REVIEWING SOME RULES OF THUMBLESSON 25I ) USING ALSO, TOO, AS WELL AND EITHER1) We use also after the verb to be.Example: Fred is a good teller. Alfie is also a good teller.We use also before other verbs.Example: Nancy works at the toddlers´ department. Fay also works there.2) We use also in the middle of the sentence.Sam: I want a milk shake.Debbie: I also want a milk shake.We use too or as well at the end of the sentence.Sam: I want a milk shake.Debbie: I want a milk shake too/as well.3)Too/ As well or Either?We use too/ as well in affirmative sentences.Example: I like this skirt. Mary likes it too / as well.We use either in negative sentences.Example: I don´t like this skirt. Mary doesn´t like it either.II ) USING THE VERB TO HAVE1) Making affirmative statements with TO HAVEa) We use have for I / YOU (sing.) / WE / YOU (pl.) and THEY in affirmative statements.Example: We have two children.b) We use has for HE/ SHE and IT in affirmative sentences.Example: She has a nice house.2) Making negative statements with TO HAVEa) We use do not have or don´t have for I / YOU(sing.)/ WE / YOU(pl.) and THEY in negative statements.Example: I do not (don´t) have a passport.b) We use does not have or doesn´t have for HE/ SHE and IT in negative statements.Example: She does not (doesn´t) have a red skirt.3) Asking questions with TO HAVEa) We use do before I / YOU (sing.) / WE / YOU (pl.) and THEY in questions.Example: Do they have an Italian passport?b) We use does before HE/ SHE and IT in questions.Example: Does he have an Italian passport?
III) EXPRESSING HABITS AND STATES IN THE PRESENT1) Making affirmative statements.In affirmative sentences, the verb ends in s with he, she and it.Example: She likes you.2) Making negative statements.Examples:We do not (don´t ) like ice cream.She does not (doesn´t) like chocolate.3) Asking questionsExamples:Do they work at a bank?Does he buy his clothes at Lacy´s?IV) USING SOMETHING, ANYTHING AND NOTHING1) Something or Anything?a) We use something in affirmative sentences.Example: There is something for you on your desk. I think it’s a tape.b) We use anything in negative sentences.Example: There isn’t anything for you today. Only a letter for Sue.2) We use something or anything in questions.Examples:Do you have something to show me?Do you have anything to show me?3) We use something in offers and requests.a) Do you want something to read? (offer)b) Can I have something to drink? (request)4) We use anything in affirmative sentences to mean one or more things without specification or identification:Tom: What do you want to do tomorrow?Marie: Oh, anything.5) NOT ANYTHING OR NOTHING?Not anything = nothing.Examples:There is not anything to do today.There is nothing to do today.V) EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS AND IDEAS USING AM/ IS / ARE GOING TO1) Making affirmative statements with GOING TO
AMIS + GOING TO + ANOTHER VERB FUTUREAREExamples:I am going to get married in April.Suzy is going to spend her next vacation in California.They are going to repair the window tomorrow morning.2) Making negative statements with GOING TOAMIS + NOT + GOING TO + ANOTHER VERBAREExamples:I am not (’m not) going to get married in April.Suzy is not (‘s not/ isn´t) going to spend her vacation in Florida.They are not ( ’re not / aren´t) going to repair the window.3) Asking questions with GOING TOExamples:Am I going to wash these dishes?Are they going to take the bus?VI) WHAT OR WHICH?Examples:What movie are you going to see? ( unlimited number of alternatives)Which movie are you going to see, Out of Africa or Coming Home? (limited number of alternatives)VII) USING CAN1) Making affirmative statements using CAN.We use can with all persons.Examples:She can watch TV for one hour after dinner.It can rain at any moment.We can help you now.2) Making negative statements using CAN.Examples:I cannot ( can’t ) help you now.You cannot (can’t ) watch TV now.He cannot ( can’t ) speak English.3) Asking questions using CANExample: Can they leave now?
