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Is it Greek or Roman?

Is it Greek or Roman?

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    Rome5 Rome5 Presentation Transcript

    • 1
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    • Is it GREEK Or is it ROMAN ? 3
    • GREEK ROMANPreferred Structure: Temples to Glorify Gods Civic Buildings to honor EmpireWalls: Made of cut stone blocks Concrete with Ornamental facingTrademark Forms: Rectangles, Straight Lines Circles, Curved LinesSupport System: Post and Lintel Rounded ArchColumn Style: Doric & Ionic CorinthianSculpture: Idealized Gods & Realistic (Verism) humans, Goddesses idealized officialsPainting: Stylized figures floating in Realistic images with Space perspectiveSubject of Art: Mythology Civic Leaders, military triumphs 4
    • Temple of Athena Nike Temple of Portunus Classical Greek Rome, Italy - ca. 75 BC 5
    • PARTHENONGreekPANTHEONRome 6
    • Polykleitos, Doryphoros, Augustus Primaporta, High Classical Greek Pax Romana (Roman) 7
    • Athena and Alcyoneusfrieze from the Altar ofZeus at Pergamon, c.180BCE.HELLENISTIC GREEKSpoils from the Temple ofSolomon, Jerusalem.Relief on the Arch of TitusEARLY EMPIRE ROME 8
    • Etruscan Supremacy: 700-509 BCEProvided link between Greek and Roman ArtKEYWORDS: TERRA-COTTA, COMPOSITE ORDERRoman Republican Period: 509-27 BCEBegins with overthrowing last Etruscan King and ends with JuliusCaesar… Major buildings built more for POLITCAL use than forWORSHIPKEYWORDS: TEMPLES, ARA PACIS, HOMAGE TO RULERSEarly Empire Period: 27 BCE-180 CEKEYWORDS: WALL PAINTINGS, CONCRETE, ARCH, COLOSSEUMThe High Empire: 180-195 CEFive Good Emperors (Trajan, Hadrian, etc.) kept things prosperousand peaceful.KEYWORDS: COLUMN OF TRAJAN, HADRIAN’S WALL, PANTHEONThe Late Empire: 195-400 CEDiocletian had Empire divided into four parts.KEYWORDS: TETRARCHY, ARCH OF CONSTANTINE 9
    • The Roman Architectural Revolution 10
    • Temple of PortunusRepublic Rome Rome, Italy - ca. 75 BC EARLY REPUBLIC ROMANA superb example of Roman eclecticismis the Temple of Portunus, the Romangod of harbors.Follows the Etruscan pattern:•High podium is accessible only at thefront, with its wide flight of steps.•Freestanding columns are confined tothe deep porch.•The structure is built of stone overlaidoriginally with stucco in imitation of thewhite marble temples of the Greeks.•The columns are Ionic, complete withflutes and bases.•In an effort to approximate a peripteralGreek temple - while maintaining theEtruscan plan - the architect added aseries of engaged Ionic half-columnsaround the cella’s sides and back. Model of a typical Etruscan Temple•The result was a pseudoperipteral 6th Century BCtemple. 11
    • Republic Rome Temple of “the Sibyl” or of “Vesta” Tivoli, Italy - early first century BCThe Romans’ admiration for theGreek temples they encountered intheir conquests also led to theimportation of the round, or tholos,temple type.The travertine columns are CorinthianIn contrast with Greek practice, thecell wall was constructed not ofmasonry blocks but of a newinvention: concrete. 12
    • Aulus MetellusRepublic Rome Late 2nd - early 1st century BCArtists of the Republican Period sought tocreate very realistic images of their rulers.Dressed in the traditional draped toga,Aulus Metellus poses with authority andpersuasiveness. 13
    • Republic Rome Funerary Relief with Portraits of the Gessii Rome (?), Italy - ca. 30 BCThe surviving sculptural portraits of prominent Roman Republican figures are uniformly literalreproductions of individual faces. Although their style derives to some degree from Hellenisticand Etruscan portraits, Republican portraits are one way the patrician class celebrated itselevated status. Slaves and former slaves could not possess such portraits, because, underRoman law, they were not people but property. Yet when freed slaves died, they often orderedportraits for their tombs - in a style that contrasts sharply with that favored by freeborn patricians.This image depicts former slaves who have gained their freedom and right to have their portraitscreated. 14
    • Republic Rome Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, ca 75-50 B.C.Republican patrician portraits :Mostly men of advanced age (generally theseelders held the power in the state)One of the most striking of these so-called veristic(superrealistic) portraits is of an unidentifiedpatrician.We are able to see this man’s personality: serious,experienced, determined- virtues that were admiredduring the Republic. Kresilas, Pericles Classical Greece 15
