Neilson 1Dakoda NeilsonMs. BennettBritish Literature12 September 2011 The History of the Turbo Jet Engine Today, we recognize, speed, power, and authority with our Air Force. The United StatesAir Force is classified as one of the best air forces in the world due to its skills and its mobility.The reason that the Air Forceis extremely effective is the equipment that they use: jet aircraft.Jets have made the world smaller in a way. A hundred years ago, it would have taken militarystrategists months to move large amounts of troops around the world. Now the United States AirForce can be mobilized to any part of the world in 24 hours. In fact, the world was been reducedso much, time-wise, that between 1976 and 2003, ausual London to New York trip on theConcorde(the world’s fastest passenger jet) would take a little less than three and a half hours at1350 miles per hour (British Airways). The reason the Concorde could go that fast is the jetengine.A jet engine is a device that creates thrust to power most modern aircraft; the TurboJetengine has a history all on its own and it changed the world. Frank Whittle was born in 1907 in Coventry, England. As a child, Whittle was alwaysinterested in flight. By the time he was four, aviation was just getting a start; the invention of theairplane was only seven years old. At the age of 15, Whittle joined the Royal Air Force (RAF) asan Apprentice, meaning that he would spend most of his time preforming upkeep on veryunreliable and dangerous early “aeroplanes” (Public Broadcasting Service). Aviation in its first
Neilson 2twenty years was some of the greatest and most dangerous moments in the history of flight.Airplanes could not fly too high, they could not fly too low, and they could fail easily and wouldbrake just by sitting too long. Whittle worked with these aircraft until he was removed from hisapprenticeship and was chosen to jointhe ranks at RAF’s Officers Training College at Cranwell(about 70 miles north of Cambridge, England) (Public Broadcasting Service).As technologyadvanced, aircraft were flying higher and faster. Whittle quickly discovered that there wereproblems with propeller-driven aircraft.Propeller-driven, piston-powered aircraft have two majorflaws. First, the propeller is spinning and the airflowing towards itaccelerates close to the speedof sound or 671 miles per hour at sea level (“The Speed of Sound and Mach Numbers”). Thus,the propeller loses its efficiency because the air moves faster than what the pitch on the propellercan push back. Second, the engines being used at that time are piston-powered; the pistons in theengine going up and down to drive the propeller. When the piston moves up from the bottom ofthe cylinder head, it compresses fuel and air; the mixture of fuel and air then explodes, andpushes the piston back down (NASA). All of this turns a shaft called the propeller shaft. Thepropeller shaft turns the propeller though the air at a high rate of speed. At an attitude of 10,000feet or higher the engine begins to lose power because it does not have enough air to run properly(Public Broadcasting Service). In 1929, Whittle wrote his college thesis describing the Turbo Jetand Whittle thesis would revolutionize the twentieth century (Public Broadcasting Service). During the time of Frank Whittle, there was a man named Hans von Ohain. Ohain wasborn in Dessau, Germany in 1911(Heppenheimer, T A.). Ohain graduated with a doctorate inPhysics from the University of Göttingen in 1935. In 1933, while Ohain was in college, hedeveloped his own theory of jet propulsion and was completely unaware of Whittle’s work inGreat Britain(Bellis). That same year, Ohain patented his idea of a continuous cycle combustion
Neilson 3engine andin 1934 his concept of a jet engine (Bellis). This was only four years after FrankWhittle patented his jet engine concept in 1930 (Public Broadcasting Serves). Whittle’s andOhain’stheories were based on an idea that can be defined as continuous combustion. A jet, in itssimplest form, (known as a Turbo Jet) works by pulling in air in through an intake with a largefan. The air is then pushed through a stage of the engine called the compressor, which mixes theair with jet fuel (the standard is Jet-A, but almost any fuel that is low in octane will burn in a jet).After exiting the compressor, the fuel air mixture is combusted in the third stage of the enginecalled the combustor. As the expanded gas leaves the aft of the engine, it turns another fan,which is connected to the first fan, which pulls in more air. The exhaust leaves the engine at ahigh rate of speed, forming a jet of air (NASA). In 1937, under the HeinkelFlugzeugwerke(Heinkel Aircraft Works, founded by ErnstHeinkel in 1922, is credited with the achievements of having the fastest airliner in 1933 and forbuilding and flying the first jet aircraft (“Heinkel Aircraft Works”). In Rostock, Germany,Ohainbuilt the first operational jet engine named the He S.3B (“Hans von Ohain”). The He S.3B wasthe first jet engine to power an aircraft, the Heinkel He 178(“Heinkel Aircraft Works”). Then in1941,continuing work in Heinkel Aircraft Works, Ohain built the first fighter jet called the He280. It had a top speed of 578 miles an hour, which at that time was unheard of (“HeinkelAircraft Works”). Soon after the first flight of He 280 in 1941, Whittle was able to fly hisprototype engine, the W.1 in a plane called the Gloster Pioneer (Public Broadcasting Service).The Pioneer flew test flights until 1943, when one of the two prototypes went in to a spin andcrashed (Encyclopedia of Science). After the crash,Frank Whittle’s project was then packed upand sent to General Electric in the United States because “industry [was] under attack in themidst of WWII and, rapid development of the…engine was not feasible” (Public Broadcasting