LESSON 26I ) EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS AND IDEAS USING WILLWe can use will or am/is/are + going to to express future actions and ideas.Examples:Jill´s school play will be next Saturday.Jill´s school play is going to be next Saturday.1) Making affirmative statements with WILL.Example: I will ( ’ll )see you tomorrow.2) Making negative statements with WILL.Example: Jim will not ( won’t ) be back Monday.3) Asking questions with WILL.Example: Will Ann be upset if I don´t come?4) Asking and answering questions.Will you let me know if there´s a change in your plans?Yes, I will.No, I will not (or No, I won´t).Will Ann have a sirloin steak?Yes, she will.No, she will not (or No, she won´t).II) USING NUMBER EXPRESSIONSExamples:I want a sirloin steak that weighs 8 ounces. I LONGI want an 8-ounce sirloin steak. . I SHORTAnother way of saying a sirloin steak that weighs 8 ounces is an 8-ounce sirloin steak.a two-hundred dollar TV set ( = a TV set that costs two hundred dollars )three ten-year-old kids ( = three kids that are ten years old)some five-letter words ( = some words that have five letters).III) SHE OR HER?We use she before verbs.We use her after verbs or prepositions.Examples:She knows Jack.Jack knows her.Jack studies with her.
FURTHER USE OF ENGLISH1) Measuring weightAmericans usually use the ounce as a unit of weight.1 ounce = 28.35 gramsNotice how we abbreviate ounce(s):1 ounce = 1 oz2 ounces = 2 ozetc.LESSON 27I) EXPRESSING PAST ACTIONS AND IDEASWhen we talk about actions, events or states that were completed in the past, we use the Simple Past Tense (alsoreferred to as Simple Past or Past Tense).Was and were are the past forms of the verb to be. So, when we use was or were, we are talking about the past.1) Making affirmative statements using WAS and WERE.Use was with I, HE, SHE, and IT.Use were with YOU(singular an plural), WE, and THEY.2) Making negative statements using WAS and WERE.Examples:I was not (wasn´t) in Kuwait last year.We were not ( weren´t) worried about you.3) Asking questions using WAS and WERE.Examples:Was Jim in Kuwait last week?Were you late for the play?TO BEAffirmative NegativeI was I was not ( wasn´t)You were You were not ( weren´t)He / she / it was He / she / it was not (wasn´t)We / you / they were We / you / they were not (weren´t)
QuestionsWas I?Were you?Was he / she / it?Were we / you / they? Short answers Yes, I was. No, I wasn´t. Yes, you were. No, you weren´t. Yes, he / she/ it was. No, he / she / it wasn´t. Yes, we / you / they were. No,we/you/they weren´tII) WE OR US?We use we before verbs.We use us after verbs or prepositions.Examples:Hi. Do you know us?We are Don and Wendy Morgan.Do you want to play baseball with us?III) EXPRESSING OPINIONSWe can use should to express an opinion.Examples:a) Sylvia: You should come to Fred´s farewell party with me, Marie. It´s going to be great.In Sylvia´s opinion, if Marie goes to Fred´s farewell party, she (Marie) will have a great time. Notice that Sylvia isusing should to express her opinion.b) Julian: I´m not feeling well. I should stay home today.In Julian´s opinion, the right thing to do is to stay home because he isn´t feeling well. Julian is also using shouldto express his opinion.1) Using SHOULD to make affirmative statements.The verb that comes after should does not take to.Examples:I should leave now.“ I really think we should buy a new car”.2) Using SHOULD to make negative statements.Examples:Sally should not ( shouldn´t) stay out so late.3) Using SHOULD to ask for an opinion.Example:Should we order a pizza?
LESSON 28I)THERE WAS AND THERE WEREWhen we use there was or there were, we are talking about the past.THERE WAS = singularTHERE WERE = plural1) Making affirmative statements using THERE WAS and THERE WERE.Examples:There was a group from Korea at the festival yesterday.There were two groups from Korea at the festival yesterday.2)Making negative statements using THERE WAS and THERE WERE.Examples:There was not ( wasn´t) a festival here yesterday.There were not ( weren´t) many girls here last night.THERE WAS NOT = THERE WASN´TTHERE WERE NOT = THERE WEREN´T3) Asking questions using THERE WAS and THERE WERE.Examples:Was there a party here yesterday?Were there six girls here yesterday?II)THEY OR THEM?We use they before verbs.We use them after verbs or prepositions.Examples:Doug: Are those fries for me?Mom: Well, they were for your sisters, but you can have them. I´ll get some more for them.FURTHER USE OF ENGLISHHOW TO WRITE AND SAY SOME NUMBERS IN ENGLISH1,000 = one thousand or a thousand2,000 = two thousand1,550 = a (one) thousand, five hundred and fifty10,647 = ten thousand, six hundred and forty-seven1) How to say year numbersTo say a year number, we divide it in two parts.
