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Overview of Ancient China

Overview of Ancient China

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  • 1. Ancient China Elements of Civilization
  • 2. BackgroundRivers were important to the development ofChinaLandforms and climate also influenced thecultureThere were many differences in climatethroughout ChinaMonsoons bring rains from the South ChinaSea towards the southern half of China The rain does not reach the northern, cooler part of China The climate there is very dry, people depended on Rivers
  • 3. Background What is the ―Middle Kingdom?‖ Geographic barriers like mountains and seas cut China off from other lands They had no knowledge of other cultures like Greece, Rome, India, or Egypt They thought that they were at the center of the world and called themselves the ―Middle Kingdom‖
  • 4. China‘s Geography The development of civilization in early China was aided by features like long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys. Rivers, Soils, Climates Loess• China‘s first civilizations • Annual floods deposited rich developed in river valleys soil, loess, on flood plains• Two major rivers supplied • Valley of Huang He particularly water for earliest civilizations fertile due to loess – Chang Jiang, also called – Fine dusty soil Yangzi – Carried into China by desert – Huang He, or Yellow River winds – Both flow east from Plateau of Tibet to Yellow Sea
  • 5. China‘s GeographyBeginnings of Civilization Xia• Archaeological • Legend says earliest discoveries suggest Chinese ruled by Xia Chinese civilization began dynasty in Huang He valley • No written, archaeological evidence Xia dynasty• People started growing existed crops there 9,000 years ago • Most historians date beginning of Chinese civilization to rise of Shang dynasty
  • 6. Crops Most of eastern China covered with fertile soils; some regions better suited than others for growing certain crops Southern China—warm, receives plenty of rainfall, excellent region for growing rice Further north—climate cooler, drier; suitable for grains, wheat, milletIsolation Combination of rivers for irrigation, fertile soil for planting allowed Chinese to thrive, as did China‘s relative isolation Mountains, hills, desert protected China from invasion Himalaya Mountains separate southern China from India, rest of southern Asia; vast Gobi Desert prevented reaching China from west
  • 7. Background Early civilizations developed near rivers China had a few rivers that provided resources to be successful Chang Jiang River (longest river) Huang He River Yangzi River China‘s rivers overflowed just like others we have studied Provides fertile soil for farming The Huang He River is also known as the Yellow River because of the Loess Loess is yellow-brown soil that the Yellow River carries along
  • 8. Background What is ―China‘s Sorrow?‖ The river was unpredictable and dangerous and often killed The river also brought life through fertile soil Destructive floods would come without warning To control the flooding the people built dikes or walls that hold back water
  • 9. Summarize What geographic features influenced life in early China?Answer(s): Rivers deposited rich soil for farming;mountains, hills, and desert isolated the area.
  • 10. New Philosophies The conflicts of the late Zhou period led many Chinese thinkers to question the nature of society and people‘s roles in it.Effort to make sense of chaos Of many philosophies createdled to creation of many new during late Zhou period, twoChinese philosophies, or ways became influential in laterof looking at the world Chinese history: • Confucianism • Daoism
  • 11. ConfucianismConfucius Confucianism based on teachings of scholar named Kongfuzi, better known as Confucius, who thought people should treat one another humanely Should express love, respect for others, honor one‘s ancestorsLove and Respect Believed that love, respect had disappeared and was responsible for violence in society; restoring respect for tradition would make society stable Thoughts on how to improve society collected in book, AnalectsAnalects Ruler should treat subjects fairly; subjects reward ruler with respect, loyalty People should respect members of family, devote selves to public service Confucian ideas spread elsewhere in Asia, including Korea, Japan, Vietnam
  • 12. Confucianism K‘ung Fu Tze Born in 551 BC Lived during Zhou/Chou dynasty Time of lax morality Wandered through many states, advising rulers Writing Dealt with individual morality Political power of rulers Social ethics Afterlife Similar to Buddhist or Taoist
  • 13. Confucianism The Five Relationships ruler and people parent and child older brother and younger brother husband and wife between friend and friend
  • 14. Confucianism Parts of teaching Li: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc Hsiao: love within the family love of parents for their children Love of children for their parents Yi: righteousness Xin: honesty and trustworthiness Jen: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue Chung: loyalty to the state Important texts – the Si Shu Lun Yu: the analects of Confucius Chung Yung: doctrine of the mean Ta Hsuech: the greatest learning Meng Tzu: analects of philosopher Meng Tzu
