C. don't give him money.
4. Even though you may feel sorry for him, D.you must remain calm.
5. However carefully one drives, E. don't touch this switch.
6. Whatever your opinion is, F.don't tell him what I told you.
7. No matter where you are, G. the practise is always different.
8. Much as I'd like to help, H.everybody knew about it.
9. Although it was supposed to be a secret, I. I'm powerless to do anything.
10. While what they say is the ideal thing, J. you'll always be the same.
2. A continuacion tienes unas oraciones concesivas. Completalas con la conjuncion
Example: Beautiful though the necklace was, it was too expensive.
1. Unlikely it may sound, what I'm saying is true.
2. Rich the man was, he had not attraction to her.
3. Try they might, they couldn't move the rock.
4. poor you are, there's always someone poorer than you.
5. you do, don't touch the bomb.
6. he was condemned for robbery, he only got a couple of
7. I disapprove of the wayyou do it, I think you're right about
8. it is, we'll get there in time.
9. she should find out, she won't do anything about it.
10. happens, don't forget to write.
11. I'll find her, she's gone.
12. gains most points, wins the competition.
13. My roof leaks it rains.
14. team gains most points, wins the set.
15. hard I worked, my teacher was never satisfied.
16. what they are, stick to your beliefs.
17. Unlikely it may seem. I saw it with my own eyes.
18. Poor he was, he was honest.
19. difficult it is, I'll solve it.
20. he was guilty, he got off lightly.
• Lasoraciones de condition puedenser
introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones:
as long as
on condition that
» so long as
but for that
• Even if
We must leave even if you aren't ready.
• Whether... or = if... or
We must leave now, whether you are
ready or not.
• Unless + affirmative verb
= if + negative
Unless we leave now, we'll be late.
If we don't leave now, we'll be late.
• On condition that
They'll lend us their car on condition
that we pay for the petrol.
• Provided/Providing that
You can have the rest of the day off
provided / providing that you finish
• Suppose/Supposing (that)
Supposing that you miss the plane,
what will you do?
I must finish the job bytomorrow,
otherwise I won't get paid for it.
• But for that
My uncle pays the fees; but for that I
wouldn't be here.
• Quehaydiferencias entre in case yif
I'll bring some beer in case you need
I'll bring some beer if you need
• Enel primer caso traer6 la cerveza de
todas formas (por si acaso).
• Enel segundo caso la traere solo si hace
With patience, you'll teach him something.
(if you have patience)
- Given anopportunity, they'll succeed.
(if they are given)
But for his friends he would have
problems, (if he didn't have)
Without their help we wouldn't have
reached the top. (if they hadn't helped us)
1. Completa las frases con una conjuncion condicional.
Example: We must be back by 12, otherwise we'll be locked out.
1. She used her calculator, she would have taken longer.
2. we leave at once, we'll be late.
3. We must leave at once, you are ready or not.
4. You can borrow my car, I have it back by tomorrow
5. I miss the train. What shall Ido?
6. They'll lend us their villa we look after it.
7. that it is true, what can we do about it?
8. you start at once, you won't get there in time.
9. I don't mind what you talk about you speak in English.
10. I wouldn't marry him he was/were a millionaire.
11. Come with me, they won't let me in.
12. I don't mind what he does he sends me a cheque every
2. En este ejercicio tienes que casar las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. I'll ask your father A. it has nothing to do with me.
2. Suppose there are no flights, B. even if you say it's true.
3. I'll be back to work tomorrow C. provided you buy some petrol.
4. We must be early, D. otherwise/or else we won't get a seat.
5. You can borrow my car E. whether I feel well or not.
6. I find it difficult to believe F.what shall Ido?
7. Assuming that what you say is true, G. unless you prefer that I ask your mother.
3. Indica si los implied conditionals son del tipo 1, 2, o 3.
Example: With luck we'll be there in time. Type 1
1. In different circumstances, I would have gone with you.
2. I would telephone her, but I don't know her number.
3. To hear her talk, you'd think she was the Queen of Sheba.
4. I'll speak to her, if I see her.
5. We would have eaten that if we had been hungry.
6. She'll marry me if I ask her.
7. You'd do it if you had to.
UNIT 18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Clauses of purpose
• Estas oraciones indican unproposito yson
introducidas por: so that
in order that
for fear that
• Responden a laspreguntas ^para que?y
para que proposito?
• In order to y so as to nos dan idea de
proposito, pero no son conjunciones, sino
una variante del to de infinitive.
Secuencias del verbo
• Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta
en presente, preterite perfecto o future, so
that y in order that puede ir seguido de may,
can, o will.
• So that es mas usado que in order that.
We've come early so that/in order that
we can/may/will get good seats.
• So that y in order that pueden ir seguidos
Make a knot in your handkerchief so
that/in order that you remember to give
me a ring.
• Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta
en pasado simple, pasado progresivo, o
pluscuamperfecto, so that y in order that
van seguidos de should, could, might, o
We came early so that/in order that we
should/could/might/would get good seats.
• Laforma negativa de inorder that yso
We came early so that/in order that
we might not miss the train.
• Tambien podrfamos poner should not y
• No podri'amos poner, sinembargo, could
• Sepueden hacer construccionesde
infinitivo con not to, so as not to, y in
order not to.
She wore an apron in order not to
We were behind the goalkeeper so as
not to miss our team's goals.
