Project Proposal Basics [JUNE 2006]


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The basics of creating and presenting a Project Proposal for starters.

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  • 07/01/10
  • Project Proposal Basics [JUNE 2006]

    1. 1. - Project Proposal - Proposal Techniques By Fahad Mahmud Mirza
    2. 2. Foreword <ul><li>A Project is a brief effort undertaken to create a unique product or service. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Informally: </li></ul><ul><li>Plan; Scheme; Extensive Essay; Piece of Research in any field </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basic Characteristics of a Project <ul><li>Actions of any range may be a project </li></ul><ul><li> Large and small projects demand different handling </li></ul><ul><li>They are Temporary </li></ul><ul><li> Distinguishes projects from operations </li></ul><ul><li>They are Unique </li></ul><ul><li> Not the same old stuff; non-repetitive </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>A Project cannot be: </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency response to operation problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Callouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repairs and troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routine operation support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor modifications and tuning of equipment </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Project Proposal
    6. 6. First Step Project Proposal A Worthy Idea Ability to Read & Follow Instructions + = A COMPETITIVE PROPOSAL Basic Concept:
    7. 7. General Elevation Steps 1. Strategy Development 2. Message Structuring 3. Document Design 4. Content Creation 5. Editing and Reviewing 6. Document Production 7. Debrief and Key Learning
    8. 8. 1. Developing a Project Proposal <ul><li>Problem (Requests) Statement * </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Project Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>*Asset-based development </li></ul>Table of Contents:
    9. 9. Developing Written Project Proposal <ul><li>Front cover </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Current Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Project Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Development Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Development Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Check your spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Covering letter </li></ul>The Basic Constitution:
    10. 10. Developing Written Project Proposal contd… <ul><li>Keep proposal neat and trouble-free to read- </li></ul><ul><li>U se positive and confident statements - avoid saying, “ We hope to ” , or “ We may ” </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’ t overload with tables, charts, and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Ask someone not familiar with issue to read proposal for clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Secure all necessary commitments/signatures </li></ul>The Ideology of Writing: <ul><li>Don’t over-promise or undersell </li></ul><ul><li>Be factual– but not dull! </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Write in third person </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume the reviewer knows about the issue as well as you </li></ul><ul><li>Check for typos </li></ul>
    11. 11. Types of a Proposal <ul><li>A Proposal can be one of the two types below: </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Proposal – within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>External Proposal – </li></ul><ul><li>outside the organization ( more important ) </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>The Elements of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the organization’s need </li></ul><ul><li>To show that the program is rational </li></ul><ul><li>To assure that the job will get done </li></ul>Internal Proposal
    13. 13. <ul><li>The Structure of an Internal Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Memo Format </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Credential </li></ul><ul><li>Task schedule </li></ul>Internal Proposal
    14. 14. <ul><li>The Elements of Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the reader’s need </li></ul><ul><li>Describing Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating Professionalism </li></ul>External Proposal
    15. 15. <ul><li>The Structure of an External Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Program </li></ul><ul><li>Qualification & Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Appendixes </li></ul>External Proposal
    16. 16. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed program </li></ul><ul><li>Qualification & Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expected completion date </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul>
    17. 17. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Describing the background </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the Problem or opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Convincing and justifying the expenditures </li></ul>
    18. 18. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Proposed Program </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your grasp on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the process and techniques </li></ul>
    19. 19. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Qualification & Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your ability to do </li></ul><ul><li>List similar projects you have done </li></ul><ul><li>Use paragraphs in small proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Add resume for long proposals </li></ul>
    20. 20. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Direct cost </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect cost </li></ul>
    21. 21. External Proposal contd… <ul><li> Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Description of other projects </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting letters </li></ul><ul><li>Task schedule </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Always relate the data to your target population </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’ t overkill with numbers — too many </li></ul><ul><li>statistics are boring! </li></ul><ul><li>Be as current as possible, if only old </li></ul><ul><li>data is available, say so. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure numbers/facts are accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Use tables/graphs when possible — but don ’ t get carried away </li></ul><ul><li>Cite your data sources </li></ul><ul><li>Use data ratio when possible (per capita, percentage, etc.) </li></ul>Data vs. Evidence
    23. 23. <ul><li>Be sure the methods flow from the goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Be reasonable and chronological </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the 5 Ws -What, Who, Where, When, Why and How </li></ul><ul><li>Be concise — but systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Use simple sentences and bullets </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology is process </li></ul>Gleaming Proposal
    24. 24. Two main aspects Develop - Developing Project Proposal in form of Presentation - Just same as writing a proposal Deliver - Words as well as expressions 2. The Proposal Presentation The Very Important part of the pack
    25. 25. <ul><li>Just same as writing a proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Use words to the point: less words but greater meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate data: irrelevant data not allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Use flowcharts, visuals to support your proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Make it E asy, A pt and R eal- ( E.A.R ) </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Design Concept of the Project </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>“ An Executive Summary &quot; at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Project Justification and proposed value of the project </li></ul>Part-1: Making the Presentation Some Important Pointers 
    26. 26. Part- 2: Delivering the Presentation Some Important Pointers  <ul><li>Important concepts and points only -- leave details for later </li></ul><ul><li>Confident, no state of panic </li></ul><ul><li>Try to convince, gain trust of listeners </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye-to-eye contact with audience </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate body language </li></ul><ul><li>Break monotony – avoid boring the audience </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Rehearsal and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Audience Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Using Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and Technical Talks </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking from notes </li></ul><ul><li>Well-dressed Speaker </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation Stuffing 