  • 15. Daoism Definition Yin and Yang• Unlike Confucianism, which • Daoism embraced Chinese focuses on improving concept of yin and society, Daoism encourages people yang, representing balancing to retreat from laws of society, yield aspect of nature—male, female; to law of nature dark, light; hot, cold• Heart of Daoism is concept of the • Neither can exist without other dao, or the way • Important for two to remain• Dao is the limitless force that is part balanced for perfect harmony of all creation • Origins of Daoist teachings• Through the dao, all things in attributed to philosopher named nature connected Laozi• Finding one‘s place in nature • Wrote book called Dao De Jing allows person to achieve harmony • Laozi worshipped by some as a with universe god
  • 16. Taoism Loa Tsu (Lao Tzu, Laozi, Loatze) Lived approx. 604-531 BC Lived in a feudal society with lots of warfare Wrote book: Tao-te-Chine (the way of virtue) Tao (Dao) The path or the way (undefinable) Way to avoid conflict (esp feudal conflict) Power which surrounds and flows through all things
  • 17. Taoism Balance – between 2 extremes no love with out hate no peace without war no male without female no light without dark Believers goal: be one with the Tao Gods are manifestations of the Tao Time is cyclical, not linear Yin & Yang Yin formed breath of earth Yang formed the breath of heaven Pair of opposites seen through out the universe Intervention of human civilization has upset balance
  • 18. Taoism Chi (air, breath) Life force that has been entrusted to each person Developing one‘s virtues nurtures the Chi Being nice to another means they will reciprocate the kindness Believe people are compassionate by nature Feng Shui (wind & water) Consult Chinese calendar for birth sign Use I-Ching (book of changes) Creates balance between ying/yang, 5 elements and environment Seeks to maximize balance of Chi Simple balance – no clutter Sharp angles bad – cut the Chi
  • 19. Some Lasting EffectsDaoism eventually proved less influential than Confucianism in Chinese history Still played major role in later dynasties Idea of balance key concept in China for centuries as result of Daoist teaching Daoist philosophy led many followers to work for preservation, protection of natural environment
  • 20. Buddhism Gautama Siddhartha (63-483 BC) Born a prince, raised in luxury Took 3 trips outside the palace Saw old, sick, and dead Becomes an ascetic (abandons worldly pleasures) Search for enlightenment Medidates under Bodhi tree God Mara (death and desire) tries to prevent Finds the ‗middle way‘ – between deprivation and gratification 4 noble truths and 8 fold path
  • 21. Buddhism 4 noble truths 1 – all life is characterized by suffering 2 – suffering is caused by desire/craving 3 – suffering can be stopped if you stop desire/craving 4 – stop desire/craving w/8–fold path 8 fold path Right: views intentions Speech livelihood Effort Conduct concentration mindfulness
  • 22. Buddhism Important concepts Karma: for every action there is a moral reaction Dharma: fulfilling your social role – avoids bad karma Samsara: cycle of death and rebirth Nirvana: enlightenment – breaking out of samsara Bodhisattvas: people who have achieved enlightenment, stay on earth to help others Buddha Not a god, a man (role model) Koans – illogical riddles used to gain insight
  • 23. Legalism Han Feizi, Shangzi Founders, lived 340-230BC Han Feizi – student who taught Confucianism Wrote main text of legalism Shangzi traced the cause of chaos to growing population Strong government is a solution Philosophy The law is the supreme authority Humans are inherently evil – education cannot make them better Only punishment and reward will get people to act correctly
  • 24. Legalism Elements of legalism Fa: the law; should be made public and rule the state (not the whims of rulers) Shi: legitimacy of rule; the power comes from the position, not the person Shu: methods; laws should be strict, there is no place for benevolence, people need a strong hand to rule them Conflicts with other philosophies Dislikes Confucianism way of praising the past Believes that people should be working rather than philosophizing Persecuted all followers of Confucianism – even the prince Banned and burned Confucian texts
  • 25. Legalism Parts of legalism Everyone has the same laws – regardless of origin Land was privatized and feudalism was done away with If you refuse to denounce a criminal, you would be cut in half at the waist; if you identified a criminal you got a reward Families would share the reward or punishment of an individual Only the farmers and food producers would be free – everyone should be slaves
  • 26. Contrast What is one difference between Confucianism and Daoism?Answer(s): Daoism—retreat from society andcommune with nature; Confucianism—improvesociety
  • 27. Comparing Philosophies1. A student knows that they are failing a class. Students from each of these doctrines know they will be in trouble when their parents find out. How do they handle this situation?)2. A students friends smoke and are trying to get them to start. How do they handle this situation?3. A student has just found $20 in the hall. What should they do?4. A students parents have just spent a lot of money on a new outfit. The student has been playing around and has gotten ink all over it. What should they tell their parents, or should they?5. A student really likes a new student in school, but all the other students are making fun of the new students clothes. How should the first student act?6. A student knows that an older brother or sister is cheating on tests. How should the student act?7. A student sees an opportunity to take something they have really wanted, without being caught. How should that student act?
