CONCENTRACION FOTOVOLTAICA - 2009 03 12 CPV Webinar

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CONCENTRACION FOTOVOLTAICA - 2009 03 12 CPV Webinar

  1. 1. High concentration photovoltaics: potentials and challenges J.C. Miñano, P. Benítez LPI-LLC, USA Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 POLITÉCNICA
  2. 2. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 2/42
  3. 3. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? Record cell efficiencies FhG-ISE 41.1% monolithic multijunction tandem III-V solar cells in concentration • From ~30% to 40% during the last decade • III-V cells are very expensive (~$50,000/m2-$200,000/m2) • HCPV purpose is to decrease cell cost by reducing its area Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 3/42
  4. 4. What is HCPV? (High) concentration factor s unl i g ht s unl i g ht F PP V Area A HCP V electricity Area A FPPV=Flat panel PV C Solar cell area A /Cg HCPV=High Concentration Photovoltaics electricity Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 4/42
  5. 5. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? cell cost + other costs cost = energy solar radiation × efficiency 1. Concentration to decrease cell cost 2. Efficiency=(optical efficiency) x (cell efficiency) 3. optics, tracker Tolerance 4. only direct radiation is useful for concentration (90-65%) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 5/42
  6. 6. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 6/42
  7. 7. Classic imaging PV concentrators Example: Flat Fresnel lens ±α Rays tilted at the acceptance angle α: rays focus approximately on the edge of the cell Cell Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 7/42
  8. 8. Classic imaging PV concentrators Formal definition of acceptance angle α: Angle at which transmission drops to 90% of maximum α Ideal lens T(θ) (%) 100 Real lens 90% 75 α Geometrical 50 and chromatic 25 aberrations θ (degs) 0.5 1 1.5 Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 8/42
  9. 9. Classic imaging PV concentrators Modifying the geometrical concentration α α’ For a given optical design concept: sin α ≈ constant × cell side Such “constant” strongly depends on the optical design concept L L’ Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 9/42
  10. 10. Some examples of CPV systems based on flat Fresnel lens Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 10/42
  11. 11. Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 11/42
  12. 12. Illumination non-homogeneity in imaging concentrators Sun angular diameter= 0.53º (r=±0.27º) Therefore, imaging concentrators have to compromise uniformity and Fresnel pointing tolerance lens Sun image on the cell Cell Perfect aiming Misspointing Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 12/42
  13. 13. Classic non-imaging secondary α optical elements (SOE) Prism homogenizer Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 13/42
  14. 14. Classic non-imaging secondary optical elements (SOE) CPC-type non- imaging concentrator (reduces cell area) Compare cost and efficiency! Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 14/42
  15. 15. Other imaging concentrator designs Parabolic mirror Cassegrian two-mirrors Cell Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 15/42
  16. 16. Other imaging concentrator designs Parabolic mirror Cassegrian two-mirrors Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 16/42
  17. 17. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 17/42
  18. 18. Why advanced HCPV optics? 1. Higher Efficiency 2. Higher Tolerance 3. Higher Concentration? • To be achieved without increasing the number of optical elements. • Each optical surface must perform as many functions (concentration, homogenization, etc.) as possible. • The highest Tolerance for a given Concentration will maximize Efficiency at system level. Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 18/42
  19. 19. Do you need more tolerance? Symptomatology: 1. Optics surfaces require high accuracy 2. Assembling is expensive because fine adjustments become compulsory. 3. Efficiency decreases significantly from single unit to array. Optical mismatch 4. Efficiency increases significantly when the cells are bigger. 5. The electricity production waves in moderate windy conditions 6. The efficiency decrease due to dirt accumulation is more severe than in flat modules Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 19/42
  20. 20. Tolerance Tolerance budget has to be shared among: 1. Sun’s angular extension ±0.27° 2. Optical component manufacturing 0.1°-0.5° (shape and roughness) present automotive industry standards 3. Module assembling 4. Array assembling 5. Tracker structure stiffness 6. Tracking accuracy Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 20/42
  21. 21. Advanced HCPV optics: Free-form designs • Free-form: surfaces with no prescribed symmetry • New degrees of freedom to the design: A single optical element can perform multiple functions • The SMS 3D design method of Nonimaging Optics is the most advanced method to design free-forms Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 21/42
