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A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]
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A Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark [ENG]

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  • 1. A Textbook of Translation For my daughter Clare Peter Newmark Centre for Translation and Language Studies University of Surrey
  • 2. X CONT ENTS 1 Words and context The translat ion of dialect You and the comput er 195 Functio n and descrip tion The translat ion of epony ms and acrony ms 198 Familia r alternat ive terms 201 When and how to improv e a text 204 Colloc ations 212 The translat ion of proper names 214 The t ranslati on of puns 217 The translat ion of weight s, measur es, quantit ies and currenc ies 217 Ambig uity 218 1 2 Intr odu cto ry not e 229 Tex t1 'Po we r nee ds cle ar eye s', Th e Ec on om ist 23
  • 3. 1 Te xt 2 'U pp er gas tro int est ina l en do sco py' , Br itis h M edi cal Jo ur na l 23 4 Te xt 3 Br ide sh ea d Re vis ite d (W au gh) 23 8 Te xt 4 'U ne cer tai ne ide e de la Fr an ce' (D e Ga ull e) 24 2 Te xt 5 'Le Pa rti So cia list e' (S ou rce un kn ow n) 24 5 Te xt 6 Al a Re ch er ch e du Te m ps Pe rd u (Pr ous t) 24 8 Te xt 7 'Pr ese nta tio n d'u nca sde tox opl as mo se', flo rJe a« x Me dic al 25 0 Te xt 8 'Di aly seb eha ndl un g bei ak ute m Ni ere nv ers age n', De uts ch e Medizinisc he Wochensc hrift 254 Te xt 9 Al ex an de r vo n Hu mb ol dt {H em ) 25 9 Te xt 10 L' Ad or ati on (B ore l) 26 4 Te xt 11 Di e Bl as se
  • 4. A nn a (B oll ) 26 7 Te xt 12 La So ci et e Fr an ca is e (D up eu x) 27 2 Te xt 13 'Z u m W oh lea lle r', 5C A Li 4 27 7 G bs sa ry 28 2 A bb re vi at io ns 28 6 A ut ho r's P ub lis he d P ap er s 28 7 M ed ic al te r m in ol o gy 2 8 8 Bi bl io gr a p hy 2 8 9 N a m e in de x 29 1 Su bj ec t in de x 29 2 I fh T e sp eci al ter ms I us e are ex pla ine d in the tex t an d in the gl os sar y. I I T h I x
  • 5. Xll PREF ACE a s M u A g W r T h PA R T P ri nc ip le s 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 8 1 9
  • 6. I war mly than k Paul ine Ne wm ark, Eliz abet h Ne wm ark and Mat the w Ne wm ark, who m I hav e cons ulte d so freq uent ly; Vau gha n Jam es, who has help ed so muc h at ever y stag e; Vera Nort h, who cop ed s o T he a u
  • 7. CHAPTER 1 Introduction My purpose in this book is to offer a course in translation principles and methodology for final-year-degree and post-graduate classes as well as for autodidacts and home learners. Further, I have in mind that I am addressing non-English as well as English students, and I will provide some appropriate English texts and examples to work on. I shall assume that you, the reader, are learning to translate into your language of habitual use, since that is the only way you can translate naturally, accurately and with maximum effectiveness. In fact, however, most translators do translate out of their own language ('service' translation) and contribute greatly to many people's hilarity in the process. Further, I shall assume that you have a degree-level 'reading and comprehension' ability in one foreign language and a particular interest in one of the three main areas of translation: (a) science and technology, (b) social, economic and/or political topics and institutions, and (c) literary and philosophical works. Normally, only (a) and (b) provide a salary; (c) is free-lance work. Bear in mind, however, that knowing a foreign language and your subject is not as important as being sensitive to language and being competent to write your own language dexterously, clearly, economically and resourcefully. Experience with translationese, for example, Strauss' Opus 29 stands under the star of Bierbaum who in his lyric poems attempted to tie in the echoes of the German love poetry with the folk song and with the impressionistic changes. Opus 29 steht im Zeichen Bierbaums, der als Lyriker versuchte, Nachklange des Mirmesangs mil dent Volkslied und mil impressiontstischen Wendungen zu verkntipfen. (Record sleeve note) shows that a good writer can often avoid not only errors of usage but mistakes of fact and language simply by applying his common sense and showing sensitivity to language. Being good at writing has little to do with being good at 'essays', or at 'English' as you may have learned it at school. It means being able to use the
  • 8. 3
  • 9. 4 PRINC IPLES INTRODU CTION 5 a p F i A I W A text may ther efor e be pull ed in ten diff eren t dire ctio ns, as foll ows : 29 T h e i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o r i