    28. 28. <ul><li>Rehearsal and Practice – </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clear, vivid idea about the subject to get the object </li></ul><ul><li>More practice downsizes the chances of errors </li></ul><ul><li>Plan how you verbally emphasize key phrases and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rehearse specific gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Make a fresh set of notes to reflect the final version you intend to deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Try and visit the location of presentation a day before </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rehearse specific gestures over and over </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize the points, not the words! </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    29. 29. <ul><li>Audience Attention – </li></ul><ul><li>Speak up! Helps you lessen nervousness and avoids mumbling </li></ul><ul><li>Audience mind is hungry for pictures; give them something to see </li></ul><ul><li>Use stories that force audience to visualize (use first-person stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Pauses are the most effective technique for regaining attention </li></ul><ul><li>Do throw in some theoretical questions </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    30. 30. <ul><li>Controlling Nervousness – </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing your subject heavily protects from nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Look directly into eyes of the listener (good habit for effective speech) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the opening statements will reduce worry about getting started </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use drugs to calm nervousness- results in slow speed and hazy memory </li></ul><ul><li>Stand straight and breathe proper; makes easier to get words out naturally </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    31. 31. <ul><li>Opening Remarks – </li></ul><ul><li>Find interesting opening story or compelling first sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid asking a question as an opener </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the person who introduced you, as it is a formal occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Pause before speaking, focus on one of the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the planned opening statement </li></ul><ul><li>The opening statement must relate your business point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by outlining the conclusion </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    32. 32. <ul><li>Q&A Handling – </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your audience to hold questions for the end, if you don’t want interruption </li></ul><ul><li>Look directly to the person asking question, and make sure he/she finishes </li></ul><ul><li>While answering, don’t look at the questioner but address everyone present </li></ul><ul><li>If questioner is nitpicker, be polite and give more information </li></ul><ul><li>If he/she persists, tell them to meet and discuss the matter afterwards </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t know the answer, appreciate the question and relate your topic </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    33. 33. <ul><li>Using Visual Aids – </li></ul><ul><li>Use few well-conceived visuals that are memorable, rather than boring charts </li></ul><ul><li>Color the basic key-points </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what each visual means </li></ul><ul><li>Each visual must relate the topic of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Use props or stuffed toys to support your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>When through with a visual, cover it up </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    34. 34. <ul><li>Incorporating Humor – </li></ul><ul><li>Safest approach for average presenter is ‘ Don’t ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Most natural expression of humor is a simple smile </li></ul><ul><li>Amusing incidents from real life are better than jokes somehow </li></ul><ul><li>If you can’t tell a joke, don’t risk making a fool of yourself by attempting </li></ul><ul><li>Jokes in presentation depend heavily on the type of occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly speakers find something to laugh at, but not for amateur presenters </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    35. 35. <ul><li>Financial and Technical Talks – </li></ul><ul><li>Gear your talk to level of sophistication of your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Helps you good for eliminating jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Greater the level of sophistication, more important is use of analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the presentation visuals at simpler level </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the details for handouts (normally supplied) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your talk upbeat, fast-paced and simpler </li></ul><ul><li>Stay focused on results, while delivering financial reports </li></ul><ul><li>Technical talks are not same as technical papers; so hit the key-points only </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    36. 36. <ul><li>Speaking from Notes – </li></ul><ul><li>Print notes or outlines in large letters with color pens </li></ul><ul><li>Use one page or index card for each point in presentation </li></ul><ul><li>If you use direct quotation, hold up the card you’re reading from </li></ul><ul><li>Make clear whom you are quoting and where you got the quote </li></ul><ul><li>Use short phrases or key-words than sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Use color-codes to indicate what you have planned to introduce </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    37. 37. <ul><li>Well-dressed Speaker – </li></ul><ul><li>A more formal attire is appropriate for presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s wardrobe is just as much about business as about fashion </li></ul><ul><li>For an authoritative image, use dark colored clothing (black, dark-blue etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>For businesslike attitude, keep your coat buttoned during presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid tinted glasses for keeping good eye-contact </li></ul><ul><li>No matter what you say, your clothes say more! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Ideas for the Business Presentation contd…
    38. 38. Issues Affecting the Proposal <ul><li>Required elements are missing, i.e. budget justification, vita, support letters </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic goals and objectives for the project </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessment not supported by reliable data/information – based on emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak methodology – doesn’t present a convincing case for project </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals contain typos or excessive jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal scope is too narrow </li></ul>Barriers against effective proposal:
    39. 39. Overall suggestion for a Proposal Indicative pointers: <ul><li>Must contain all components </li></ul><ul><li>Achievable targets </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments must be based on actual data </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals must not contain typos </li></ul><ul><li>Your vision should be wide </li></ul><ul><li>Way of presentation </li></ul>
    40. 40. Overall suggestion contd… <ul><li>Every project and client is unique </li></ul><ul><li>Content can be different </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing manner is same </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessary your proposal might get you the job first place </li></ul>
    41. 41. The Benefits - Effective Proposal Conclusion <ul><li>“ An effective proposal can directly appeal your client and help you win more an more business. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Winning the proposals can bring you to the competitive world of the present day market. </li></ul><ul><li>Right path of success- Slow and steady wins the race </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the Profitability of your business accomplishment! </li></ul>
    42. 42. THANK YOU !!!