    • Imperial RomeOctavian Caesar (the great-nephewand adopted ‘son’ of Julius Caesar)became the first Roman Emperor in44BC. By 27 BC, the Senateconferred him the title ‘Augustus’(meaning ‘exalted’ or ‘sacred’).For the next 41 years, AugustusCaesar led the empire thru a period ofpeace and prosperity known as thePax Romana, or Roman Peace.The inclusion of Venus’ son, Cupid, isa reminder of Augustus’ divine descent(related to Goddess Venus).Furthermore, this depicts the return ofRoman military standards by theParthians. The marble statue wasoriginally painted. Augustus of Primaporta, 16 Early 1st Century BCE EARLY EMPIRE ROMAN
    • Imperial Rome The Ara Pacis (or ‘Altar of Augustan Peace’) was a monument dedicated in 9 BC to commemorate Augustus; return to Rome after establishing Roman rule in Gaul. Included on this monument was the Imperial Procession – a relief showing the family members and other who attended the dedication. (This is much different than the ‘Procession of the Gods’ frieze located on the Parthenon in Athens.) Ara Pacis, 13-9 BCE. EARLY EMPIRE ROMAN. 17
    • Imperial RomeAugustus Caesar was elevated toDivine Status after his death (asmemorialized with the Ara Pacis)…Here is an onyx cameo of the ‘crowning’of Augustus as Jupiter – King of theGods. His adopted son, Tiberius, holdsa lance and steps out of the chariot onthe left, ready to be the next Emperor.This piece combines: • The idealized heroicism of Classical Greek Art • The dramatic action of Hellenistic Art • The Roman realism and depiction of historical events Gemma Augustea, Onyx ca 1 Century AD, EARLY EMPIRE ROMAN st 18
    • Pompeii & the Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii,Cities of Vesuvius Italy, ca 80 B.C.The forum was an oasis in the heart ofPompeii - an open, airy plaza.Throughout the rest of the city, everysquare foot of land was developed. At thesouthern end of the town, immediatelyafter the Roman colony was founded in80 B.C., Pompeii’s new citizens erected alarge amphitheater. It is the earliest suchstructure known and could seat sometwenty thousand spectators. The word-amphitheater means “double theater”,and the Roman structures closelyresemble two Greek theaters puttogether, although the Greeks never builtamphitheaters. Greek theaters wereplaced on natural hillsides, but supportingan amphitheater’s continuous elliptical Arena is Latin for “sand”, which soaked up thecavea required building an artificial contestants’ blood. Instead of refinedmountain- and only concrete, unknown to performances, the Amphitheater held mostly bloodythe Greeks, was capable of such a job. gladiator combats.Barrel vaults also form the tunnelsleading to the stone seats of the arena. 19
    • Pompeii & theCities of Vesuvius Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater Pompeii, Italy, ca. A.D. 60-79This painting that is found on the wall ofa Pompeian house depicts an incidentthat occurred in the amphitheater in A.D.59. A brawl broke out between thePompeians and their neighbors, theNucerians, during a contest between thetwo towns.The fight left many wounded and led to a10 year prohibition against such events.The painting shows the cloth awning(velarium) that could be rolled down fromthe top of the cavea to shield spectatorsfrom either sun or rain. It also has thedistinctive external double staircasesthat enabled large numbers of people toenter and exit the cavea in an orderlyfashion. 20
    • The Roman House 21
    • 22
    • Atrium of the House of the VettiiPompeii & the Pompeii, Italy, second century B.C., rebuilt A.D. 62-79Cities of VesuviusOne of the best preserved houses atPompeii, partially rebuilt and anobligatory stop on every tourist’sitinerary today, is the House of theVettii, an old Pompeian houseremodeled and repainted after theearthquake of A.D. 62The photograph was taken in thefauces. It shows the impluvium in thecenter of the atrium, the opening in theroof above, and in the background, theperistyle garden with its marble tablesand mural paintings.The house was owned by twobrothers, Aulus Vettius Restitutus andAulus Vettius Conviva, probablyfreedmen who had made their fortuneas merchants. Their wealth enabledthem to purchase and furnishedhouses that would have been ownedonly by patricians. 23
    • Pompeii & the Dionysiac mystery friezeCities of Vesuvius Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60-50 B.C. 24
    • Pompeii & the Dionysiac mystery frieze Cities of Vesuvius Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60-50 B.C.Especially striking is how some of the figures interact across the corners of the room. Nothingcomparable to this existed in Hellenistic Greece. Despite the presence of Dionysos, satyrs, and other 25figures from Greek mythology, this is a Roman design.