• Despues de in case se puede poner
should, might o presente.
The building has an emergency exit in
case there is (there should/might be)
• Should con lest
He ran away lest he (should/might) be
seen, (para que no)
• Forfear suele ir seguido de might, aunque
la misma idea se puede expresar con in
He left in a hurry for fear(that) she might
change her mind.
He left in a hurry in case she changed
1. Casa las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha.
1. They've arrived early A. so that we should have quiet.
2. I've opened the window B. in order to get fresh air.
3. I closed the door C. so they can get a good view.
4. They arrived early D. so as not to miss anything.
5. I'm taking an umbrella E. in order that we may live.
6. They have a memorial service F.so that future generations might
every year know who they were.
7. i left a note on his pillow G.so that blind people can tell the
8. The banknotes are different difference.
9. They carved their names on the so that he would be sure to see it'
rock I. lest they should forget their dead.
10. They have died J. in case I need it.
2. A continuacion completa las frases con lest, in case, for fear, so that.
Example: I bought it quickly, for fear she might change her mind.
1. We avoided mentioning her husband she should be grieved.
2. We bought the house at once he changed his mind.
3. We arrived early we might not miss anything.
4. She hid her diary her husband wouldn't be able to find it.
5. We hid in the cave we might be seen.
6. We slipped away silently that he might wake up.
7. She's taking a raincoat she needs it.
8. I'm lighting the fire the house will be warm when the children
9. There were telephone points drivers could summon help.
10. She asked us to ring first she was out.
11. She came early that she might not miss anything.
12. I'll take a gun with me I need it.
13. We left in a hurry he should change his mind.
14. He uses public telephones the police won't be able to trace
15. We left in a hurry he'd come after us.
16. We left in a hurry he might come after us.
17.1 rang him up to tell him the news.
UNIT 19 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Clauses of purpose (cont.)
• Estas oraciones describen consecuenciasy
pueden ser introducidas por because o as.
She was sacked because she didn't
work hard enough.
As it froze, there was ice everywhere.
• Tambien pueden ser expresadas por dos
oraciones unidas por so:
It was too late, so we stopped for the
It had rained hard, so there were pools
• Thereforetiene el mismo sentido, peroes
They haven't arrived yet. Therefore,
• Lasoraciones deresultado se pueden
introducir con that despues de so +adjetivo.
His hands are so fast (that) the eye
can't follow them.
• Tambien se puede formar conthat despues
de so + adverbio.
His hands move so quickly (that) the
eye can't follow them.
• Se pueden formar tambien consuch (a)+
(adjective) noun + that.
She issuch a pretty girl that everybody
stares at her.
They have such good players that they
• Such +that se pueden usar en un lenguaje
Her temper is such that no one wants to
be near her.
• Lasoraciones de resultado se pueden usar
despues de so much, so many, so few, so
There was so much to see that we
stayed two more days.
There were so many people in the room
that we couldn't get in.
• Enambos cases se puede usar such a
• Que cuandolaoracionesunaexclama-
cion el soy el suchse pueden usarsin el
* He isso tall...!
They made sucha mess ...!
She makessuchhorrible coffee ...!
• Such + a + adjective+ noun sepuede
reemplazar por so + adjective+ a +
Such a kind woman.
. Sokinda woman.
• A veces encontramos el so al principio dela
frase. Esto va seguido de una forma invertida
So terrible was the news that she broke
So conceited was the girl that nobody
went out with her.
1. Completa las frases con so, such, such a, so much, so many, so few,so little.
Example: That man is such a fool that everybody laughs at him.
1. This woman is pretty!
2. It was raining that we stayed in.
3. I was cold that I couldn't sleep.
4. Children make mess!
5. They are handsome boys that all the girls love them.
6. I've never heard terrible news.
7. Thumbelina was that she lived in a nutshell.
8. Never in the history of humanity have achieved so much.
9. We have money that we'd better stay home.
10. It's strange to see you here!
11. There are things to do on this farm!
12. He gets money and works so little!
13. I, however, get money and work so much!
14. He spoke for long time that we all fell asleep.
15. You seldom drink good coffee.
16. Mrs Cohn is kind. She is a good person.
17. There was a lot of rain last night!
18. I've never seen nonsense in my life.
19. That girl is nuisance!
20. They were that it's difficult to imagine how they could have
won the battle.
21.I didn't know the problem was difficult!
22. The dog was fierce that no one dared to get near.
23. It was fierce dog that no one dared to get near.
24. They had rain that the rivers overflowed.
25. There were questions to answer!
26. They were that they couldn't do the job in time.
27. They had time that it was impossible that they'd do it in time.
28. He had water left that he could hardly wet his lips.
29. She had boyfriends that she didn't know which one to
30. You've made mess, children!
31. She speaks fast that it's difficult to follow her.
32. Never have achieved so much.
33. He worked hours that his wife hardly ever saw him.
Clauses of time
• Lasoraciones de tiempo se introducencon
las siguientes conjunciones:
no sooner... than
• ambien pueden serintroducidas con:
• Cuando la oracion adverbial va enprimer
lugar se pone una coma.
After she got divorced, her life changed.
His life changed completely after he got
You can keep the book as long as you
Once you've seen one of his films,
you've seen them all.