Neilson 4Service). Fortunately, Germany suffered the same fate on industry. By this time in the war, theAmericans and British were bombing Germany “round-the-clock.”Because of the bombing ofGermany,the development of a production jet fighter was brought to a crawl(Anne Frank Guide).Despite all odds in 1944, Germany flew the first jets into combat, the Messerschmitt Me 262.The Me 262 at first werevery unsuccessful because they were only used as ground attack aircraftand bombers.As pilots learned how to fly the fighter, they became more successful in air combat.On April 7, 1945, the first jet dogfight (dogfight is battle that is takes place in the air,usuallyconsisting of two or more aircraft with one from opposing sides) took place in the skies overGermany. The outcome of the dogfight was in the favor of the American P-51 Mustang flown byRichard Candelaria. However, the battle did prove that was only the beginning of the jet age("The P-51 Mustang"). The jet age began after the fall of Nazi Germany when the Russians and Americansdivided Germany up amongst the allied powers. One of the first objectivesfor the allies waslooking for Germanscientists to help with their own military and technological needs. TheRussians, British and Americans all had great interest in jet engine technology.These threecountries used ideas from the Me 262 to design their own jets. The United States had developedthe Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star. It was designed in 1943 and first flown in 1947. The ShootingStar is built around Whittle’s original design, the W.1. The engine was redesigned by Allison(Now a subsidiary of General Motors, an engineering company that mainly built Transmissionsbut helped the wartime effort to make Piston and Jet engines (Allison).) and renamed the J33-A-23 (NASM). The P-80 Shooting Star was the premier fighter jet in the United States Air Forceinventory until the Koran War, when for the first time; there were “jet on jet” dogfights with theRussians’ premier fighter jet, the MIG-15 (The Aviation History On-live Museum). The MIG-15
Neilson 5was the first jet sold outside of its manufacturing country and was sold to North Korea by boththe Chinese and Russians. The MIG 15 was faster than the P-80, but the P-80 was more agile andhad better armament then the MIG (Mikoyan-Gurevich MIG-15 (Ji-2) FAGOT B.). The first jetbattle took place between these two aircraft on November 10, 1950, in the skies over NorthKorea. Lieutenant Russell Brown, piloting a P-80 Shooting Star, destroyed a North Korean MiG-15 (The Aviation History On-live Museum). The Korean War changed the way the United States built fighters, but the British hadother ideas. In 1949, the world’s first Jet Airliner flew in Great Brittan, the De Havilland Comet1; the Comet 1 had 36 seats and had a top speed of 480 miles an hour. It used the same Turbo Jetengines that were used on the P-80 (The Allison J33) but was modified to run on a new fuel, Jet-A (Siddiqi, Asif). Before the Comet jets were using kerosene and diesel; both fuels are almostchemically the same but both diesel and kerosene did not burn clean and carbon would build onthe fan blades, causing engine failure (EPI). (A problem that the P-80 suffered from greatly. (TheAviation History On-live Museum)). The Comet 1 relied on this fuel because of itssafety;sadly,the only airline that operated the Comet 1, was BOAC (now British Airways)(British Overseas Aircraft Corporation) found out that the airframe suffered from metal fatigueand the aircraft would break apart in flight (Siddiqi). The De Havilland Comet 1was grounded in1952 (Siddiqi). This would be the start of passage jet, from this point in history to the presentthere would not be another- advance in propeller aircraft technology. On May 14, 1954, Boeing rolled out their first jet airliner, the Model 367-80 also knownas the Dash 80 (Boeing). The Dash 80 was the 2nd generation of Jet Airliners and a year later inAugust, Alvin M. “Tex” Johnson, was flying the 367 over the Seafair hydroplane races where theInternational Air Transport Association was having a conference (Johnson). Boeing, in a ploy to
Neilson 6get the airlines interested in the Dash 80, were going to fly over the races with the jet. “Tex”Johnson on the way to the fly over decided to roll the aircraft in to whatis known asa “BarrelRoll,” as he later states “The barrel roll is a positive G maneuver and was safe” (Johnson). Hedid it because it would prove to the airlines that the 2nd generation of jetliners would not be asfragile at the Comet. The Dash 80, is now known as the 707 or the KC-135, and are still beingused to this day as a cargo and aerial refueling aircraft; on some models still using the originalPratt & Whitney JT3 turbojet. The 707 would be the last successful Turbo Jet powered aircraft; the 707 was replaced bymore efficient and more powerful Turbo Fans and Fan Jets, which powered today’s modernaircraft. The Turbo Jet engines history is important because it shows us how far we have comeover the past one hundred years and it all started with a man name Frank Whittle born in a smalltown in England. The Turbo Jet Change the way we wage our wars and how we travel vastdistances all over the world making the world seem a lot smaller than it really is.