  • 10. d i o l e c t o f t h e S L a u t h o r . W h e n s h o u l d i t b e ( a ) p r e s e r v e d , ( b ) n o r m a l i s e d ? 30 T h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a m m a t i c a l a n d i n g l e x i c a l u s a g e t h e f o r t h i s t y p e o f t e x t , d e p e n d o n t o p i c a n d t h e s i t u a t i o n . 31 C o n t e n t i t e m s r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e S L , o r t h i r d l a n g u a g e ( i . e . n o t S L o r T L ) c u l t u r e s . 32 T h e t y p i c a l f o r m a t o f a t e x t i n a b o o k , p e r i o d i c a l , . , a s i n f l u e n c e d b y t r a d i t i o n a t t h e n e w s p a p e r , t i m e . 33 T h e e t c e x p
  • 11. e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p u t a t i v e r e a d e r s h i p , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h e i r e s t i m a t e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t o p i c a n d t h e o f s t y l e t h e o f l a n g u a g e t h e y u s e , e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s l a r g e s t c o m m o n f a c t o r , s i n c e o n e s h o u l d n o t t r a n s l a t e , d o w n f o r ( , o r 3 u p ) t o t h e r e a d e r s h i p . ( 6 ) , ( 7 ) ( 8 ) A s 2 , a n d 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y , b u t r e l a t e d t o t h e T L . ( 9 ) W h a t i s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d o r r e p o r t e d , a s c e r t a i n e d o r v e r i f i e d ( t h e r e f e r e n t i a l trut h), wh ere pos sibl
  • 12. e ind epe nde ntl y of the SL tex t and the exp ect ati ons of t hub s ject ive , or ma y be soc ial and cul tur al, inv olv ing the tra nsl ato r's 'gr ou p loy alt y fac tor' , wh ich ma y refl ect the nat ion al, pol itic al, eth nic , reli gio us, soc ial cla ss, sex , etc. ass um pti ons of the tra nsl ato r. N F i W h
  • 13. 6 PRINC IPLES INTROD UCTION 7 s a D a T r h W ilst acc epti ng that a few goo d tran slat ors (lik ea few goo d acto rs) are '
  • 14. n a o n l s o w r a p p e d u p i n p o i n t l e s s a r g u m e n t s a b o u t i t s f e a s i b i l i t y , t h a t i t w o u l d b e n e f i t s t u d e n t s o f t r a n s l a t i o n a n d w o u l d b e t r a n s l a t o r s t o f o l l o w a c o u r s e b a s e d o n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t e x t s a n d e x a m p A s f o
  • 15. T r g T h A s
  • 16. 8 PRINC IPLES INTROD UCTION 9 d i Qu' une mal lle saut at parf ois a ce tiss u de perf ecti on auq uel Bri gitt e Pia n trav aill ait ave c une vigi lan ce de tout es les sec ond es, c'ila it dan s I'or dre el elk s'en con sola it pou rvu que cefu t san s tem oin. ( m That a stitc h sho uld som etim es brea k in that tissu e of perf ecti on at whi ch Brig itte Pian was wor king with a vigil ance to whi ch she dev oted ever y seco
  • 17. nd, this was in orde r and she con sole d hers elf for it pro vide d it was with out witn ess. w d e : If Brig itte Pian som etim es drop ped a stitc h in the admi rable mate rial she was wor king on with such unre mitti ng vigil ance , it was in the natu ral orde r of thin gs and she foun d cons olati on for it, prov ided she had no witn esse s. A t r a n s l a t o r , p e r h a p s m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r o f a p r o f e s s i o n , i s c o n t i n u a l l y f a c e d w i t h c h o i c e s , f o r i n s t a n c e w h e n h e h a s t o t r a n s l a t e w o r d s d e n o t i T h i t
  • 18. n t Y o e r s e t z u n g s w i s s e n s c h a f t i n G e r m a n s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , ' T r a n s l a t i o n S t u d i e s ' i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d B e l g i u m ) ; t h i s b o o k i s i n t e n d e d t o i n t r o d u c e i t t o y o u . I n a n a r r o w s e n s e , t r a n s l a t i o n t h e o r y i s c o n c e r n I e T r 35 E W 34 T I T 36 x n r
  • 19. 10 PRINC IPLES pu ult bli to cit cal y, cul rec ate ipe the s, nu lett mb ers er , or rep the ort lan s, gu bu ag sin es ess of for tra ms nsl , ati do on cu s me on nts an , y etc lar . ge Th sca ese le. no 3 w 7 3 vas 39 8 T tly 40 h T out r I nu n mb er s bo u ok m s, , so it i is t dif fic
  • 20. a T Y p u r p o s e s : f i r s t , t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t i t i s a b o u t ; s e c o n d , t o a n a l y s e i t f r o m a ' t r a n s l a t o r ' s ' p o i n
  • 21. t U n C l II