    • General view of wall paintings from Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius SynistorEarly Empire Boscoreale, Italy, decorated ca. 50-40 B.C. In the early Second Style Dionysiac mystery frieze, the spatial illusionism is confined to the painted platform that projects into the room. This cubiculum is a prime example of mature Second Style designs in which painters created a 3-D setting that also extends beyond the wall. All around the room the painter opened up the walls with vistas of Italian towns and sacred sanctuaries. Painted doors and gates invite the viewer to walk through the wall into the created world. Their attempt at perspective was intuitive and it not conform to the “rules” of linear perspective that would later be discovered by the Renaissance masters. Although this painter was inconsistent in applying it, he demonstrated a interest in, but Intuitive perspective was a favored tool of Second Style lacking knowledge of linear [single painters seeking to transform the usually windowless walls of Roman houses into “picture-window” vistas that vanishing-point] perspective. It was most expanded the apparent space of the rooms. successfully employed in the far corners, where a low gate leads to a peristyle framing a tholos temple [see detail on next slide]. 26
    • Detail of tholos from Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius SynistorEarly Empire Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50-40 B.C.Illusionism:The Second Style is, in most respects, the antithesis of theFirst Style. Some scholars have argued that the Second Stylealso has precedents in Greece, but most believe it is a Romaninvention.The Second Style evolved in Italy around 80 B.C. and waspopular until around 15 B.C., when the Third Style wasintroduced.Second Style painters aimed not to create the illusion of anelegant marble wall, as First Style painters sought to do.Rather, they wanted to dissolve a room’s confining walls andreplace them with the illusion of an imaginary three-dimensional world, which they did only pictorially.The First Style’s modeled stucco panels gave way to theSecond Style’s flat wall surfaces. 27
    • Gardenscape - Villa of Livia Primaporta, ItalyRepublican Era /Early Empire ca. 30-20 B.C.Second Style picture-window wallSecond Style painters favoredlinear perspective seeking totransform usually windowless wallsof Roman houses into “picture-windows” vistas that expanded theapparent space of the rooms.Recession is suggested byatmospheric perspective, whichcreates the illusion of distance bythe greater reduction of colorintensity, the shift of color towardan almost neutral blue, and theblurring of contours as the intended - The flimsy fence is the only architectural elementdistance between eye and object - The wall seems to frame the landscapeincreases. - The fence, trees, and birds in the foreground are precisely painted, while the details of the dense foliage in the background are indistinct. 28
    • 4th style wall painting in room 78 of the Domus Aurea (“golden house”) of Nero4th style, Rome, Italy 64-48 A.D.In the Fourth Style the obsession with illusionsreturned once again.This style became popular around the time ofthe Pompein earthquakeIn the Golden House of Nero, where thismural is located, all the walls are a creamywhite with landscapes and other motifspainted directly on the white walls.The paintings that are on the walls are“irrational fantasies” They depict fragments ofbuildings, columns supporting half pediments,double story columns supporting nothing atall.Architecture became just another motif in theartist’s design. 29
    • Neptune and Amphitrite wall mosaicHerculanium, Italy 62-79 A.D.The house of Neptune and Amphitrite takes itsname from this mosaic. Shown here areNeptune, sea god, and his wife Amphitrite setinto an elaborate niche.They preside over the running water of thefountain in the courtyard in front of them.Mosaics were usually confined to floors in theancient world. In the Roman times, however,mosaics were used to decorate walls and evenceilings. This foreshadowed the extensive useof mosics in the Middle Ages.The subject chosen for Roman mosaics werediverse although mythological themes wereimmensily popular. 30
    • Portrait of a husband and wife;Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius Pompeii,Italy AD 70-79Originally formed part of a Fourth Style wallof an exedra, recessed area on the openingof the atrium of a Pompeian house.Standard attributes of Roman marriageportraits are displayed here with the manholding a scroll and the woman holding astylus and a wax writing tablet. Theseportraits suggested high education even if itwasn’t true of the subjects.The heads are individualized to the subject’sfeatures, not simply standard types.This is the equivalent of modern weddingphotographs. 31
    • Still life with peaches, detail from a wallPompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius painting; Heraculaneum, Italy; AD 62-79Roman painters’ interest in the likeness ofindividual people was matched by their concernfor recording the appearance of everydayobjects.This still life demonstrates that Roman painterssought to create illusionistic effects whiledepicting small objects. Here they used lightand shade with attention to shadows andhighlights.The illusion created here is the furthest advanceby ancient painters in representationaltechnique. It appears that this artist understoodthat the look of things is a function of light. Also,the goal was to paint light as one would strive topaint the touchable object that reflects andabsorbs it. This illusion of light marks the furthest advance by ancient painters in representational technique; it would not be seen again until the Dutch in the 1700’s. Still Life, Dutch ca. 1700 32
    • Augustus Romes first emperor. He also added many territories to the empire.Claudius He conquered Britain. He was insane. He murdered his mother and his wife and threwNero thousands of Christians to the lions. Before he was emperor he destroyed the great Jewish temple of SolomonTitus in Jerusalem. He was a great conqueror. Under his rule the empire reached its greatestTrajan extent. He built Hadrians Wall in the north of Britain to shield the province fromHadrian the northern barbarians.Diocletian He split the empire into two pieces - a western and an eastern empire. He was the first Christian emperor. He united the empire again chose hisConstantine capital to be the small town Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. He was the last emperor of Rome, nicknamed Augustulus which meansRomulus Augustus little Augustus. He was the last great emperor. He conquered many territories, createdJustinian the Justinian Code and built the fantastic church Santa Sophia. The last emperor of Constantinople. He died defending his great cityConstantine XI against the Turks. 33