What is Management?
Management in business and
organizations means to coordinate the
efforts of people to accomplish goals
and objectives using available
resources efficiently and effectively.
Management comprises planning,
organizing, staffing, leading or
directing, and controlling an
organization or initiative to accomplish
Another Definition of management
Since organizations can be viewed as systems,
Management can also be defined as human
action, including design, to facilitate the
production of useful outcomes from a system.
This view opens the opportunity to 'manage'
oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage
Planning, organizing, controlling.
Plan, organize, control. Written requests.
Controls and written documentation
Management Ideas and Practice Throughout
History Nebuchadnezzar Wage incentives, production control
Management as a separate art
Human relations and motion study
Delegation of authority
Listed leadership traits
Listed managerial traits
Different organizational forms/structures
Numbering, standardization, interchangeability
Sir Thomas More
Critical of poor management and leadership
Cohesiveness, power, and leadership
Some ancient military texts have been cited for lessons
that civilian managers can gather.
For example, Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th
century BC, The Art of War, recommends being aware
of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a
manager's organization and a foe's.
Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790)
and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) provided a
theoretical background to resource-allocation,
production, and pricing issues. About the same time,
innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt
(1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728–1809)
developed elements of technical production such as
standardization, quality-control procedures, costaccounting, interchangeability of parts, and workplanning.
Many of these aspects of management existed in the
pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That
environment saw 4 million people, as the
contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable
Salaried managers as an identifiable group first
became prominent in the late 19th century.[7
J. Duncan wrote the first college management
textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced
Taylorism to Japan and became first management
consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His
son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance.
The first comprehensive theories of management
appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School
offered the first Master of Business Administration
degree (MBA) in 1921.
Hawthorne Studies: Elton Mayo
Workers’ feelings and attitudes
affected their work
Financial incentives weren’t the
most important motivator for
Group norms and behavior play
a critical role in behavior at
Frederick W. Taylor
Frederick Taylor is known
today as the "father of
scientific management." One
of his many contributions to
modern management is the
common practice of giving
employees rest breaks
throughout the day.
Frederick W. Taylor, 1856-1915
Taylor’s Four Management Principles
Develop a science for each element of a man’s work,
which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
Scientifically select and then train, teach, and
develop the workman.
Cooperate with the men to insure all work is done in
accordance with the principles of the science.
There is almost equal division of the work and the
responsibility between management and workmen.
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were prolific
researchers and often used their family as
guinea pigs. Their work is the subject of
Cheaper by the Dozen, written by their son
Max Weber, 1864-1920
The exercise of control on the basis of
knowledge, expertise, or experience.
Mary Parker Follett
Mary Parker Follett is
known today as the
“mother of scientific
management." Her many
contributions to modern
management include the
ideas of negotiation,
conflict resolution, and
Mary Parker Follett, 1868-1933
Whitney, Monge, and Olds
Eli Whitney, 1765-1825
Gaspard Monge, 1746-1818
Ransom Olds, 1864-1950
Milestones in information management:
Horses in Italy
Creation of paper and the printing press
Vertical file cabinets and the telegraph
Holds that the most effective management
theory or idea depends on the kinds of
problems or situations that managers are
facing at a particular time and place.
Management is harder than it looks
Managers need to look for key contingencies that
differentiate today’s situation from yesterday’s
Managers need to spend more time analyzing
problems before taking action
Pay attention to qualifying phrases,
such as “usually”
In The End
We Wish that our Presentation about the history of
management piqued you’re interest