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Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 9
    Urinary System
  • (KUB)
    Stands for kidney , ureter, bladder
    term used in a radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
    Stones and calcified areas may be detected.
  • View slide
  • (UTI)
    Known as Urinary Tract Infection
    a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract.
    Your urinary system is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
    Any part of your urinary system can become infected, but most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the urethra and the bladder.
    View slide
  • What causes UTI?
    The two most common causes of this are poor hygiene and sexual intercourse.
    Another cause of bladder infections or UTI is waiting too long to urinate.
    Loss of estrogen and changes in the vagina after menopause.
    Anything that makes it hard to completely empty your bladder, like a kidney stone.
  • Symptoms
    pain or burning during urination
    frequent urination
    the sensation of not being able to hold urine
    the sensation of not being able to urinate easily or completely
    Cloudy, bad-smelling, or bloody urine
    Lower abdominal pain
  • Treatment
    cranberry herbal supplements
    Azo-Standard
    500 IU Vitamin C
  • (ARF)
    Acute renal failure means that your kidneys have suddenly stopped working.
    Your kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (electrolytes) in your blood.
    When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body.
  • What causes Acute Renal Failure?
    sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys .
    Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections
    A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys
  • Symptoms
    Little or no urine when you urinate.
    Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
    Not feeling like eating.
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
    Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.
    Some people may not have any symptoms
  • Treatments
    Limit your salt intake
    Watch your potassium intake
    Watch your phosphorus intake
  • (CRF)
    Chronic renal failure is a progressive disease characterized by an increasing inability of the kidney to maintain normal low levels of:
    protein metabolism (such as urea)
    normal blood pressure 
    hematocrit
    sodium
    water
    potassium
    acid-base balance
  • What causes Chronic Renal Failure?
    There are many possible causes of CRF including;
    Infections
    Hereditary or congenital abnormalities
    Kidney tumours
    Infectious diseases, especially FIP & FeLV
    Prolonged exposure to toxins
    Nephritis & nephrosis
    Polycystic kidney disease
  • Symptoms
    Weakness
    Shortness of breath
    Inability to excrete potassium and rising potassium levels in the serum
    Rising urea levels in the blood
    Loss of appetite
  • Treatments
    Fluids
    Phosphorus binders
    Prescription diet
    High blood pressure (hypertension
    Antacids & anti nausea medication
    Erythropoeitine
  • 1. Acute renal failure 2.Normal kidney3.Chronic renal failure
  • (BUN)
    Blood Urea Nitrogen test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea.
    A BUN test is done to see how well your kidneys are working.
  • Why It Is Done
    See if your kidneys are working normally
    See if your kidney disease is getting worse
    See if treatment of your kidney disease is working
  • How It Is Done
    The health professional drawing blood will:
    Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
    Clean the needle site with alcohol.
    Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
    Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
    Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
    Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
    Put pressure to the site and then a bandage.