• Cuando la oracion temporal se refiere al
futuro, generalmente usamos el presente
as soon as
by the time
They'll emigrate to Australia when their
papers are ready.
As soon as we get there, I'll light a
• A menudo usamos el preterite perfecto con
un futuro perfecto.
By the time they've finished, we'll
already have disappeared.
• A menudo usamos el preteriteperfecto
despues de once y now that.
Once we have painted the kitchen, we'll
move to the sitting room.
Now that we know the truth, we can act
• Queaunque generalmente nousamos el
futuro en las oraciones temporales, se
puede usar will despues de when.
The secretary wants to know when
she will be taking her holidays.
• Normalmente, sinembargo, usamos el
When I come back home, I'll bring you
He'll tell us about the match when he
• After vaseguido generalmente de
After/When you've finished reading
it, give it back to me.
After/When the train had left, he
remembered leaving the lights on.
• Hardly/scarcely... when,
no sooner.... than.
He could hardly breathe when he
entered the room.
No sooner had they finished painting
at one end than they had to start at
1. Completa las frases con una conjunction correspondiente.
after, when, as, as long as, as soon as, during the time, before, by the time,
once, since, until, till, the moment, whenever, while.
Example: Before John arrives, I'll give the children their tea.
1. I won't say a word, you do the same.
2. We never met I lived there.
3. they come, we'll have finished our dinner.
4. you have seen one,you've seen them all.
5. you insist, I must tell you something.
6. Let me know he arrives.
7. She was making the bed he was preparing breakfast.
8. Finish one thing you start another.
9. They were working late at night.
10. Martha and John were always fighting they lived together.
11. you get into the habit of smoking, it's very difficult to get rid
12. I'll give you a call I finish.
13. She answered the phone almost
2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar: scarcely, hardly, no sooner, the sooner.
Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: Hardly had he begun to talk when he was told to keep quiet.
1. No sooner had she drunk the coffee she began to feel drowsy.
2. Scarcely had she entered the room the phone rang.
3. Hardly had he finished his coffee he got back to work.
4. No sooner does she get money she spends it.
5. The sooner we start, we'll get to Santiago.
6. Scarcely had he got to sleep the telephone woke him up.
7. We had hardly began our walk it started to rain.
8. The sooner we get married, we'll have a family.
9. Scarcely had I got into the bathtub there was a knock at the
10. No sooner had she heard the news she broke down in tears.
11. We had hardly crossed the bridge it collapsed.
12. No sooner had she got the injection she began to lose
13. Hardly had he finished speaking to her on the phone she
appeared at the door.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 21 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 1
• Usamos las condicionales delTipo 1que sucedera o no sucedera, si
creemos que un acontecimiento future es probable.
If he comes early, we'll go to the theatre.
If he doesn't come early, we won't go to the theatre.
• Si no estamos seguros de lo que sucedera
podemos usar un verbo 'modal'.
If he comes early, we may/could/can/
may/might/should/ought to/ must go
to the cinema.
If + should + imperative
If you should see her, tell her to come
Should you see her, tell her to come at
If you should happen to see her, tell
her to come at once.
Should you happen to see her, tell her
to come at once.
• Laoration principal puede noserun
If I should see Mary, I'll tell her to
come at once.
If + should + imperative
• Seusasobre todo para peticiones y
If you should go to Barcelona, go to
see the Olympic City.
- If youshould write to them, send them
• Tambien se pueden usar imperatives enel
Tipo 1 ordinario.
Speak to them if you want. If you want,
speak to them.
• Sepuede expresar unacondicion sin if,
empezando una frase con should. Esto es
una forma de expresion muy formal.
Should you be interested in taking
part in our book fair, please fill in this
Should you wish our agent to call on
you, just drop this slip in the letter box.
Imperative + conjunction + clause
• Se pueden usar imperatives envezde
oraciones de if para peticiones, comentarios,
ofertas, amenazas, etc.
- Keep doing that and you'll geta fine.
Tell them what to do and they'll do it.
Stop shouting, or you'll get smacked.
Take the shortcut, or you'll never get
there in time.
Give us the materials, and we'll do the
1. Completa la segunda parte de la oracion con las palabras entre parentesis.
Example: If the weather is good, we'll go for a walk.
1. If we arrive early, (we/leave/early).
2. It will be cold (you/open/window).
3. If I win the pools, (I/buy/that house).
4. I'll tell him that (I/see/him).
5. If you stop talking, (I/tell/you).
6. We'll be there by 9 (the train/leaves/time).
7. If she comes with you, (she/be/welcome).
8. I'll lend you the book (you/want/read it).
9. If it's cold, (close/window).
10. I'll fill in the form (you/hand/it/to/me).
11. If you pay cash, (you/get/reduction).
12. You will get more money (learn/languages).
13. If I am hungry, (eat/sandwiches).
14. You'll catch a cold (stand/rain).
2. En las frases siguientes vas a usar el imperativo.
Example: If you see her, give her my regards.
1. If you should happen to see him,
2. Should he call,
3. If you should write to Jennifer,
4. Should you go to Madrid,
5. Should you be interested in our offer,
6. If you want our agent to call,
7. If she should get in touch with you,
8. Should they come early,
9. Should you receive a letter,
UNIT 22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 2
• Este tipo defrases habla acerca de situaciones imaginarias y
especula sobre sus consecuencias.
