Elements Of A Masonry Forensic Investigation Ryan Biggs


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Elements Of A Masonry Forensic Investigation Ryan Biggs

  1. 1. the Elements of a Masonry Forensic Investigation <ul><li>Jamie L. Davis, P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Troy, NY / Skaneateles Falls, NY </li></ul>
  2. 2. Summary <ul><li>Background/Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Why Consider an Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality vs Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When to Initiate an Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Who to Choose as an Investigator </li></ul><ul><li>How to approach an Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NDT Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What to Expect from the Investigation </li></ul>
  3. 3. a little background <ul><li>David T. Biggs, P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prestress Masonry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid Masonry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masonry Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry Investigations and Testing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Looking Back at the World Trade Center Disaster David T. Biggs, P.E. Principal Ryan-Biggs Associates, P.C.
  5. 6. Restoration of Egyptian Monuments David T. Biggs, P.E., Hon. M. ASCE Ryan-Biggs Associates PC Troy, NY, Skaneateles, NY, West Chester, PA
  6. 7. Edfu Temple
  7. 8. Diversified Masonry Experience
  8. 9. brick nogging
  9. 10. Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception <ul><li>1848 Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Brownstone deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>190 ft North Tower replacement </li></ul>
  10. 11. University Building (1870)
  11. 12. Single Wythe Walls (Architectural CMU)
  12. 13. Prestress Masonry
  13. 14. Prefab Masonry Panels
  14. 15. Investigations/Testing
  15. 16. new software options for hybrid masonry/steel structures and loadbearing masonry structures © IMI & NCMA 2008, All Rights Reserved
  16. 17. the the Successful Masonry Investigation
  17. 18. but WHY?????
  18. 19. how about why, when, who and how???
  19. 20. let’s start with ‘why’… <ul><li>REALITY </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul>
  21. 22. REALITY – NCMA TEK 19-7 <ul><li>“ Design of concrete masonry walls to mitigate or control moisture migration includes many considerations beyond the characteristics of the concrete masonry unit, such as flashing, weeps, workmanship, mortar or grout characteristics, vents, coatings, vapor barriers, air barriers, temperature differences, and accommodation of differential movement, plumbing and roof leaks, as well as other considerations.” </li></ul>
  22. 23. REALITY – NCMA TEK 19-7 <ul><li>“ Proper design and construction of concrete masonry, considering all of these elements, is critical to the water resistant performance of the wall system.” </li></ul>
  23. 24. REALITY – PRODUCT LITERATURE <ul><li>“Finally, it is important to understand that while the XYZ System greatly enhances the water-resistant properties of the masonry, it should not be considered as a substitute for good design practices and quality construction procedures (workmanship). </li></ul>
  24. 25. REALITY – RELATED TEKS <ul><li>Refer to information in National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) TEK 19-2A, 19-4A and 19-5A for flashing details, as well as NCMA TEK 10-1A and 10-2B for crack control and control joint recommendations. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Perception <ul><li>MY BUILDING Is </li></ul><ul><li>WATERPROOF!!! </li></ul>
  26. 28. REALITY Perception
  27. 29. In the World Of Perception <ul><li>IF you have IWR cmu </li></ul><ul><li>THEN you have a waterproof building </li></ul><ul><li>THEREFORE……… </li></ul><ul><li>IF your building leaks </li></ul><ul><li>THEN it must be the block </li></ul>
  28. 30. Expectations are higher… <ul><li>Architects detail the same </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers design the same </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors build the same </li></ul><ul><li>Efflorescence ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Water Staining ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Leaking ?? </li></ul>
  29. 31. When….
  30. 32. Get in the loop Architect Engineer Owner Contractor Architect
  32. 34. This might get ugly……….