1970 = nineteen seventy1826 = eighteen twenty-six2) Now look how we say a year number that ends in 01 through 091901 = nineteen oh one1706 = seventeen oh sixNOTE:the year 2000 = the year two thousand3) The Declaration of Independence of the United States was signed on July 4, 1776. How do we abbreviate andsay this date?Abbreviate this way: 7/4/1776 (month / day / year)Say this way: July fourth, seventeen seventy-sixHow to read page numbers, house numbers, and room numbersDo the same as for year numbers.Examples:Page 1104 = eleven oh four2358 Jordan Street = twenty-three fifty-eightRoom 307 = three oh sevenApartment 428 = four twenty-eightLESSON 29FURTHER USE OF ENGLISH1) How to write and say 4-digit numbers ending in 001,500 = a/one thousand five hundred ( or fifteen hundred)2) Now look how we write and say year numbers, page numbers, house or building numbers, and room numberswhen they have 4 digits and end in 00.1900 = nineteen hundred2300 Jordan Street = twenty-three hundredNOTE:There´s only one way to write and say 4-digit numbers that end in 000:2000 = two thousand3) Talking about periods of time using from … to and from…through.Use from … to with hours.Use from … to or from …through with days, months or years.Examples:
Don is usually at the health club from 7 to 10.Tina works from Monday to/through Saturday.It´s cold in Ohio from November to/through March.Mary was living in Korea from 1987 to/through 1993.VOCABULARYLESSON 251) ice cream 16)identification = some kind of document that identifies someone; something that proves who someone is. Example: You should always carry your identification with you.2) ice cream parlor 17) as well = too.parlor = a store that sells a certain product or Example:service, such as hair care, ice cream, or funerals. Please give me your workbook. And give me a pen asI bought a chocolate sundae at the ice-cream parlor. well, please.3) child = pl. children 18) to sign = to write one´s name on something. Example: John signed his name on the back of the check. / Please sign your name on the line.4) vanilla 19) passport5) strawberry 20) wedding = the ceremony where two people become married to each other; a marriage ceremony.6) chocolate shake 21) to get married = to become united as husband and wife. Example: Bill and Sally got married when they were in college.7) milk shake 22) over there8) to prefer 23) clothes9) bank 24) skirt10) traveler´s checks = are special checks generally 25) pantsused by a person who is traveling. We can say I’m wearing pants or I’m wearing a pair of pants.11) to cash = when you exchange a check for 26) to try on (clothes) = to put on clothes to see ifmoney, you cash it. they fit you.The tourist wants to get money for his traveler´schecks. He wants to cash his traveler´s checks.12) teller = a person employed to receive and pay 27) fitting roomout money in a bank.13) up to = 28) early = the opposite of early is late. Example:Children up to five don´t pay to get into Mary is going to get married in the beginning of April.the zoo. Mary is going to get married in early April.If a bank cashes traveler´s checks to a limit of ahundred dollars, we can say they cash checks up to ahundred dollars.14) back 29) toddler = a toddler is a small child who is learning to walk.15) front
VOCABULARYLESSON 261) play 15) medium= If you cook your steak a little more, you will have a medium steak. Then it will have a pink center.2) on business = 16) well-done = a well-done steak is cooked longerEx.: Dan is going away to work. He´s going away on than a medium steak. The center of a well-donebusiness. steak is brown.3) Gee = interj. infml (an expression of surprise) 17) French fries4) upset = sad and disappointed 18) baked potato5) uncle 19) butter6) Don´t worry = Relax. 20) sour cream = cream made sour by adding a kind of bacteria, and used in various foods.7) to let someone know = if I let you know 21) tossed salad = a salad made of a variety ofsomething, I tell you about it or give you information greens that have been mixed together.about it. Example:Ex.: Henry, you have to let the boss know if you can I ate a tossed salad before dinner.´t work on Friday.8) change = 22) French onion soup = is a kind of onion soupDan will tell Diana if he makes different plans, or if made according to the French style.there´s a modification in his plans. He will tell her ifthere´s a change in his plans.To change = to make or become different.9) steak house = a restaurant that serves esp. Steak. 23) onion10) sirloin = is a cut of meat. 24) cheese11) ounce = Americans usually use ounces to weigh 25) choice =small things, such as steaks, or small quantities of At this restaurant you have two options with yourthings, such as coffee. steak, French onion soup or tossed salad. You have a1 ounce = 28.35 grams. choice of French onion soup or tossed salad.12) Another word for waiter or waitress is server. 26) dressing = a usu. liquid mixture for adding to a dish, esp. a salad: a French dressing.13) rare = a steak is rare when it is cooked for a very 27) blue cheese dressing = this kind of dressing isshort time. A rare steak has a very red, cool center. made with a kind of cheese called blue cheese. That ´s why it´s called blue cheese dressing.14) medium-rare = a medium-rare steak is cooked alittle longer than a rare steak. A medium-rare steakhas a red, warm center.Ex.: The customer wants her steak between mediumand rare. She wants it medium-rare.
