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Educational Research 102: Selecting the Best Study Design for your Research Question

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  • 1. Educational Research 102:Selecting the Best Study Design for your Research Question
    Francis S. Nuthalapaty, MD
    2010 APGO Faculty Development Seminar
  • 2. Disclosures
    No relevant financial disclosures to declare
  • 3. Learning Objectives
    Describe types of research and study designs
    Understand the characteristics of a good research question
    Understand how to convert the research question into a hypothesis
    Understand how to select the most appropriate study design to test the hypothesis
  • 4. What do we already know?
    TRUE
    FALSE
    1. Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Petrusa ER, Gordon DL and Scalese RJ (2005) Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher 27, 2, pp 10-28.
    2. Fletcher KE, Davis SQ, Underwood W, Mangrulkar RS, McMahon LF Jr, Saint S. Systematic review: effects of resident work hours on patient safety. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Dec 7;141(11):851-7.
  • 5. Write an educational research question in which you have interest
  • 6. Types of Research
    Empirical vs. Non-empirical
    Basic vs. Applied
  • 7. Empirical vs. Non-Empirical Research
    Empirical
    Involves collection of data first hand
    Non-Empirical
    No first hand data collection
  • 8. Example: Empirical or Non-empirical?
    The Effect of House Staff Working Hours on the Quality of Obstetric and Gynecologic Care
    Bailit, J et al, Obstet Gynecol 2009
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of house staff working hours reforms on the quality of obstetric and gynecologic care.
  • 9. Example: Empirical or Non-Empirical?
    Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review.
    Issenberg SB et al, Med Teach 2005
    OBJECTIVE: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that addresses the question, 'What are the features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to most effective learning?'.
  • 10. Types of Research
    Empirical vs. Non-empirical
    Basic vs. Applied
  • 11. Basic vs. Applied Research
    Basic
    Results apply to a great many people and situations
    Results are related to general theory or to a general field of knowledge
    Results need not have immediate or even clear implications
    Applied
    Results are applicable only to a specific group of people in a particular situation.
    Results are not necessarily related to a broader field of knowledge
    Results must have immediate and clear implications for practice
  • 12. Example: Basic or Applied?
    Assessing Vaginal Surgical Skills Using Video Motion Analysis
    Diwadkar G et al, Obstet Gynecol 2009
    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using video motion analysis to quantitate a key step of vaginal hysterectomy and define measurable differences between novice and experienced surgical trainees during vaginal hysterectomy.
  • 13. Example: Basic or Applied?
    Effects of a Depression Education Program on Residents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Skills
    LearmanL et al, Obstet Gynecol 2003
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an interactive educational program would improve obstetrics and gynecology Residents' knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and skills in caring for depressed patients.
  • 14. Research Methods
    What is the difference between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research?
  • 15. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
    Qualitative
    Descriptive and exploratory focus
    Used to gain insight into attitudes, behaviors, values
    Analysis of unstructured information
    Narrative reporting
    Quantitative
    Hypothesis driven
    Used to identify association and/or causation
    Analysis of discrete variables
    Statistical reporting
  • 16. Quantitative Research
    Experimental & Quasi-experimental
    Non-Experimental
    Causal-comparative
    Correlational
  • 17. Quantitative Research
    Experimental & Quasi-experimental
    Assess effect of an independent variable on dependent variables
    Comparison of 2 or more groups
    Control over ‘treatment’ & measurement
    Randomization
    Control group
  • 18. Quantitative Research Designs
    Experimental
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Study Population
    Randomize
    Control
    Measurement
    Post-test only Control Group
  • 19. Quantitative Research Designs
    Experimental
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Measurement
    Study Population
    Randomize
    Control
    Measurement
    Measurement
    Pre-test/Post-test Control Group
  • 20. Quantitative Research Designs
    Experimental
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Measurement
    Control
    Measurement
    Measurement
    Study Population
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Randomize
    Control
    Measurement
    Solomon Four Group
  • 21. Quantitative Research Designs
    Quasi-Experimental
    Study
    Population
    Treatment
    Measurement
    One-shot
    Case Study
  • 22. Quantitative Research Designs
    Quasi-Experimental
    Study
    Population
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Measurement
    One-group
    Pre-test/Post-test
  • 23. Quantitative Research Designs
    Quasi-Experimental
    Study
    Group 1
    Treatment 1
    Measurement
    Study
    Group 2
    Treatment 2
    Measurement
    Static Group
  • 24. Quantitative Research Designs
    Quasi-Experimental
    Study
    Group 1
    Measurement
    Treatment 1
    Measurement
    Matching
    Study
    Group 2
    Measurement
    Treatment 2
    Measurement
    Pre-test/Post-test Matched Subjects
  • 25. Quantitative Research
    Non-Experimental
    Causal-comparative
    Correlational
  • 26. Causal-Comparative
    Baseline differences are pre-existing
    Non-permutable: Ethnicity, Gender
    Permutable: Teaching style
    Determine the cause or consequences of differences
    Associations can be identified
    Causality cannot be determined
  • 27. Quantitative Research Designs
    Causal-Comparative
    Exposures
    Outcome
    Control
    Outcome
    Exploration of Effects
  • 28. Quantitative Research Designs
    Causal-Comparative
    Exposures
    Outcome
    Exposures
    Control
    Exploration of Causes
  • 29. Quantitative Research Designs
    Causal-Comparative
    Exposure
    Outcome
    Group 1
    Outcome
    Group 2
    Exploration of Consequences
  • 30. Correlational Research
    Single group of subjects
    Describe degree to which 2 or more quantitative variables are related
    Help explain important human behaviors
    Predict likely outcomes
    Identifies associations
    Causality cannot be determined
  • 31. Correlational Research
  • 32. Correlational Research
    Correlation Coefficient
    Calculated by regression
    < .35 = only a slight relationship
    .40 - .60 = possible theoretical value
    .50 = minimum for crude predictions
    >.65 = reasonably accurate predictions
    >.85 = close relationship
    Positive correlation = direct association
    Negative correlation = inverse association
  • 33. Threats to Internal Validity
    Subject characteristics
    Loss of subjects
    Maturation
    Repeated measures
    Statistical regression
    Investigator bias
  • 34. External Validity
    Can the findings from the study be generalized to larger populations?