If you took a taxi, you would get there in time.
If you didn't go to that place, you wouldn't get in trouble.
• A veces describimos cosas completamente imposibles.
If I had your ears, I'd be able to fly.
• Se puede usar were envez dewas des-
pues de I/he/she/it. No hay diferencia en el
significado, pero were es mas formal.
If I was/were taller, I'd be a policeman.
• Sinembargo, para frases imaginarias es
If I were the King ...
• Tambien usamos were para darconsejos.
If I were you/in your position, I'd take
• Con la expresion if it were not for/were it
not for, no usamos was.
If it weren't for his charity, I would have
• De una forma mas formal, If it were notfor,
se puede expresar por Were it not for.
Were it not for the Red Cross, they
would have died.
Were it not for the fact that they helped
us, we would have died.
• Cualquier verbo modal puede reemplazar a
would cuando creemos que las consecuen-
cias son menos posibles que ocurran.
If they were here, they could give us a
If they were here, they might give us a
If he lost, he should train harder, (duty)
• Podemos usar were + infinitivo en vezde
un verbo ordinario.
If I were to ask you, would you lend me
• Sepueden usar verbos modales enla
If you were to ask her, she might
If your son were to make an effort, he
could do much better.
• Unaforma comun de inversion, quitando el
Were the government to cut taxes,
petrol would be very cheap.
• Laforma negativa es posible.
- I'd do it, were it notlikely to make
things worse for us.
1. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: I would be a policeman if I were taller.
1. If you went by plane,
2. We'd stay at home, (it/rain).
3. If you saw it, (see/difference).
4. You would get there quicker, (go/train).
5. If I were taller, (run/faster).
6. I would live in Miami,
7. If they were^ vegetarians,
8. I would buy that dress
9. If they needed money, (sell/car).
10. The policeman would find me
11. If I asked her, (marry/me).
12. I'd go to the pub (want/play/cards).
13. If I had money, (put/it/bank).
14. I'd put them in the sitting room
15. If I had scisssors, (cut/it).
16. Iwouldn't^go to Benidorm
17. If I liked pmons, (eat/them).
18. Td spread the butter (have/knife).
19. If you looked after jtL
20. [ would jnarry him.
21. Were it not for your help,
22. I would leave him (I/be/in her place).
23. If you were to ask her, (may/help).
24. If he were here, (can/help us).
25. If he were to make an effort,
26. I'd be king (you/be/my/queen).
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
UNIT 23 ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Conditionals type 3
• Estas oraciones decondicional asumen algo
• Tanto en el tipo 2 como en el 3, soncondi-
If I hadbeen taller, I would have been a
If I hadn't been carrying an umbrella, I
would have got wet.
- If I had won thelottery, Iwould have
bought a new house.
If I had been you/in your position
• Expresamos lo quehabrfamoshechosi
hubieramos sido otro.
- If I had been you/in your position, I
would have married him.
If it hadn't been for
• Sinohubiera sido poralgo...
If it hadn't been for the cold, we would
have gone to the beach.
Inversion con "had"
• Hadhe es unavariacionde if he had:
Had the workers gone on a strike, the
production would have stopped.
• Sepuede hacer unainversion negativa.
Had it not been for his reluctance to
leave, we would have been able to reach
the others in time, (no se puede decir
if + past perfect + modal.
If I had known the facts, I could have told
you what to do.
If I could have got the facts, I might have
told you what to do.
Que podemos reemplazar would con
otro verbo modal cuando sentimos que las
consecuencias imaginadas son menos
probables que ocurran, o cuando nos
referimos ahabiiidad, posibilidad, etc.
If Ihad been here, Icould have
defended you, (ability)
if Ihad been here, I might have told
If he had received the note, he
should have goneto the meeting.
• Sepuede combinar laforma progresivay
tiempos compuestoscon losverbos
If I had been there, I could have
been helping with the harvest.
If they had been there, they could
have met my teacher.
1. Completa las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo.
Example: If it had rained, we would have stayed home.
1. You would have got a better job
(you/work/harder at school).
2. If you hadn't had an umbrelja
3. Life would have been easier
4. If I had had time
5. The children would have broken many things
6. If we had liked the film
7. It would have seemed easier
8. If you had been a vegetarian
9. We would have had a good harvest
10. If I had panted to play cards^
11. I would have liked to go by bicycle,
12. If I had been him
13. He might
14. Had the management acted sooner
15. The garden would have looked much better
16. If I had had a knife
17. Had it not been for the bad weather
18. She could have met my brother,
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
have told us
• Lascomparaciones adverbiales se pueden
hacer con los siguientes adverbios:
as ...as: - John runs asfastas
not as/so... as: She can't dance as
well as you (can).
I can't speak so
fluently as you (can).
the... the: The more you study,
the more you learn.
comparative: He is taller than
anyone I know.
superlative: - Heisthetallest man in
Jimmy is the youngest
of/in the family.
• A menudo usamos el comparativo +than
ever, than anyone, thananything.
The athlete ran faster than ever.
He runs faster than anyone else.
• Most + adjetivo (sin the) significa very.
You are most kind.
significa .Youare very kind.
• Este tipo defrases seforma conadjetivos
• Lascomparaciones conlike y alike.
Jim is very like his father. Jim and his
father are very alike.