  • 22. 12 PRINC IPLES THE ANALYSIS OF A TEXT 13 t r I A W h A g A U r a t h e r t h a n h o w t o a d a p t t h e m i n o r d e r t o p
  • 23. e r s u a d e a g a i n , o r h e i n s t r u c t m a y a n e w T L r e a d e r s h i p A n d b e t r a n s l a t i n g a m a n u a l o f i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a l e s s e d u c a t e d r e a d e r s h i p , s o t h a t t h e e x p l a n a t i o n i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n m a y b e muc h larg er than the 'repr odu ctio n'. TE XTS TY LES Foll owi ng Nid a, we disti ngui sh four type s of (lite rary or nonliter ary) text: 41 N a r r a t i v e : a d y n a m i c s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s , w h e r e t h e e m p h a s i s i 42 s D e b 43 s D i
  • 24. 4 4 O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e v a r i e t y o f l a n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l , y o u a t t e m p t t o c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e r e ader ship of the origi nal and then of the trans latio n, and to deci de how muc h atten tion you have to pay to the TL read ers. (In the case of a poe m or any wor k writt en prim arily as selfexpr essi on the amo unt is, I sugg est, very little .) You may try to asse ss the level of educ atio n, the class , age and sex of the read ershi p if thes e are' mar ked'. T he aver age text for trans latio n
  • 25. 14 PRINC IPLES THE ANALYSIS OF A TEXT /5 y or diffi cult y: Sim ple 'The floor of the sea is S cove red C with A rows L of E big mou S ntai ns T and Strevens. I deep Officialese pits.' Pop Official ular Formal 'The Neutral floor Informal of Colloquial the ocea ns is cove A Simi red larly, with I grea sugg t est mou the ntai follo n wing chai scale ns of and gene deep ralit tren S T Y L I S T I C
  • 26. ches .' Neu tral (usi ng basi c voca bula ry only ) 'A grav eyar d of ani mal and plan t rem ains lies buri ed in the eart h's crust .' Edu cate d 'The lates t step in verte brate evol utio n was the toolmaki ng man. ' Tec hnic al 'Crit ical path anal ysis is an oper atio nal rese arch tech niqu e used in man agemen t.' Opa quel y tech nica l (co mpr ehen sible only to an expe rt) 'Neu rami nic acid in the form of its alkal istabl e meth oxy deriv ative was first isola ted by Klen k from gang liosi des.' (Lett er to Natu re, Nov emb er 1955 , quot ed in Quir k, 1984 .) I sugg est the follo wing scale of emot ional tone: Inte nse (prof use use of inten sifer s) ('hot' ) 'Abs olute ly won derfu l. . . ideal ly dark bass ... enor mou sly succ essfu l. . . supe rbly contr olled ' War m 'Gen tle, soft, heart war ming melo dies' F a c t u a l ( ' c o o l ' ) ' S i g n i f i c a n t , e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l j u d g e d , p e r s o n a b l e , p r e s e n t a b l e , c o n s i d e r a b l e ' Und erst ate men t ('col d') 'Not .. undi gnifi ed' N o t e t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f o r m a l i t y a n d e m o t i o n a l t o n e , i n t h a t
  • 27. a n o f f i c i a l s t y l e i s l i k e l y t o b e f a c t u a l , w h i l s t c o l l o q u i a l i s m s a n d s l a n g t e n d t o b e e m o t i v e . I n t r a n s l a t i n g , t h e e f f u s i v e n e s s o f I t a l i a n , t h e f o r m a l i t y a n d s t i f f n e s s o f G e r m a n a n d R u s s i an, the impe rson ality of Fren ch, the infor malit y and unde rstat ement of Engl ish have to be take n into acco unt in certa in type s of corre spon ding pass age. ATT ITU DE In pass ages mak ing eval uati ons and reco mm enda tions , you have to asse ss the stan dard s of the writ er. If he writ es 'goo d', 'fair' , 'aver age', 'com pete nt', 'ade quat e', 'satis fact ory', 'mid dlin g', 'poo r', 'exc ellen t 'S i S Y
  • 28. 16 PRINC IPLES THE ANALYSIS OF A TEXT 17 T Y T h Bro F ma tran slato r's poin t of vie w this is the only theo retic al disti ncti on b
  • 29. e t a c e s o u r c e s ( e . g . p o l y s e m y , w o r d p l a y , s o u n d e f f e c t , m e t r e , r h y m e ) e x p e n d e d o n a t e x t , t h e m o r e d iffic ult it is likel y to be to trans late, and the mor e wort hwh ile. A satis fact ory restr icted trans latio n of any poe m is alwa ys poss ible, thou gh it may wor k as an intro duct ion to and an inter pret atio n of rath er than as a recr eatio n of the origi nal. TH E LAS T RE ADI NG Fina lly, you shou ld note the cultu ral aspe ct of the SL text; you shou ld unde rline all neol ogis ms, meta phor I I I n
