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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

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    Rome4 Rome4 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 5Ancient Rome and the Roman Republic 1
    • Geography-Located on the Italianpeninsula, in the center ofthe Mediterranean Sea-The Alps are in the North-The Apennine Mts. are onthe eastern coast-broad, fertile plains in thenorth and west 2
    • Early Civilization-Italy was originally occupied by many differentgroups of people-Two main groups were Greek colonists and theEtruscans-The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy andRome itself-Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled in thearea that is now Rome around 800 B.C. 3
    • Legend of the Founding of Rome -Legend has it that twin brothers, Romulus and Remus founded the city -According to the tale, the twins’ mother was a Latin woman and their father was the war god Mars -This led Romans to believe that they had a divine origin 4
    • Rome GeographyRome is located:-On the banks of theTiber River-On and around sevenhills Why would this geographic location be an advantage? 5
    • Politics - 509 B.C. Rome is Founded-Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler andestablished a republic- They did not want one person to have all thepower 6
    • Structure of the Republic-Patricians= landholdingupper class-Plebeians= farmers,merchants, artisans,traders-Senate= governing body-Consuls= two patricians-Dictator= assigned to bein charge in the event of awar for six months 7
    • Patricians vs. Plebeians -Plebeians have no say in the government - Eventually get to elect their own officials called tribunes in 494 B.C. - For 84 years, (421-337 B.C.) plebeians fought to have a role in each part of the government 8
    • Social Structures-A man was the head of the household and his wifeand children did not question his authority-Over centuries, women received more rights.These included: -Owning property -Running businesses-All children were taught to learn to read andwrite-Wealthy had private tutors for their children 9
    • Religion-Romans were polytheistic-they believed inmany gods and goddesses-Many of the gods were adapted from theGreek gods Greek God Roman God Zeus-ruler of all gods Jupiter-ruler of all gods Hera-wife of Zeus, Juno-wife of Jupiter, protected marriage protected marriage Poseidon-god of the sea Neptune-god of the sea-Roman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations tohonor the gods and goddesses-Temples for worship to ask for divine assistance 10
    • Politics-Rome grows strong and begins conquering the rest ofItaly-By 270 B.C., Rome controls most of the Italian peninsula-Military is made up of citizens-Rome conquered justly- allowing those conquered tokeep their culture, customs, and government- as long asthey supplied soldiers, paid taxes, and acknowledgeRoman leadership 11
    • The Punic Wars-Carthage had an empirethroughout the Mediterranean-Rome fought Carthage inthree wars from 264 B.C. to146 B.C. (118 years!)-By the Third Punic War, Romehad completely destroyedCarthage and gained all ofCarthage’s territory 12
    • Economics-Conquests brought much wealth to Rome-Wealthy families bought huge estates calledlatifundia.-Romans forced the people they conquered to workas slaves on the latifundia-Slave labor hurt the small farmers because it costthem more to produce food, and the price wasdriven down by the immense quantities coming intoRome-Farmers fell into debt, sold their land, and movedto the city looking for work-gap between rich and poor widens=riots and chaos 13
    • The Gracchus Brothers •The brothers worked to-Tiberius and Gaius get the state to distributeGracchus were patricians the land to the poorwho were elected tribunes farmers •They also worked to get the state to buy grain to feed the poor •Senate felt they were a threat to its power, and hired thugs to kill the brothers and their followers 14
    • Republic to Empire-Civil wars break out to decide who should holdpower. The senate wanted to keep the status quo;political leaders wanted to weaken the senate andenact reforms-Slave uprisings throughout the republic-Armies became loyal to their commandersbecause they gave them benefits such as capturedland 15