Look at those plants! This is like living in
Comparaciones entre "like" y "as"
• Like (preposition) se usacon nombres,
pronombres y gerundios.
He drinks like a fish.
You look like a princess.
Why aren't you like him?
house is like being in a prison.
• As (conjuncion) introduce oraciones con un
Do as your brother does: go jogging.
Why don't you study foreign languages
as we do?
• Sinembargo, a veces en ingles coloquial
usamos like en vez de as.
Walk to the office like wedo.
Que hayunadiferencia entre like +
sustantivo y as + nombre:
She works like a slave in that kitchenof
hers, (trabaja muchfsimo)
Cervantes worked as a slave for five
years in Algiers, (fueesclavo)
The murderer used the heavy ashtray as
1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas en una tal como en el ejemplo.
Example: She sings sweetly. Her sister sings sweetly too. She sings as sweetly as her
1. I can't swim well. You can swim better.
2. Jim can't jump high. His friend jumps higher.
3. The weather is getting cold. I didn't expect it to get so cold.
It is getting
4. My father drives fast. No one drives so fast. Nobody drives
5. This film is very bad. I have never seen a worse one. This is
6. Susan types fast. No one in her class types faster. Susan is
2. Completa las frases siguientes.
Example: The faster she types, the more mistakes she makes,
1. This weather is getting colder every day.
2. Things are getting more and every year.
3. The rain cleared more (quick/l/expect)
4. He is becoming less in physics, (interest)
5. The bigger the bed, the we'll sleep.
6. Riding a horse is not a motorcycle, (easy/
3. En las frases siguientes vas a elegir entre like, alike y as.
Example: She runs like a gazelle.
1. Why don't you do your mother?
2. Why don't you cook she does?
3. You should train every day we do.
4. Mark and his brother are very much .
5. These twins are two peas.
Connective relative clauses
• Lospronombres son: who
• Se usan comas igual que enlas
• Lasoraciones 'conectivas' nodescriben a
los sustantivos sino que continuan la historia.
Generalmente se colocan detras del objeto
del verbo principal:
I asked my father, who said it had nothing
to do with him.
• O detras de unapreposicion +sustantivo:
• I gave thesalt to my father, who passed it
on to my mother.
• Elpronombre relative puede reemplazarse
por and/but + he/she etc.
I gave the salt to myfather and he passed
it on ...
I gave the salt to my father, but he ...
• A veces es dificil distinguir si unaoracion es
connective o non-defining, puesto que las
dos formas son iguales.
Ejemplos de oraciones
He eats a lot of bacon and eggs, which
She went out with Jill, whose boyfriend
had just left her.
Se pueden usar one/two, etc., few/several/
some, etc. + of + whom/which.
They had twenty goats, two of which
were killed by wolves.
Mrs Evans introduced us to her daughters,
one of whom offered to show us the town.
The explosion injured many people,
several of whom had to be taken to
Oracion con "which"
She ate a lot of cakes, which made her
The alarm clock went off an hour earlier,
which annoyed me quite a lot.
My girlfriend kept playing about with other
boys, which made me mad.
A dog was barking all night, which kept
• Queel pronombre relative what no tiene nada que ver con el pronom-
bre relative conectivo which.
• Which tiene como antecedente a unapalabra o grupo de palabras en
la frase anterior, mientras que what no se refiere a nada anterior.
• What suele ser objeto, mientras que which es generalmente sujeto.
He said he was poor, which was not true.
What I saw astonishedme.
1. Une las dos frases que tienes a continuacion en unasola.
Example: She drank beer. The beer made her fat. She drank beer, which made her fat.
1. She bought a dozen eggs. Five broke on the way.
2. The old man slipped on the banana skin. It made everybody laugh.
3. I threw the ball to my brother. My brother threw it to Jim.
4. The wall collapsed on top of the children. Several children had to be taken to
5. She went out with her boss. Her boss's car broke down on the way
6. I told my mother. My mother said it wasn't my business.
7. The teacher introduced me to my new classmates. One of my classmates offered
to show me around.
8. The rain rattled on the roof all night. This kept us awake all night.
9. She said she had no money. It was not true.
10. Some of the bridges had been blown up. It made the army's advance more
11. He met all Tom's sisters. Some of them took a fancy to him.
12. I bought two lamps. One of the lamps broke when I dropped the box.
13. The singer let out a squawk. It made everybody laugh.
14. He ate only cereals. That kept him fit.
15. The roads were flooded. That made our journey very dangerous.
16. He said he was an orphan. That was not true.
• Talking about' y 'with reference to'
muestran una conexion entre lo que quieres
decir y lo que se dijo antes.
I saw Susan this morning. Talking
about Susan, did you know that she is
With reference to your letter, I should
like to point out that..
• Otras expresiones tratan de'enfocar'la
Well, regarding past results, I don't
think it is advisable ...
That goes for production. Now, as
regards marketing, I think ...
As far as marketing is concerned, I
leave the decisions up to you.
As for Janet, the less I see her, the
• Hay un gran numero de expresiones que se pueden usar para mostrar la estructura de lo que
first of all
- tobegin with
in the first place
for one thing
as well as
• Contrastando con lo que
acabamos de decir:
all the same
on the other hand
He is not very clever. All the
same, he's a nice chap.
He is a socialist, and yet he
has a villa in Spain.