  • 28. The Shang DynastyAccording to ancient Chinese records, the Shang dynasty formedaround 1766 BC, although many archaeologists believe it actuallybegan somewhat later than that. Government and Order Agricultural Society Society• China ruled by • King‘s governors • Shang China strong monarchy ruled distant parts largely agricultural• At capital of kingdom • Most tended crops city, Anyang, kings • King also had large in fields surrounded by army at disposal • Farmers called on court • Prevented to fight in• Rituals performed rebellions, fought army, work on to strengthen outside opponents building projects— kingdom, keep safe tombs, palaces, wal ls
  • 29. Shang Elite Leisure Artifacts• Ruling elite had free time to • Much of what is known comes pursue leisure activities, hunting from studying royal tombs for sport • Contained valuable items made• Wealthy enjoyed collecting of bronze, jade expensive bronze, jade objects Afterlife Ancestor Worship• Tombs held remains of • Shang offered gifts to deceased sacrificed prisoners of war ancestors to keep them happy in afterlife• Believed in afterlife where ruler would need riches, servants • Steam from ritual meals nourished ancestors‘ spirits
  • 30. Oracle BonesAs part of worship, Shang asked ancestors for advice Sought advice through use of oracle bones Inscribed bits of animal bone, turtle shell Living person asked question of ancestor Hot piece of metal applied to oracle bone resulting in cracks on bone‘s surface Specially trained priests interpreted meaning of cracks to learn answer
  • 31. Shang Achievements and DeclineWriting Development of Chinese writing closely tied to use of oracle bones Earliest examples of Chinese writing, questions written on bones themselves Early Shang texts used picture symbols to represent objects, ideasBronze Shang religion led to great advances in working with bronze Highly decorative bronze vessels, objects created for religious rituals Also built huge structures like tombs; created calendar, first money systemsEnd of Dynasty Shang ruled for more than 600 years, until about 1100 BC Ruling China‘s growing population proved too much for Shang Armies from nearby tribe, Zhou, invaded, established new ruling dynasty
  • 32. Summarize How did religion influence other aspects of Shang culture?Answer(s): ritual meals for ancestors; oraclebones connected to early writing; bronze work forrituals; built stable tombs
  • 33. The Zhou DynastyBeginning around 1100 BC, the Zhou rules China for several centuries.The Zhou dynasty is divided into two periods. During the WesternZhou, kings ruled from Xian in a peaceful period. Later conflict arose,kings moved east to Luoyang, beginning the Eastern Zhou period. Government Dynastic Cycle• When Zhou conquered • Zhou said Shang overthrown Shang, leaders worried Chinese because they lost gods‘ favor people would not accept them • Later rulers used Mandate of• Introduced idea they ruled by Heaven to explain dynastic Mandate of Heaven cycle, rise and fall of dynasties in• Gods would support just ruler, not China allow anyone corrupt to hold power • If dynasty lost power, it obviously had become corruptIn that case, they said, it was the will of the gods that that dynasty beoverthrown and a new one take power.