  33. 35. Time for the unbiased opinion <ul><li>To look at the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>To give assessment of each party’s responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>To stop the ‘blame game’ </li></ul><ul><li>To redirect focus towards the solution </li></ul>
  34. 36. Ideal Scenario <ul><li>All parties agree on investigator </li></ul><ul><li>All parties agree to share cost </li></ul><ul><li>If not possible, be prepared to be your own advocate </li></ul>
  35. 37. AN INVESTMENT OF GOOD WILL <ul><li>Team player </li></ul><ul><li>Confident in performance of product </li></ul><ul><li>Solution oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to hide </li></ul><ul><li>BE PART OF THE SOLUTION NOT THE PROBLEM </li></ul>
  36. 38. $$$$$$$$$$$$$ <ul><li>Split costs </li></ul><ul><li>Pay upfront /Reimbursement based on results </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent AIA contract wording </li></ul>
  37. 39. WHO? <ul><li>Experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials/Products </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Who Not <ul><li>Testing Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Background </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Decipher Results </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Judgement </li></ul><ul><li>The Specialist </li></ul>
  39. 41. WHO? <ul><li>NO BLINDERS </li></ul><ul><li>No Preconceived Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Oriented vs Blame Game </li></ul><ul><li>Fact Driven </li></ul>
  40. 42. HOW? <ul><li>Each is unique </li></ul><ul><li>No cookbook approach </li></ul>
  41. 43. NDT Experience <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Process </li></ul><ul><li>Access to multiple tools </li></ul>
  42. 44. Flat-jack
  43. 45. Borescope
  44. 46. Ultrasonics - Impact echo <ul><li>ASTM C1383 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaw detection </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Transducer and Impactor
  46. 48. Ultrasonics - Pulse velocity <ul><ul><li>ASTM C597 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaw detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonic Tomography </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Transmitter - Receiver
  48. 50. Sonic Tomography <ul><li>Pulse Velocity </li></ul>
  49. 51. Surface Penetrating Radar
  50. 52. Surface Penetrating Radar 17.6 inch
  51. 53. 3D Scan <ul><li>Radar </li></ul>
  52. 54. Acoustic Emission Technology
  53. 56. Infrared Thermography
  54. 57. Grout verification
  55. 58. Infrared Thermography
  56. 59. The Investigation <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul>
  57. 60. Meet the Team <ul><li>Face to face with the players </li></ul><ul><li>Hear their side </li></ul><ul><li>Read the mood/tone </li></ul><ul><li>Level of cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for the details </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up the inconsistencies </li></ul>
  58. 61. the Contract Documents <ul><li>Learn the building </li></ul><ul><li>Know the details </li></ul><ul><li>Look for potential problem areas </li></ul>
  59. 62. Paper Trail <ul><li>Spec Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Submittals…requested and received </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masonry Certs. – C90/C140 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength/Absorption/Density/Current f’m 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortar mixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconstruction Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E514: 5 ½” of rain/hr with 62.5 mph wind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer Certs/Product Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer/Installer Warranties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mock-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Field Reports/Construction Photos </li></ul>
  60. 63. Visual Observations
  61. 64. Exterior clues
  62. 65. Know the details to read the clues
  63. 66. Interior clues
  64. 67. Look beyond the block
  65. 68. Up close and personal
  66. 69. The finer details <ul><li>Mortar Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Head Joints: NCMA Tek 19-2A
  68. 71. Testing
  69. 72. Testing Possibilities <ul><li>Mortar/Block analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent Extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared Spectrophotomery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Chromatography </li></ul></ul>
  70. 73. Testing Possibilities <ul><li>“ Including ASTM E514 Tests in Field </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluations of Brick Masonry”, </li></ul><ul><li>Hoigard, Kudder, Lies </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate Preconstruction Testing if missing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM C140: absorption and density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E514:water penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial Field Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water droplet/spray bar/wateruptake </li></ul></ul>
  71. 74. The Report
  72. 75. Report Expectations <ul><li>Statement of Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Testing </li></ul><ul><li>“Tell them what you know, Tell them what you don’t know” </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Responsibilities </li></ul>
  73. 76. Summary <ul><li>Be Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Meet Spec Submittal Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Compile Records/Paper Trail </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to solve as part of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to be your own advocate </li></ul><ul><li>Research options for investigators; look for experience/background </li></ul><ul><li>Demand factual/unbiased report </li></ul>
  74. 77. Focus on Success!