• Dando ejemplosy
with the exception of
and so on
and so forth
on the whole
- asa rule
in most cases
to some extent
• Consecuencia logica:
They didn't do it. Therefore,
we'll have to do it.
I mean, that is to say,
in other words.
• Cambiando de tema:
By the way,
incidentally, I say.
• Cuando nosreferimos alas
expectativas de otro:
'Was it good?' 'Yes, as a
matter of fact, it was very
'Did you go?' 'No, we didn't,
• A menudo criticamos con:
Honestly, darling, the
meal today was terrible.
Frankly, John, your marks
could have been better.
1. Completa las frases con una de las expresiones que van a continuacion:
to start with, all the same, talking about, therefore, honestly,
actually, for instance, and so forth, on the whole.
Example: Corporal Evans is not a bad soldier. On the whole, I think he is quite good.
1. 'What shall I do?' 'Well, you can clean this room, '
2. darling, this is the worst meal I have ever eaten.
3. She's not very clever. you've got to admit she is
4. 'Did you have a good holiday?' 'Well, we
didn't go on holiday.'
5. She had an accident. She was unable to
6. Several of my friends came: Carol and Susan, .
7. They discussed investments, the state of the economy and
8. 'I saw John yesterday,' 'did you?. . John, did
you know he's leaving the firm?'
2. Completa las frases con las expresiones adecuadas.
Example: He claims he is a socialist and yet he lives in a mansion.
1. The flat is not very good; it's very cheap.
2. He had an accident, he was ruined and, his
wife left him.
3. I invited John, Jim and Alan. Mark, I
couldn't care less about him.
4. We'll have to do without your services, you're
5. There was a little whisky, but it was soda .
6. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, I enjoyed it very much
7. I am home by six.
8. ! What a nice girl is coming this way!
9. I like Mary her husband, I think he is quite a bore.
10. The car is not very new. it's not expensive.
11. There were a few Italians, but there were Americans
12. 'Did you like the party?' 'Yes, I did like it '
13. ! This is not what I ordered.
14.1 like Susan, Leslie and Carol. Linda, I
couldn't care less about her.
15. There are some poplars and oak trees, but there are pine trees
Relative clauses: defining
• Unaoracion de relative 'definida' es laque
nos da una referenda de la palabra que le
A doctor is a person who has been
trained in medical science.
- A liar isa person whohabitually
• Elpronombre relative that se usasolo para
oraciones 'definidas' y se refiere a personas o
cosas. Para personas, por supuesto tambien
se usa who, y para
I don't like children that are noisy.
I dislike women who chatter incessantly.
Unemployment is a problem that/which
concerns us all.
• Usamos indistintamente that o whosiel
antecedente es un sustantivo vago o generali-
zado o un pronombre.
She is the sort of woman who/that will
go out with anyone.
We need someone that/who can speak
• Si el antecedente es masdefinido usamos
The woman who came to see you
yesterday is a friend of my mother's.
• Cuando nosreferimos a cosas solemos usar
that o which pero en algunos casos preferimos
a) Cuando el antecedente es un pronombre
The doctors will do all that lies in their
b) Cuando el antecedentelleva unsuperlative:
That was the funniest joke that has ever
been told here.
C) Cuando el antecedente lleva un numero
The first answer that was given was the
d) Cuando el antecedente es el complemento
de to be.
It's an antique that will fetch a lot of
• A menudoomitimosel relativecuandono
es sujetode laoracion.
They didn't have the book I wanted.
• Lomismoocurre conwhom.
Was the woman you spoke to just
now a friend of yours?
• Eningles coloquial, encaso dedecir el
pronombre decimos who en vez de
whom, excepto cuando va precedido de
• Enel lenguaje hablado casisiempre
usamos oraciones de relative 'definidas'.
Es mas,la mayoria de las oracionesde
relative son del tipo en el que podemos
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Une las dos frases en una usando un pronombre relative. Pon el relative entre
parentesis si no es sujeto y se puede omitir.
Example: The offer is still open. I made it last week. The offer (that) I made last week is
1. The pools winner used a system. This system, he said, had won him a lot of
2. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises strong emotions.
3. I know the very person. He will do the job quickly.
4. The gales caused a lot of damage. They swept across southern England last
5. The problem is to build houses at a price. Young couples can afford to pay this
6. Some frogmen came across a wreck. It had lain on the seabed for 100 years.
2. Anadir oraciones de relative que definan la palabra en negrita.
Example: They are asking every tenant to move to a smaller flat, (have/house/bigger
than he needs). They are asking every tenant who has a house bigger than he needs to
move to a smaller flat.
1. Any person should be sent to prison, (commit/crimes)
2. The yacht arrived first, (command/captain Marryat)
3. The house has been demolished, (stand/on the corner)
4. The man was my uncle, (you/see/yesterday)
5. I enjoy talking to anyone, (he/have/personality)
6. This skirt is identical to the one my sister bought yesterday, (you/wear)
Relative clauses: non-defining
• Estas oraciones proporcionan unainforma-
cion extra y van encerradas entre comas. En
realidad, las dos oraciones, la de relative y la
principal se pueden presentar por separado.
The wax museum is one of the main
attractions. It was opened in 1900.
The wax museum, which was opened in
1900, is one of the main attractions.
• El hecho de que omitamos o no las comas
puede representar un significado diferente en
dos frases identicas.
