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Introduction to Reliability and Maintenance Management

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The slides that Carl and Fred present at the 2014 RAMS conference (www.rams.org). …

The slides that Carl and Fred present at the 2014 RAMS conference (www.rams.org).

An overview of tasks, approaches, and structure to creating a proactive and effective reliability program in your organization.

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  • Describe problem, scope and timeline. What I knew and didn’t know. Just part of a larger development project.
  • When decision needs to be madeHow important is the decisionTesting resources (chambers, measurement systems)Model and failure mechanismsWhat models and testing would be acceptable (believed)?
  • 20 year product with very few or none dropping in power output by 20% or more. Buried in concrete tied to rebar in mountain road bridges, activated during and for 4 hours after snowfall.
  • Carl’s story about his first assignment as reliability engineer for the Caprice program. He had to develop a Reliability Plan and present to management. The plan was an exceedingly LONG list of reliability tasks.
  • First three are nearly possible to measure every day – R is not and at best only estimated. How to balance and make the appropriate decisions.Slightly different for maintained units – function, cost to maintain, time to repair, and availability
  • The cable is part of a larger system
  • Story of 50% field failure rate
  • Include key suppliers or vendors by providing them full reliability goals appropriate to their element of the product
  • Include key suppliers or vendors by providing them full reliability goals appropriate to their element of the product
  • Carl’s story about when GM used to communicate reliability goals by memo, and never made them actual requirements.
  • Carl’s story when he was manager of Fisher Body door system test lab, and all doors passed “tests”, in spite of highly unreliable doors in the field.
  • Carl’s story about chief engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge using design margins for the bridge cable. This story fits best after Fred’s bridge story after slide 26.
  • Maricopa & Phoenix Railroad Bridge Collapse – 1902 in Tempe AZ – flood water weaken – collapsed in following dry season
  • Petroski – designers design away from failureIf it is unknown what will fail, how can the design avoid it?Current standing bridge built in 1912
  • Literature, previous field returns, root cause analysis of any failure, engineering judgment, modeling and simulations, experimentationImage is a colored wood engraving, called Universum and is from The Flammarion engraving is a wood engraving by an unknown artist, so named because its first documented appearance is in Camille Flammarion's 1888 book L'atmosphère: météorologie populaire ("The Atmosphere: Popular Meteorology")
  • Old diesel train buffer’s between cars
  • Carl’s story about Cadillac CTS program, the first to use full scale reliability requirements and verification with suppliers of critical parts.
  • Supply Chain and Manufacturing VariationOverstress conditionsWear out and related
  • Rolling stones t shirt – new employee and separating circuit boards by hand
  • Story of one organization with 31 failure mechanisms and model used for decision making
  • Cable reliability testing and models
  • Story of study by intern on what was found and what caused field failures
  • Story of using reliability to achieve availability
  • Carl’s story about a missile program where the reliability engineer was assigned the task to achieve project reliability goals, without any support from the rest of engineering.