Neilson 7 Works CitedAllison. “Allison History.” Allison History. N.p., 2011. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. <http://www.allisontransmission.com///>.Anne Frank Guide. “British and American bombing raids on Germany.” Anne Frank Guide. Anne Frank Stichting, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.annefrankguide.net/gb/ bronnenbank.asp?aid=44738>.The Aviation History On-Line Museum. “Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star - USA .” The Aviation History On-Line Museum. N.p., 2006. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. <http://www.aviation- history.com//.html>.Bannister, Ronald L. “TURBINES, GAS.” Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy. Ed. John Zumerchik. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1171-1182. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com// retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&u serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=1&contentSet=G ALE|CX3407300278&&docId=GALE|CX3407300278&docType=GALE&role=>.BBC. “World War 2: The war ends .” World War 2. BBC, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk///_war2/_war_ends/>.- - -. “World War 2: The war ends .” World War 2. BBC, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk///_war2/_war_ends/>.
Neilson 8Bellis, Mary. “Jet Engines - Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle.” About.com Inventors. About.com, 2011. Web. 7 Sept. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com///.htm>.Boeing. “Model 367-80 The Dash 80.” Boeing History. Boeing, 2011. Web. 23 Sept. 2011. <http://boeing.com///.html>.British Airways. “Celebrating Concorde.” Celebrating Concorde. British Airways, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. <http://www.britishairways.com//.html>.EAI. “Common Aviation Fuels, JET fuel.” Experimental Aircraft Information. N.p., 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. <http://www.experimentalaircraft.info/aircraft/fuel-jet.php>.Encyclopedia of Science. “Gloster E.28/39.” Encyclopedia of Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.daviddarling.info///_E28_39.html>.Heppenheimer, T A. “Jet Engines.” U.S Centennial of Flight Commission. Ed. Stephen Garber. NASA, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 6 Sept. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov// Evolution_of_Technology/_engines/.htm>.Johnson, Tex. “Boeing 707 roll by Test Pilot Tex Johnson.” Boeing 707 roll by Test Pilot Tex Johnson. Youtube. Web. 6 Oct. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/?v=Ra_khhzuFlE>.NASA. “4-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine.” National Aeronautics and Space Adminitration. Ed. Tom Benson. NASA , 11 July 2008. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov////.html>.- - -. “Lockheed T-33A-5-LO Shooting Star.” NASM. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nasm.si.edu//.cfm?id=A19880028000>.
Neilson 9NASA’s Glenn Research Center. “Turbojet Engine.” NASA Education. Ed. Tom Benson. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 13 Sept. 2010. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov////.html>.NASM. “Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Ji-2) FAGOT B.” National Air Space Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nasm.si.edu//.cfm?id=A19860066000>.National Air and Space Museum. “Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a Schwalbe.” National Air and Space Museum. NASM, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nasm.si.edu//.cfm?id=A19600328000>.“The P-51 Mustang.” Dogfights. History. 4 Aug. 2009. Television.Public Broadcasting Service, PBS. “PBS - Chasing the Sun - Frank Whittle.” PBS - Chasing the Sun. Ed. PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org////.html>.Rolls-Royce. “Rolls-Royce - North America.” Rolls-Royce - North America. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2011. <http://www.rolls-royce.com///>.Rumerman, Judy. “Pratt & Whitney.” U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Ed. Stephen Garber. NASA, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 6 Oct. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov////.htm>.Siddiqi, Asif. “The Opening of the Commercial Jet Era.” Centennial of Flight Commemoration. NASA, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 8 Sept. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov//_Aviation/_of_Jet_era/.htm>.
Neilson 10Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum. “GE J31 Turbojet Engine, Cutaway.” Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum Collection. NASM, n.d. Web. 2 Sept. 2011. <http://www.nasm.si.edu//.cfm?id=A19520085000>.“The Speed of Sound and Mach Numbers.” U,S, Centennial of Flight Commission. Ed. Stephen Garber. NASA, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov///_barrier/.htm>.U.S Centennial of Fight Commission, comp. “Hans von Ohain.” U.S Centennial of Flight Commission. Ed. Stephen Garber. NASA, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 7 Sept. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay///.htm>.- - -, comp. “Heinkel Aircraft Works.” U.S Centennial of Flight Commission. Ed. Stephen Garber. NASA, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 7 Sept. 2011. <http://www.centennialofflight.gov////.htm>.