He has a brother who plays with the
He has a brother, who plays with the
• La ausencia de la coma en la primera frase
indica que tiene mas de un hermano; uno de
ellos, al que nos referimos en este caso juega
con los Rangers. Podriamos aclarar la frase
He has a brother who plays with the
Rangers and another one who plays
• La presencia de unacoma en la segunda
frase implica que tiene solamente un hermano
(por lo tanto no se puede 'definir' cual de ellos
es). La oracion de relative simplemente da
mas informacion sobre el.
• Que conlasoracionesde'non-defining'
no se puede omitir el relativo, aunqueno
The wax museum,which opened in
1900, is one of the attractions of the
town, (which es el sujeto)
The wax museum, which the King
opened in 1990, is one of the
attractions of the town, (which es
• Para versi unaoracionde relativoes
'defining' o 'non-defining', lo mejor es omitirla
y ver si tiene sentido el resto de la frase. En
las oraciones 'non-defining', la frase tiene
perfecto sentido sin la oracion de relativo, que
al fin y al cabo no es nada mas que una
informacion extra. Mientras que la oracion
'defining' de relativo no se puede suprimir.
* Myuncle is a manwho never stops
My uncle, who will be 60 tomorrow,
never stops working.
1. Une las frases usando which o who en oraciones de relative 'non-defining'.
Example: Queen Elizabeth II descends from King Egbert. He united all England in the
year 829. Queen Elizabeth descends from King Egbert, who united all England in the
1. Her first speech was better than her second. The first speech was broadcast. She
gave her second one before an audience.
2. The Cabinet will be reduced to twenty. It now has twenty-two members.
3. The 'Book Distributing Co.' provides a novelty service. It was set up in 1950.
4. This industrial dispute has now been settled. It stopped production while it lasted.
5. The English weather is not as bad as some people suppose. They associate it
with rain and fog.
6. The new London guide contains a lot of information. It will appear in the
bookshops next week.
2. Pon una oracion de relative a continuation de la palabra que va en cursiva.
Example: Last night's meeting broke up in disorder. (I/not be able/attend) Last night's
meeting, which I wasn't able to attend, broke up in disorder.
1. The Cliffs of Dover are a startling white, (be/famous/all over the world)
2. The winning horse was trained in Ireland, (nobody/expect/win)
3. Joseph Conrad wrote all his books in English. (be/Polish)
4. Bernard Shaw died in 1950. (be/one/greatest writers/the 20th
5. Not many people could follow the speaker, (speak/extremely quickly)
6. He was advised to change to an outdoor job. (be/good/his health)
7. The wrecked ship is listing dangerously, (the crew/safe/shore)
Future tense: contrasts
• Future simple:
I will play.
• Future progresivo:
I will beplaying.
I will have played.
• Futuro perfectoprogresivo:
I will have been playing.
Will / Shall
• Para predicciones, promesas, peticiones,
ofertas, sugerencias y amenazas.
Liverpool will win the league.
I'll buyyou a bicycle for Christmas.
Will you hold this for me, please?
Shall I open the door for you, Madam?
Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow?
You'll regret this!
• Para contecimientos formales usamos will
en vez de going to.
The reception will take place at the Hilton
Will / Shall
• Para expresar esperanza, expectation, etc.
• Converbos y frases tales como:
I hope she'll marryhim.
I suppose he'll get the job.
• Conadverbios que indican falta de
Perhaps she'll change her mind.
Otras formas de expresar el futuro
• Begoing to:
I'm going to see him later.
• Be to:
I'm to see him later.
• Present progressive:
I'm seeing him later.
• Simple present:
It opens tomorrow.
Usos del futuro progresivo
The children will be arriving at any
• Que hayuna diferenciaentre:
I'll dothe cookingtomorrow,
(intention, posible promesa)
I'll bedoing thecookingtomorrow,
(indtea un hecho)
• Aveceshay mucha diferencia:
I won't paythe bill, (meniego)
I won't bepaying the bill,
(no me tocapagar)
1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo y forma masconveniente.
Example: He will possibly change his mind.
1. your coat for you, Mum? (I/get)
2. The Rangers the league, (win)
3. I promise you, I on this tomorrow, (work)
4. If you look at the work schedule, you can see that we on
this tomorrow, (work)
5. We this invoice. That's for sure! (pay)
6. Look at the book, but I think we this invoice on the
7. The wedding at St. James's on June 25th. (take
8. for a swim tomorrow, boys? (we/go)
9. 'When are you seeing him?' 'Well, I first thing in the
10. I am sure she the job she applied for. (get)
11. I suppose he his mind in the end. (change)
2. cambia estas frases por future.
Example: I have to see him tomorrow. I'm to see him tomorrow.
1. She has to do it today.
2. We have to give it to him tonight.
3. They have to report at five o'clock.
4. The boys have to meet at four.
5. You have to tell him the truth.
6. They have to let us know as
soon as possible.
7. We have to see him tonight.
3. cambia de futuro simple a futuro progresivo.
Example: I will see the film tomorrow. / will be seeing the film tomorrow.
1. We will work in the same office.
2. I'll speak to him in the morning.
3. I'll do the shopping in the afternoon.
4. We'll listen to the 8 o'clock news.
5. I'll look for a new job.
6. I'll see her first thing tomorrow
Future tense: contrasts (cont.)