  22. 22. Free-form XR for HCPV (Boeing-LPI) Free-form Free-form mirror lens Solar cell Homogenizing prism Free-form lens A. Plesniak et al. “Demostration of high performance concentrating photovoltaic module designs for utility scale power generation”, ICSC – 5, (Palm Desert, CA, USA, 2008) A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Schwartz, A. Plesniak, R. Jones, D. Whelan, “The Free Form XR Photovoltaic Concentrator: a High Performance SMS3D Design”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7043-12, 2008 Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 22/42
  23. 23. RR free-form Kohler design for HCPV Primary lens (R) Secondary lens (R) Solar cell A. Cvetkovic et al. “High Performance Köhler Concentrators with Uniform Irradiance on Solar Cell”, ICSC – 5, (Palm Desert, CA, USA, 2008) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 23/42
  24. 24. RR free-form Kohler design for HCPV A. Cvetkovic et al. “High Performance Köhler Concentrators with Uniform Irradiance on Solar Cell”, ICSC – 5, (Palm Desert, CA, USA, 2008) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 24/42
  25. 25. Other free-form designs (for SSL) Free-form RXI with Kohler Free-form RXI integration Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 25/42
  26. 26. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 26/42
  27. 27. What should be the criterion to compare CPV systems? • Final merit function = cost of electricity • It is difficult to evaluate before product is very mature • Several parameters are usually selected as merit functions to compare Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 27/42
  28. 28. Some parameters for CPV systems comparison 1. Module electrical efficiency at nominal conditions 2. Concentration 3. Tolerance angle (in degs) 4. Nominal power per unit area of the module, Pmodule (in Wp/m2) 5. Nominal power per unit area of the cell, Pcell (in Wp/cm2) 6. Estimated yearly energy production in certain reference locations (in kWh/(m2 year)) 7. Others: Mounting complexity, numbers of parts per unit area of the module, materials cost, weight, depth, thermal design, etc Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 28/42
  29. 29. The efficiency-concentration-tolerance (ECT) space Electrical efficiency η (%) Example: Fresnel lens concentrator with η = 27% 27% Cg=400x 400 α = ±0.5 degs Concentration Cg 0.5 degs Tolerance α (degs) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 29/42
  30. 30. Boundaries of the ECT space Thermodynamic limits: • Electrical efficiency (for infinite junctions) limited to: η < 86% • Concentration × Tolerance2 < n2 ≈ 2.25 (n=refractive index of encapsulant) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 30/42
  31. 31. Boundaries of the ECT space Electrical efficiency η (%) η < 86% Example: Fresnel lens concentrator with Tolerance > sun radius = 0.26º η = 27% Cg=400x α = ±0.5 degs Concentration Concentration × Tolerance2 < n2 ≈ 2.25 Tolerance (degs) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 31/42
  32. 32. Comparing CPV systems in the ECT space Fresnel lens concentrator XR free-form concentrator η = 27% η = 27% Cg=400x Cg=1,000x α = ±0.5º α = ±1.8º Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 32/42
  33. 33. Comparing CPV systems in the ECT space Electrical efficiency (%) Fresnel lens concentrator XR free-form concentrator 400 ,000 1 ±0 .5º ±1 .8º Concentration ±2 .8º Tolerance (degs) Concentration × Tolerance2 ≈ constant Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 33/42
  34. 34. Comparing CPV systems in the ECT space Electrical efficiency (%) Fresnel lens concentrator XR free-form concentrator 40 0 0 ,00 2 Concentration ±0 .5º ±2 ±1 .3º .8 º Tolerance (degs) Concentration × Tolerance2 ≈ constant Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 34/42
  35. 35. Comparing CPV systems in the ECT space A. Plesniak et al. “Demostration of high performance concentrating photovoltaic module designs for utility scale power generation”, ICSC – 5, (Palm Desert, CA, USA, 2008) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 35/42
  36. 36. Comparing CPV systems in the ECT space Advanced XR HCPV Target Target Advanced XR HCPV ±2.8º 33% 600x Target ≈ ±2.0º 31% 1,200x Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 36/42
  37. 37. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 37/42
  38. 38. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates Concentration-tolerance-efficiency comparison is not possible because technologies are quite different. cost cell cost + other costs = energy solar radiation × efficiency • Solar radiation: Diffuse radiation can add 15-30% more for flat-plates. • Efficiency for flat-plates use to be rated at 25ºC cell temperature while the efficiency is rated at 20ºC ambient temperature for concentrators. • Efficiency vs temperature coefficients are different for Si and MJ cells • Flat plate trackers don’t need accuracy Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 38/42