  • 34. Zhou Achievements• Before Zhou, Chinese metalwork done almost exclusively in bronze• Zhou learned to use iron, became backbone of economy• Iron was strong, could be cast more cheaply, quickly than bronze• Iron weapons strengthened Zhou army, as did new weapons like catapult and creation of China‘s first cavalry Growth Decline of the Zhou• Population grew under Zhou • Conflict arose during latter part of• Farmers learned new Zhou dynasty techniques, increased size of • Clan leaders within China rose up harvest, created food surpluses; against king cities also grew • As time passed, more and more• Roads, canals allowed better local leaders turned against Zhou, transportation, communication further weakening rule• Introduced coins, use of chopsticks
  • 35. Small States FightResult of rebellions was Warring States Period 403 BC to 221 BC, number of small states fought each other for land, power Zhou still nominally in charge, but power almost nonexistent by mid-200s BC Qin, new dynasty, arose to bring end to Warring States Period, Zhou dynasty
  • 36. Analyze How did China change under the Zhou?Answer(s): iron technology, population grew, newfarm techniques, more food, cities grew, roadsand canals built, coins and chopsticks introduced
  • 37. Silk Culture Legendary Beginnings Lady His-Ling-Shih (wife of Yellow Emperor) began raising silk worms and invented the loom (believed to have reigned approx. 3000 BC) Excavated silkworm cocoon dated between 2600 to 2300BC Other evidence suggests silk cultivation began much earlier
  • 38. Silk Culture The worm Many varieties throughout the world Chinese species is blind, flightless Lays 500 eggs in 4-6 days 100 eggs weigh less than 1 gram Silk worm has a smoother, finer filament than other species
  • 39. Silk Culture Secrets of Cultivation (sericulture) Need to be carefully changed from 65 to 77 degrees to hatch Baby worms are feed night and day until they are plump Roomful of worms have to be kept at a constant temperature – sounds like heavy rain falling in the roof Have to be kept warm when cocooning and isolated from noises and smells Produce white fluffy looking cocoons After 8 days in a warm place, worms are steamed/baked to kill the worms
  • 40. Silk Culture Cultivation Entire process of feeding to weaving takes 6 months Dip puff balls in water to loosen filaments Unwind filaments onto a spool One cocoon is between 600-700 meters long 5-8 filaments are twisted together to make thread Considered part of household duties for women
  • 41. Silk Culture Product Clothes are light weight Warm in winter Cool in summer Silk Privilege First – reserved only for emperor and family Wore robe of white inside palace, yellow outside (color of the earth) Other classes began wearing silk Silk developed as an industrial product Instruments, fishing lines, bowstrings, paper
  • 42. Silk Culture Tribute paid in rice and silk Currency – items were priced in lengths of silk Lost monopoly in 200 AD when Chinese immigrants began to move to Korea West gained sericulture in 550AD when two monks appeared in Justinian‘s court with eggs in hollowed staffs Silk Road Precious commodity to foreigners Traders traveled the silk road overland – for months at a time – to get silk Important artifacts found along the Silk Road
  • 43. Rice Culture History Chinese have been cultivating rice for thousands of years Strong dependence and work put into rice added to strong rural essence Chinese culture can be called ‗rice culture‘ Hunters and gathers left seeds in low-laying areas and developed system of rice farming Originated in Yellow (Huang He) and Hanshui basins Large areas of land viable for rice planting
  • 44. Rice Culture Evidence of rice farming as long as 3 to 4 thousand years Widely accepted by Zhou dynasty (1100- 771BC) By Han dynasty, rice was a staple (260BC- 220AD) Developments Complicated irrigation techniques were required for farming Year round – ploughing spring, weeding in summer, harvesting in autumn, hoarding in spring Used to brew wine and offer as sacrifices to gods and ancestors
  • 45. Rice Culture Central part of Spring Festival – lunar new year Gao – specialty rice used for celebrations Rice dumplings made on 15th night of the 1st lunar month – for luck Throw rice in river 5th day of 5th month to prevent fish from eating the body of legendary leader Qu Yuan (Chu official) 9th day of 9th month eat double 9 festival cakes 8th day of 12th month people eat porridge with rice, beans, nuts, and dried fruit Believed that Sakyamuni achieved Buddha-hood on this day
  • 46. The Yangtze River, called Chang Jiang in Chinese, is thelongest river in China and becomes well-known by itsThree Gorges scenery.
  • 47. PapermakingChinese legend tells that the new invention of paper waspresented to the Emperor in the year 105 AD by Cai Lun.Archeological evidence, however, shows that paper was in usetwo hundred years before then. Either way, the Chinesewere significantly ahead of the rest of the world. The craftof papermaking relied upon an abundance of bamboo fiber toproduce a fine quality paper. In China the papermaker usesonly the traditional materials and methods to produce fineart paper.
  • 48. GunpowderImagine their enemys surprise when the Chinese firstdemonstrated their newest invention in the eighth centuryAD. Chinese scientists discovered that an explosive mixturecould be produced by combining sulfur, charcoal, andsaltpeter (potassium nitrate). The military applications wereclear. New weapons were rapidly developed, including rocketsand others that were launched from a bamboo tube. Onceagain, the raw materials at hand, like bamboo, contributedideas for new technologies.