VOCABULARYLESSON 271) to get (+ adj.) = to become. 10) relativesExamples: The people in your family, including yourIt´s getting hot in here. grandparents, uncles, aunts, and their children, areThe food is getting cold. your relatives.2) air conditioning = a system of ventilation and 11) at leasttemperature control. Also called central air. Example: Barry is going to stay in Kuwait for two or moreAir conditioning = the system that uses machines years. He´s going to stay there for at least two(air-conditioners) to control the temperature of the years.air in a room or building to keep it cool and dry.3) air conditioner = a machine that cools indoor air. 12) bed4) to turn on = to cause ( a radio, light, etc.) to 13) sick =operate, esp. by using a button or switch: He turnedon the TV.5) should = we use should when we want to give an 14) lecture = when you are giving someone a long,opinion. tedious reprimand, you are giving that person a lecture.6) to shut = to close. 15) to spare When you spare someone from something, you free that person from doing or experiencing it because it will probably make the person upset, irritated, or tired.7) farewell party= 16) by heart = you know something by heart whenExample: Barry´s friends are giving a party to say you know it by memory.good-bye to Barry. It´s a farewell party. When you know something by heart, such as a lesson or song, you know all of it, word by word.8) fantastic 17) to care You care about someone or something when you show interest in them. Ex.: Almost all parents care a lot about their children.9) lots of = a lot of
VOCABULARYLESSON 281) music 16) bath towel2) festival 17) hand towel3)superb = very good; excellent; of the best quality. 18) extra = something extra is something additional. Ex.: On some long holidays, there are so many people traveling that the bus companies usually put on extra buses.4) performer = someone who performs; an actor, a 19) another = an additional one; a different one.singer, a musician, a dancer, or an entertainer. Example:Example: The performer played the piano and sang. I don´t like this skirt. Can you please show me another one?5) world = refers to our planet. 20) soap. We don´t count soap. We count bars of soap. One bar of soap, two bars of soap, etc.6) all over the world = in all parts of the world. 21) to send.Example: The brand name Coca-Cola is famous in all When we write a letter to someone, we don´t usuallyparts of the world. In other words, it´s famous all take it to the person. We usually send the letter toover the world. the person.7) group 22) to take = ( to move something from one place to another ) to move or carry from one place or position to another. Ex.: Don´t forget to take your bag when you go.8) even = we use even when we want to be 23) right .emphatic. Examples: Example: If you are going to do somethingIf you go to a good video store, you will see videos immediately after dinner, we can say you are goingthat teach you how to do everything, even swim. to do it right after dinner.All my relatives were at my last birthday party, evenmy uncle who lives in Kuwait.9) stadium 24) (coat) hanger10) full 25) to need11) people 26) pillow12) over = more than. 27) housekeeping.Another way to say there are more than a hundred Housekeeping is the department of a hotel that ispeople at the club is that there are over a hundred responsible for cleaning the rooms.people there.13) tapes = we can say cassette tapes or, simply, 28) roomtapes.14) live. 29) maid = a woman who is paid to cook, clean, andWhen a show is being performed at the time you´re do other work around the house; a female servantwatching it or listening to it, we can say it is a liveshow.15) supervisor = a person who coordinates and 30) May I help you? = is a polite way to ask if youdirects other people, and sees that they are doing can help someone.their work correctly, is a supervisor.