  39. 39. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates Example: Seville (Spain) High HCPV High Conventional efficiency for equal performance Goal silicon silicon output HCPV Module efficiency at STC 12.0 19.3 - - - (%) Average efficiency in 10.6 17.5 22.4 27.0 30.0 operation (%) Annual solar irradiation 2580 2580 2012 2012 2012 (kWh/(m2·year)) (100%) (100%) (78%) (78%) (78%) Nominal annual DC 274 451 451 543 604 electrical energy density (100%) (164%) (164%) (198%) (220%) (kWh/(m2·year)) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 39/42
  40. 40. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates The most important advantages of HCPV vs flat-plates come from the comparison of recent time evolution of efficiencies Record cell efficiencies • The derivatives of efficiencies for MJ and Si cells vs time are FhG-ISE 41.1% significantly different. • Si cells are more mature (less risk and less expected improvements) • The same considerations affects to cell cost of both technologies Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 40/42
  41. 41. Outline 1. Why high concentration photovoltaics (HCPV)? 2. Concentrator optics fundamentals 3. Advanced HCPV optics 4. Comparing HCPV systems 5. HCPV versus 2-axis tracked flat-plates 6. Summary Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 41/42
  42. 42. Summary 1. The potential of HCPV relies on the fast increase of MJ cells efficiency 2. The near-term challenge is beating 2-axis tracking flat-panels 3. To succeed, HCPV needs high efficiency, sufficient high concentration and as much tolerance as possible 4. The best Efficiency-Concentration-Tolerance is being achieved by Advanced Optics. 5. Scaling-up HCPV will need the synergy with present high- throughput low-cost industries (such as automotive or solid state lighting) Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009 42/42
  43. 43. LEGAL NOTICE Devices shown in this presentation are protected by the following US and International Patents and Patents Pending: Patents Issued HIGH EFFICIENY NON-IMAGING US 6,639,733 October 28, 2003 COMPACT FOLDED-OPTICS ILLUMINATION LENS US 6,896,381 May 24, 2005 COMPACT FOLDED-OPTICS ILLUMINATION LENS US 7,152,985 December 26, 2006 COMPACT FOLDED-OPTICS ILLUMINATION LENS US 7,181,378 February 20, 2007 DEVICE FOR CONCENTRATING OR COLLIMATING RADIANT ENERGY US 7,160,522 January 9, 2007 DISPOSITIVO CON LENTE DISCONTINUA DE REFLEXIÓN TOTAL INTERNA Y DIÓPTRICO ESFÉRICO PARA CONCENTRACIÓN O COLIMACIÓN DE ENERGÍA RADIANTE Spain ES P9902661 December 2, 1999 OPTICAL MANIFOLD FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES US 7,380,962 OPTICAL MANIFOLD FOR LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES US 7,286,296 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE-SURFACE METHOD AND FREE-FORM ILLUMINATION- OPTICS DESIGNED THEREFROM US 7,460,985 December 2, 2008 Patents Pending DEVICE FOR CONCENTRATING OR COLLIMATING RADIANT ENERGY - a continuation of US 7,160,522 FREE-FORM LENTICULAR OPTICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CONDENSERS AND HEADLAMPS PCT/US2006/029464 July 28, 2006 MULTI-JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH A HOMOGENIZER SYSTEM AND COUPLED NON-IMAGING LIGHT CONCENTRATOR PCT/US07/63522 March 7, 2007 OPTICAL CONCENTRATOR, ESPECIALLY FOR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS PCT/US08/03439 Mar 14, 2008 Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009
  44. 44. Further reading R. Winston, J.C. Miñano, P. Benítez, NonImaging Optics, J. Chaves, Introduction to Nonimaging Optics, Elsevier Academic Press, 2005, ISBN 0127597514 CRC Press, 2008, ISBN: 9781420054293 Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009
  45. 45. Contacts LPI EUROPE SL LPI LLC Ramón F. de Caleya, Managing Director Roberto Alvarez, CEO rfcaleya@lpi-europe.com ralvarez@lpi-llc.us Oliver Dross, Technology Director Waqidi Falicoff, Exec. VP odross@lpi-europe.com wfalicoff@lpi-llc.us Edificio Cedint 2400 Lincoln Ave. Campus de Montegancedo UPM Altadena, CA 91001, USA 28223, Madrid, SPAIN Fax: (949) 265-0547 Fax: (+34) 91 452 4892 www.lpi-llc.com www.lpi-europe.com LPI PO Bill Tse, General Manager btse@lpi-llc.us Unit 02, G/F, Photonics Centre, Science Park East Ave., Hong-Kong, CHINA Fax: +852 2144 2566 www.lpi-po.com Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009
  46. 46. LPI Overview LPI-Europe Cologne, Germany Cologne, Germany Madrid, Spain Madrid, Spain LPI-LLC LPI-PO Headquarters Headquarters Hong Kong, China Hong Kong, China Altadena, California, Altadena, California, USA USA Thank you! Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009
  47. 47. Acknowledgements The authors thank the support under the project PIE521/2008,“Investigación en nuevos concentradores FV 1000x con células solares de alta eficiencia” given by the Instituto Madrileño de Desarrollo and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo regional Webinar in Photovoltaic Concentration March 12, 2009 March 12, 2009

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