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to R & M Management Fred Schenkelberg FMS Reliability Reliability Engineering and Management Consultant Carl S. Carlson ReliaSoft Corporation Senior Reliability Consultant
  • 2. Reliability Engineering & Management Consultant Fred Schenkelberg Carl S. Carlson Reliability Engineering & Management Consultant Senior Reliability Consultant FMS Reliability (408) 710-8248 fms@fmsreliability.com ReliaSoft Corporation carl.carlson@reliasoft.com carl.carlson@effectivefmeas.com 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 2
  • 3. Tutorial Objectives To introduce an outline to guide management of an effective reliability program. To make you think about how to integrate reliability engineering within an organization. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 3
  • 4. First Challenge as Reliability Engineer New heating cable design How long will it last? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 4
  • 5. What did I need to know? Timeline Budget Samples What else? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 5
  • 6. How long1 or 5 year Is this a should it last? problem? What is the goal? How does your organization state reliability goals? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 6
  • 7. First Assignment as Reliability Engineer Put together a reliability plan for new vehicle program Lesson learned: select the vital few tasks 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 7
  • 8. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 8
  • 9. Requirements Tasks Set Reliability Targets Function Environment Duration Probability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 9
  • 10. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 10
  • 11. Balance with other objectives Features or functions of the product Cost of the product Time to market Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 11
  • 12. Cable, sensor, power supply, Cable part of a larger system controller, and connectors • • Materials, processes, assembly, design, transportation, and installation 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 12
  • 13. Story of 50% field failure rate All elements met reliability goal. Field data agreed 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 13
  • 14. Apportion the goal Sys Sub 1 Sub 2 Sub 3 Sub 4 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg Sub 5 14
  • 15. Apportion the goal Sys Sub 1 Sub 2 Sub 3 Sub 4 Sub 5 With series system, product of sub system reliability is system reliability. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 15
  • 16. Apportion complete goal Function Environment Duration Probability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 16
  • 17. NoStory of “you need to improve reliability” goal No field data No Pareto of issues Just make it better, 2014 RAMS Tutorial as warranty expenses too –high2A - Schenkelberg 17
  • 18. Where should they reside? Communication of Reliability Goals 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 18
  • 19. Requirements Tasks Identify Reliability Data Needs  Reliability data supports measuring and assuring reliability requirements are attained.  Data can take the form of test failures, field failures, degradation measurements, test or analysis successes, and other forms.  Focus on data integrity and correct measurements. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 19
  • 20. Two basic questions What will fail? When will it fail? Information to permit appropriate product development decisions 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 20
  • 21. Testing to Pass 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 21
  • 22. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 22
  • 23. Risk Reduction Tasks Design-in reliability    This step involves selecting the “Design for Reliability” tools that can be executed in the design and manufacturing stages of product development process Such as Failure Mode & Effects Analysis, Derating, Design Margin Analysis, Highly Accelerated Life Testing, etc. The focus of the DFR tools should be on high risk areas, such as new technology and new applications 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 23
  • 24. • Understand stress • Understand strength • Separate stress from strength 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 24
  • 25. Henry Petroski Design Paradigms 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 25
  • 26. Discovery 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 26
  • 27. Discovery Tools Discovery Tools 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 27
  • 28. Prediction of early life failures Not commonly possibly for unknown variation Design in some margin Derating Safety factor Determine margin If variation is known, determine probability of failures – still difficult to know when though. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 28
  • 29. Risk Reduction Tasks Achieve supplier reliability     Incorporate reliability specifications and tasks into supplier bid packages Select suppliers who are capable of achieving reliability objectives Identify critical supplier parts Review and approve supplier tasks for critical parts before shipment 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 29
  • 30. Extra tasks for critical suppliers Due care tasks for all other suppliers 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 30
  • 31. Risk Reduction Tasks Implement reliable manufacturing   Manufacturing Reliability is essential to ensuring the manufacturing and assembly operations do not reduce the inherent design reliability of products. Steps must be taken to control manufacturing processes so they are both stable and capable. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 31
  • 32. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 32
  • 33. Assurance Tasks Verify Reliability Requirements Met    Develop and use reliability tests that use physical testing methods, as well as analytical modeling techniques. Focus needs to be on proper analysis and accelerated life testing. Supplier reliability requirements for critical parts must be verified before shipment. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 33
  • 34. When will it fail? Everything Fails at some point. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 34
  • 35. Typical early life failures Product does not meet design specifications Material or component characterization Process characterization Assembly characterization 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 35
  • 36. Hit by a big hammer Some stress is too large to accommodate Lightening Vehicle accident Meteor strike Hurricane Possibly foreseen or expected, and not economical to design the ability to withstand 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 36
  • 37. Prediction of overstress Not commonly possibly Design errors Environment Unexpected use When significant adverse consequence may occur explore mitigation or fail safe approaches 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 37