VOCABULARYLESSON 291) to eat 14) bite2) dessert = a special, often sweet, food served at 15) covered = when you are covered with something,the end of a meal. there is a lot of it all over you.Example: For dessert, we ate ice cream. Example: Sometimes the area under a tree gets all covered with leaves in the fall.3)specialty = a particular product or service for which 16) to record = if you record something, you registersomeone or something is famous or well known. it on tape.Example: Hamburgers are an American specialty. Example: When you buy an answering machine, you have to record a message.4) pie 17) carpet = a carpet covers all of the floor.5) rice 18) rug = a rug covers part of the floor.6) rice pudding = a sweet dish made of rice, milk, 19) hoursand sugar which is cooked for a long time in an oven.7) check = a bill at a restaurant. 20) located = situatedExample: The waitress put our check on the table.8) picnic 21)floor = one level of a building; a story. Examples: My apartment is on the third floor.9) already. Example: 22) (shopping) mallBarbara: Hey, aren´t you going to the bank? mall = a large building with many stores inside, aGeorge:I´m back already.There weren´t many shopping center . Example: John bought a birthdaypeople there. present for Anne at the mall.10)Yep = is an informal way of saying yes. 23) to visit = when you visit someone, or a place, you go to and stay with the person or at the place for a short time.11) awful = very bad. 24) helpful = a person who likes to help other peopleExample: Jenny: How was the party? is helpful.Ralph: No music, no food, no drinks. In other words,it was awful.12) mosquito(es) 25) salesperson (pl. –people) = a shop assistant13) tons = a lot. 26) to assist (is a formal verb) = to help.A ton is equivalent to 2,000 pounds, or 1,000 Kg. Weuse tons as an informal way of saying a lot.
Class. No.: GS03Name: _________________________________ Date: _________________________.EXERCISESI) Answer these questions:1) When will our next test be?___________________________________________________.2) Do you generally eat out on the weekends?___________________________________________________.3) When was the last time you were broke?___________________________________________________.4) Where were you born?___________________________________________________.5) When was your last midterm exam?_____________________________________________________________.6) Will you be here tomorrow?_____________________________________________________________.7) Where were you yesterday morning?_____________________________________________________________.II) Make questions:1) _____________________________________________?He´s going to stay in Kuwait for at least five years.2) _____________________________________________?No, I wasn´t.3) _____________________________________________?Oh, it was just fantastic.4) _____________________________________________?No, Jim´s dormitory is the second one to the left.5) _____________________________________________?Steak, baked potato, and a salad.6) _____________________________________________?I´m going to spend Christmas with my family.7) _____________________________________________?Medium, please.
IV) Complete the sentences. Use I / me / she / her etc.1) Who is that woman ? Why are you looking at ______?2) “ Do you know those people?” “Yes, they work with _______.”3) Where are the tickets? I can´t find ________.4) I can´t find my keys. Where are _________?5) We´re going out. You can come with ______.6) Margaret likes music. ________ plays the piano.7) I don´t like dogs. I´m afraid of ________.8) I´m talking to you. Please listen to _______.9) Where is Ann? I want to talk to ________.10) My brother has a new job. _______ doesn´t like _______ very much.1) WhenWe use When…? to ask about time in the present, past or future.2) WhereWe use Where…? to ask about place.Example: Where do you live?3) Whose = asks about possession.Example: “Whose pencil is this?” “ It´s Kate´s”.4) WhyWhy…? asks for a reason and we answer with Because.5) HowExamples: “How was the party last night? ” “It was great.” / “How do you usually go to work?” “ By bus”.6) How muchWe use How much? + uncountable to ask about quantity: How much milk do you want in your coffee?We also use How much? to refer to cost: How much does it cost?7) How manyWe use How many? + plural noun to ask about number: How many people/books…?8) How long…? = asks about duration.9) WhoUse who for people (somebody).Example: Who is your favourite singer?
10) What or Which?We use which when we are thinking about a small number of possibilities.Example: There are four umbrellas here. Which is yours?What is more general: What is the capital of Argentina?