  • 49. AbacusThe abacus is a calculator for adding, subtracting,dividing and multiplying. Tests have shown that, foroperations of addition and subtraction, the abacus isstill faster than the electronic calculator.
  • 50. SilkChina is the first country in the world thatdiscovered the use of silk. Silkworms weredomesticated as early as 5000 years ago. Theproduction of silk thread and fabrics gave rise tothe art of embroidery. Historical documentsrecord the use of embroidery in China as early as2255 B.C. Archaeological finds, however, place thebeginnings of embroidery at some point during theShang dynasty(1766B.C.-1122 B.C.)
  • 51. WheelbarrowThe wheelbarrow was invented by the Chinese.The Chinese wheelbarrow had a single wheel in themiddle of the wheelbarrow. Farmers used thewheelbarrow to take a load of produce to themarket place. Builders used the wheelbarrow tocarry heavy building supplies. Soldiers used thewheelbarrow to remove injured or dead peoplefrom the battlefield.
  • 52. The Terra Cotta ArmyMore than 35 years ago, in 1974, Chinese farmers weredigging a well in central China when they discovered animportant archaeological site. They discovered fragmentsfrom the burial grounds of a Chinese emperor, ShiHuangdi (Shee-hwang-dee). His name is also spelledShihuangdi.
  • 53. Qin was the name of the part of Chinahe ruled. He had his army of morethan one million soldiers conquer theentire country in 221 B.C. He unitedall the little kingdoms he conqueredand became an emperor. An emperor isthe supreme ruler of an empire. Like most Chinese, he believed in taking the real world with him when he died. He wanted his tomb to be spectacular, and he certainly would need an army to protect him when he died. Therefore, he ordered a terra cotta (clay) army be built. He ordered that the terra cotta soldiers be set up in formation with their backs to him. The terra cotta soldiers and horses would stand guard in order to protect him from attack.
  • 54. As many as 700,000 people worked formore than thirty years to make the 7,000- 8,000 soldiers, horses and chariots.When they were first made more than2,000 years ago, the soldiers were brightlypainted and held real weapons. While moldswere used to make the bodies, no twosoldiers were alike. They had differenthair styles, shoes, expressions anduniforms.Over the years, the paint has faded, and vandals havetaken the weapons. Most of the bodies are smashedbecause the wooden ceiling that was above them fell, andterra cotta breaks easily. Therefore, most of thesoldiers are in bits and pieces. Archaeologists carefullysift through the dirt inch by inch to find the tiniestparts.
  • 55. Farming,Life Most of the people of ancient China were peasantfarmers who grew crops on small plots of land. Everymember of the family helped grow and harvest thecrops. Farmers supplied food to the army and to people in thecity. Farmers in the north grew wheat, millet, and barley toeat. Farmers in the south grew rice to eat. Farmers may have kept pigs and chickens, but dairycows were not kept due to a lack of pasture land. Oxen and water buffalo were used to pull carts andplows.
  • 56. Farming, Life Villagers dug ditches and canals to water the fields. Many farmers used simple wooden or stone tools even after bronzeand iron weapons were invented. The lives of peasant farmers consisted of many long, back-breaking hours tending to crops. Peasant farmers also had to serve in the army and help withgovernment projects such as building walls and canals. Poor people spent most of their time growing and preparing food,or doing heavy work such as digging and carrying large loads. Farmers use a method known as terracing which is cutting flatplains into hillsides. They would farm on the flat plains. The flatplains looked like shelves coming out of the side of a hill. Cuttingflat plains into the hillside would also slow erosion in a hilly area.
  • 57. Food Poor people ate simple meals. Their main foods were rice, grains,millet, vegetables, and beans. If they ate meat, it was usuallychicken or wild bird. Once in a while, they ate fish. Wealthy people ate pork, lamb, venison, duck, goose, pigeon. Forspecial occasions they might eat snakes, dogs, snails, sparrows, orbear claws. Both rich and poor people used spices, salt, sugar, honey, and soysauce to add flavor to the food. Vegetables and fruits were always included in a wealthy personsdiet. To save fuel, food was chopped into small pieces and cooked quicklyin an iron frying pan, or wok, for a few minutes only.Steaming was also a common cooking method with the rich and poor.People usually drank tea.Water was usually boiled before drinking it.
  • 58. Clothing Clothing was a mark of class in ancient China. The type of fabric,the color and decorations on the fabric, jewelry, headgear andfootwear all told something about the wearers position in society.High-ranking people dressed in the finest silk in public. Peasants wore a long, shirt-like garment, made of undyed hempfiber. Hemp is a rough fabric woven from plant fibers. The type of jewelry worn showed the position of that person insociety. A man almost always wore a hat in public. The hat showed thewearers occupation and status in society.