    Subject characteristics
    Environment (lab vs. natural setting)
    Did the subjects act differently b/c they were enrolled in a study (Hawthorne effect)?
  • 35. What are the steps in the research process?
  • 36. The Research Process
    Define
    Research
    Question
    Hole
    in the
    literature
    No hole
    in the
    literature
    Conduct
    Literature
    Review
    Refine
    Research
    Question
    Obtain
    IRB Approval
    Design
    Study
    Disseminate
    Results
    Collect
    Analyze Data
  • 37. FINER Research Questions
    F – Feasible
    I – Interesting
    N – Novel
    E – Ethical
    R - Relevant
  • 38. FINER Research Questions
    Feasible:
    Can be investigated with available:
    Time
    Money
    Space
    Other resources
  • 39. FINER Research Questions
    Interesting:
    Interesting to you
    Interesting to others in the field
    Novel:
    Will answers to the question advance knowledge in the field?
  • 40. FINER Research Questions
    Ethical:
    Will any physical or psychological harm come to anyone as a result of the research?
    Protect participants from harm
    Ensure confidentiality of data
    Avoid knowing deception of participants
    Relevant:
    How might answers to this question improve educational practice?
  • 41. What is a research hypothesis and how is it different from a research question?
  • 42. Research Hypothesis
    A prediction regarding
    the possible outcomes
    of the study
    Wallen & Fraenkel. Educational Research: A Guide to the Process. 2nd Ed.
  • 43. Research Hypothesis
    A statement which:
    Summarizes the elements of the study
    The sample
    The design
    The predictor and outcome variables
    Yoder E, MERC Workshop, 2009 AAMC Annual Meeting
  • 44. Research Hypothesis
    Based upon a FINERresearch question
    Simple – one difference or relationship
    Specific – clearly stated, defined
    Stated in advance – before data collection
    Yoder E, MERC Workshop, 2009 AAMC Annual Meeting
  • 45. Research Hypothesis
    May be stated:
    As the alternative hypothesis
    Non-directional
    The difference is unknown
    Directional hypothesis
    Existing studies/data suggest direction of relationships
    As the null hypothesis
    Yoder E, MERC Workshop, 2009 AAMC Annual Meeting
  • 46. Research Hypothesis
    Ha: There is a difference between groups or variables
    Female medical students have a different IQ than male medical students
    μf ≠ μmorμf > μm
    H0: There is no difference between groups or variables
    Female medical students have a different IQ than male medical students
    μf = μm
    Yoder E, MERC Workshop, 2009 AAMC Annual Meeting
  • 47. Example: Hypothesis
    Improving Resident Competency in the Management of Shoulder Dystocia With Simulation Training
    Deering S, et al, Obstet Gynecol 2004
    METHODS: Residents from 2 training programs were randomized by year-group to a training session on shoulder dystocia (SD) management that used an obstetric birthing simulator or to a control group with no specific training. Both groups were subsequently tested on a standardized SD scenario, and a physician grader rated the resident's performance with a standardized evaluation sheet.
  • 48. Example: Hypothesis
    What is the research question?
    What is the null hypothesis?
    What is the research study design?
    Basic or Applied?
    Qualitative or Quantitative?
    Experimental or Non-Experimental
  • 49. Quantitative Research Designs
    Experimental
    Treatment
    Measurement
    Study Population
    Randomize
    Control
    Measurement
    Post-test only Control Group
  • 50. Small Group Activity
    Share your research questions
    Select one research question to convert to a hypothesis
    Select the most appropriate study design
  • 51. Give Your Research Impact
    Investigate important questions
    Connect your study to prior studies and help build the body of work
    Uses appropriate research design
    Consult with a biostatistician in the design phase
    Dissemenate your results
  • 52.
  • 53. Session content, including narrated MS Powerpoint slides available at:
    http://www.obgynknowledgebank.net

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