• Usamos este tiempo para mostrar quela
action estara ya completada para cierto
momento en elfuture.
We will all be dead by the year 2090.
• Este tiempo se usaa menudo converbos
que indican que se completa algo:
• Elfuture perfecto se usadespues deverbos
I suppose they will have finished by
Futuro perfecto progresivo
• Lo que esta en progreso ahora se puede
considerar desde un punto de vista en el
By this time next month, I will have
been working for this company for 20
Usos del "going to" como futuro.
It's going to rain. Look atthose
They are going to get divorced, I'm
• Tambien se usael going to para intencio-
nes, planes, etc.
I'm going to train tonight.
• Laintention se puede enfatizarconlos
adverbios now y just.
I'm just going to change into something
And now I'm going to show it to you.
* Si decidimos hacer algo sin premeditation
usamos el will.
We are lost. I'll stop and ask the way.
• Que el presente progresivo se puede
reemplazar por el going to.
I'm having lunch with myboss today.
I'm going to have lunch with my
• Porrazones deestilo tratamos de evitar
ei going to con los verbos go y come
(going to go/going to come).
I'm going/coming home late tonight.
Sustitutos de futuro
• Se usa be to para referirnosalfuturo
cuando las acciones se pueden controlar.
The Prime Minister is to meet the
President in May.
You are to deliver this letter in person.
You are not to tell him anything.
El futuro en el pasado
They didn't know they were to be
reunited years later.
I was to see the personnel manager
today, but the appointment was cancelled.
His inventions were to change the
whole way of life for humanity.
1. Eiige entre going to y will.
Example: I think we have a puncture. /'// stop the car and see.
1. the piano for a couple of hours this evening.
2. He an engine driver when he grows up. (be)
3. There's somebody at the door. I who it is. (go/see)
4. They in November, (get married)
5. So you've got a puncture! OK, I the tyre for you.
6. Look at the sky. It tonight, I'm afraid, (rain)
7. We to stop on the way.
8. 'It's cold! 'OK, I take my coat.'
2. Forma sustitutos de future con las expresiones:to. due to, about to, on the point of.
Example: The train at seven. The train is due to leave at seven.
1. Mr and Mrs Bridge leaving.
2.1 think you to get a big surprise.
3. You to meet Mr Gibson at nine o'clock sharp.
4. These tablets to be taken four times a day.
5. The race to start.
6. You to deliver the flowers this evening.
7. The bus is leave any moment now.
3. Vas a hacer lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2, pero con futuro en el pasado.
Example: The train was about to leave when we arrived.
1. meet Mr Gibson at five, but he cancelled the meeting.
2. Little did we know we meet again 20 years later.
3. I couldn't go on that trip as I have a baby.
4. The plane at seven but it arrived at ten.
5. We to study the plans of the marketing manager but he didn't come.
6. They couldn't imagine that the two armies to fight
again years later.
7. She didn't come with us as she to have an
8. The advanced party to be back at dawn.
Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs
• Usamos for+ gerundio cuando estamos
hablando de un proposito en particular.
- This isatool foropening cans.
That's a gadget for opening bottles.
This is a case for keeping records in.
This is the knife for carving meat.
This tool is used for cutting holes.
• Detras de losverbos siguientes se pone
gerundio, nunca infinitive:
• Conalgunos verbos quevanseguidos de
gerundio podemos poner otra palabra entre el
verbo y el gerundio. Puede ser un acusativo,
me o un nombre, Peter. A veces es tambien
un posesivo como my; o's.
When are you going to get him working?
I don't want to see you doing that again.
I don't enjoy your/his/Peter's teasing.
I dislike going out with that girl.
I regret having said that.
Verbo (+ acusativo o posesivo) +
• Losverbos siguientes pueden ir seguidos
tanto por un acusativo como por un posesivo
antes de gerundio:
- can't bear
- can't help
- can't stand
Despues de come y go con
I often go climbing/skiing/fishing/
El gerundio de need y want.
• Detras deestos dosverbos se puede poner
She needs a lotof encouraging.
I can't bear him/his notwriting to you.
Fancy you/your having noticed that.
can't understand Peter/Peter's leaving
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1. Pon el verbo entre parentesis en el tiempo correspondiente.
Example: I don't fancy (go) for a walk in the rain. I don't fancy going for a walk in the
1. That woman keeps (nag) me all day long.
2. I dislike (answer) silly questions.
3. It means (get up) very early.
4. I suggest (go) earlier.
5. She detests (speak) in public.
6. I admit (come) here late at night.
7. They contemplate (pull) down the whole building.
8. Imagine not (know) the answer to such a
9. They risk (have) an accident on the way.
2. Cambia las frases siguientes a gerundio.
Example: That wall needs to be painted. That wall needs painting.
1. The whole house wants to be redecorated.
2. My old car needs to be overhauled.
3. These children need to be encouraged.
4. The grass wants to be cut.
3. A continuacion tienes frases con acusativos y con posesivos. Cambialas. Si esta'n
con acusativo ponlas con posesivo y viceversa.
Example: Excuse him for not writing to you. Excuse his not writing to you.
1. I dislike them wasting so much money.
2. I hate their speaking to me like that.
3. I can't imagine Peter making such a fuss.
4. I can't understand his mother's approving that!
5. She can't forget my leaving her.