  • 59. Clothing Womens long hair was arranged in topknots and held in place by hairpins and other ornaments. Wealthy women wore elaborate make-up. People wore thick padded clothing in winter. From the Sui dynasty onward, only the emperor was allowed to wear yellow. Ordinary people had to dress in blue and black. White was for mourning, and children could not wear white while their parents were alive.
  • 60. Homes Farmers usually made their homes from mud bricks with reed or tileroofs. The bottom floor was often built below ground to help keepthe family warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. Some Chinese built their house with timber or bamboo poles. Atimber frame held up the roof. The outer walls were sometimesmade of brick. The Chinese preferred wood to stone for buildingbecause it looked more natural and it was less likely to injure peopleif the house collapsed during an earthquake. Poor people often cooked outside in the open air. Wealth people hada kitchen indoors on the bottom floor. Servants would also live onthe bottom floor. Charcoal or coal was burned in the fireplace to keep the housewarm. A traditional home was divided into different sections bycourtyards.
  • 61. Beliefs and Customs Families in China usually included many generations living together- often under the same roof. The oldest male was usually in chargeof everyone in the house. There was little individualism in Chinese families. Decisions weremade that benefited the entire family and family honor and familyachievements were more important than individual needs orachievements. Age demanded respect. The old were considered wise and weretreated with honor.Children were taught to respect and obey their elders. Children were taught that they must care for their mothers andfathers in sickness and old age. Boys learned their familys trade, and girls learned to manage ahousehold.
  • 62. Social Class The emperor was at the top of the social system. Ancient China was divided into four main classes. Scholars were respected above everyone else because they could read and write. Peasants were the next most important because the country depended on them to produce food. Artisans (people who worked with their hands) were next because they used their skills to make things that everyone needed, such as weapons, tools, and cooking utensils. The lowest class were merchants because they made nothing. All they did was trade goods. Soldiers who made a career of being in the army were nothighly regarded and did not belong to a class of their own.
  • 63. Chinese ZodiacThe Chinese Zodiac is a twelve-year cycle. It started fromBuddhism. According to the story, Buddha called all theanimals of China to his bedside, but only twelve animals came.Because he wanted to honor the animals for their devotion,he created a year for each animal. The twelve animals thatappeared were the rat, ox, tiger, hare (rabbit), dragon,snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and the pig.Each animal has its own special characteristics. Many peoplebelieve that these characteristics affect events that happenduring the year. In addition, some people believe that peopleborn in a certain year will have qualities of that yearsanimal.
  • 64. Animal Dates Characteristics 1948, 1960, 1972, Rat charming, bright, creative, thrifty 1984, 1996, 2008 1949, 1961, 1973 steadfast, dependable, methodical Ox 1985, 1997, 2009 1950, 1962, 1974, Tiger dynamic, warm, sincere, a leader 1986, 1998, 2010 1951, 1963, 1975, humble, artistic, clear-sighted Hare/Rabbit 1987, 1999, 2011 Dragon 1952, 1964, 1976, flamboyant, lucky, imaginative 1988, 2000, 2012 Snake 1953, 1965, 1977, discreet, refined, intelligent 1989, 2001, 2013 1954, 1966, 1978, Horse social, competitive, stubborn 1990, 2002, 2014
  • 65. Animal Dates Characteristics 1955, 1967, 1979, Sheep artistic, fastidious, indecisive 1991, 2003, 2015 1956, 1968, 1980, Monkey witty, popular, good-humored, versatile 1992, 2004, 2016 1957, 1969, 1981, Rooster aggressive, alert, perfectionist 1993, 2005, 2017 1958, 1970, 1982, honest, conservative, sympathetic, loyal Dog 1994, 2006, 2018 Boar/Pig 1959, 1971, 1983, caring, industrious, home-loving 1995, 2007, 2019
  • 66. CompassBy the third century AD, Chinese scientists had studiedand learned much about magnetism in nature. Forexample, they knew that iron ore, called magnetite,tended to align itself in a North/South position.Scientists learned to "make magnets" by heating piecesof ore to red hot temperatures and then cooling thepieces in a North/South position. The magnet was thenplaced on a piece of reed and floated in a bowl of watermarked with directional bearings. These firstnavigational compasses were widely used on Chineseships by the eleventh century AD.

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