  • 38. Wear out and related Everything fails – eventually Understand failure mechanisms and environment The race to cause a failure 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 38
  • 39. Prediction of wear out Guesses Estimates Predictions Previous products Models Testing 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 39
  • 40. Life testing Standards Set levels Environmental extremes Single stress and model for acceleration factor Determine the model and acceleration factor Physics of failure modeling/testing Pick one that fits risk, resources, and time 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 40
  • 41. Is it good enough? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 41
  • 42. Is it good enough? How do we know? 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 42
  • 43. Is it good enough? How do we know? We understand the failure mechanisms & business objectives 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 43
  • 44. Assurance Tasks Continuously Improve Reliability    The value of physical testing should be enhanced through use of appropriate Reliability Growth Models and Life Data Analysis. A Failure Review system (FRACAS) should be instituted. Reliability improvement methods throughout product life cycle must be maintained. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 44
  • 45. FRACAS A method to keep it all together Triage Prioritization Closure Grey area of when to stop fixing and ship 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 45
  • 46. Assurance Tasks Maintain High Reliability Throughout Life   Establishing and implementing proper service and maintenance procedures will extend product life and help ensure safe and trouble-free usage. Understanding and addressing customer issues during field usage is important. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 46
  • 47. Maintenance Considerations 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 47
  • 48. Value 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 48
  • 49. Outline of topics      Requirements Tasks Risk Reduction Tasks Assurance Tasks Organizational Tasks Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 49
  • 50. Organizational Tasks Establish organizational resources  Organizational resources include personnel, training, procedures, and business processes.  Will help move the organization to higher stages in the Maturity Matrix 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 50
  • 51. Organizational Tasks Institutionalize Reliability Tasks  It is the responsibility of engineering to achieve reliability objectives.  Reliability methods must be integrated into ongoing engineering procedures and tasks, including design reviews, supplier selection, work instructions, design procedures, etc. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 51
  • 52. Achieving reliability objectives is an organization-wide endeavor. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 52
  • 53. Organizational Tasks Advance up the Maturity Matrix  Maturity Matrix represents stages of “maturity” of a company with respect to      Product Requirements Engineering Feedback Process Management There are 5 stages of maturity that represent increasing levels of organizational and engineering capability 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 53
  • 54. Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan Step 5: Assess Program Lessons Learned 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 54
  • 55. Primary Steps to Achieving High Reliability (High Level) Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan Requirements Tasks Step A: Set reliability targets Step B: Identify reliability data needs Assurance Tasks Step F: Verify reliability reqmts met Step G: Continuously improve reliability Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan Step 5: Assess Prgm Lessons Learned Risk Reduction Tasks Step C: Design-in Reliability Step D: Achieve supplier reliability Step E: Implement reliable manufacturing Organizational Tasks Step I: Step H: Establish Maintain organizational high resources reliability 2014 RAMS – thru-out life Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg Step J: Institutionalize reliability tasks Step K: Advance Up Maturity Matrix 55
  • 56. Step 1: Develop Reliability Strategic Vision    In the words of American educator Steven Covey, “begin with the end in mind.” The Reliability Strategic Vision outlines the overall vision for Reliability for the organization or program. It should be developed with full management support, understood by all employees, and integrated into work activities. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 56
  • 57. Step 2: Perform Reliability Gap Assessment A Reliability “Gap” Assessment is:  A comprehensive analysis of the specific “gaps” between a company’s vision for reliability and current reliability capability  It begins with developing or understanding the company’s reliability vision, and then analyzes the specific shortcomings to achieving that vision.  The “gaps” are those issues or shortcomings that if closed or resolved would move the company in the direction of achieving its reliability vision. It is input to the Reliability Program Plan.  “Gaps” include both organizational capability and application of reliability methods. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 57
  • 58. Step 3: Develop Reliability Program Plan    A Reliability Program Plan (RPP) is a document that defines the entire set of tasks that need to be accomplished on a project or program, including responsibility for execution, timing and resources, in order to achieve the program reliability objectives. The objective is to design and manufacture a highly reliable product, on time, and in a cost effective manner. Includes Steps A thru K 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 58
  • 59. Step 4: Execute Reliability Program Plan     Reliability Program Plan execution requires management buy-in and support Reliability plan tasks should be integrated into company project planning and execution mechanisms Provide a Work Break-Down Structure and schedule for the RPP (who, what, when, where, etc.) Empower reliability to raise the red flag when needed 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 59
  • 60. Step 5: Assess Program Lessons Learned    No reliability program is flawless Maintain record of issues with development and execution of reliability plan Move the organization up the maturity matrix 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 60
  • 61. Conclusions  Developing and executing an effective Reliability Program Plan is essential to achieving high reliability for products and processes  By following the information in this tutorial, companies can develop effective Reliability Program Plans that achieve reliability objectives, while staying within budget and timing constraints. 2014 RAMS – Tutorial 2A - Schenkelberg 61