  • 30. 18 PRINC IPLES i t s p r a c t i c e . A p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a n s l a t o r w o u l d n o t u s u T o
  • 31. C H A P T E R INTRODUCTION P r o c e s s My description of translating procedure is operational. It begins with choosing a method of approach. Secondly, when we are translating, we translate with four levels more or less consciously in mind: (1) the SL text level, the level of language, where we begin and which we continually (but not continuously) go back to; (2) the referential level, the level of objects and events, real or imaginary, which we progressively have to visualise and build up, and which is an essential part, first of the comprehension, then of the reproduction process; (3) the cohesive level, which is more general, and grammatical, which traces the train of thought, the feeling tone (positive or negative) and the various presuppositions of the SL text. This level encompasses both comprehension and reproduction: it presents an overall picture, to which we may have to adjust the language level; (4) the level of naturalness, of common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in a certain situation. Again, this is a generalised level, which constitutes a band within which the translator works, unless he is translating an authoritative text, in which case he sees the level of naturalness as a point of reference to determine the deviation - if any between the author's level he is pursuing and the natural level. This level of naturalness is concerned only with reproduction. Finally, there is the revision procedure, which may be concentrated or staggered according to the situation. This procedure constitutes at least half of the complete process. o f THE RELATION OF TRANSLATING TO TRANSLATION THEORY 3 T h e T r a n s l a t i n g The purpose of this theory of translating is to be of service to the translator. It is designed to be a continuous link between translation theory and practice; it derives irom a translation theory framework which proposes that when the main purpose of the text is to convey information and convince the reader, a method of translation must be 'natural'; if, on the other hand, the text is an expression of the peculiar innovative (or cliched) and authoritative style of an author (whether it be a lyric, a 19
  • 32. 20 PRINC IPLES THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 21 T r p a T n h I s f l a practice t i A functional theor o of language n T A i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n . B o t h i n i t s r e f e
  • 33. r e n t i a l a n d i t s p r a g m a t i c a s p e c t , i t h a s a n i n v a r i a n t f a c t o r , b u t t h i s f a c t o r c a n n o t b e p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d s i n c e i t d e p e n d s o n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s e x e r c i s e d b y o n e o r i g i n a l o n o n e t r a n s l ation. All one can do is to produ ce an argum ent with transl ation exam ples to suppo rt it. Nothi ng is purely object ive or subjec tive. There are no castiron rules. Every thing is more or less. There is an assum ption of 'norm ally' or 'usuall y' or 'com monly ' behin d each wellestabli shed princi ple; as I have stated earlier , qualificatio ns such as 'alway s', 'never' , 'must' do not exist there are no absolu tes. G iven these caveat s, I am nevert heless going to take you throug h my tentative transl ating proces s. T here a r e t w o a p p r o a c h e s t o t r a n s l a t i n g ( a n d m a n y c o m p r o m i s e s b e t w e e n t h e m ) : ( 1 ) y o u s t a r t t r a n s l a t i n g
  • 34. s e n t e n c e b y s e n t e n c e , f o r p h o r c h a p t e r , t o g e t t h e s a y f e e l t h e a n d f i r s t t h e p a r a g r a f e e l i n g t o n e o f t h e t e x t , a n d t h e n y o u d e l i b e r a t e l y s i t b a c k , r e v i e w t h e p o s i t i o n , a n d r e a d t h e r e s t o f t h e S L t ext; (2) you read the whole text two or three times, and find the intenti on, regist er, tone, mark the diffic ult words and passa ges and start transl ating only when you have taken your bearin gs. W hich of the two metho ds you choos e may depen d on your tempe ramen t, or on wheth er you trust your intuiti on (for the first metho d) or your power s of analys is (for the secon d). Altern atively , you may think the first metho d more suitabl e for a literar y and the secon d for a techni cal or an institu tional text. The d a n g e r o f t h e f i r s t y o u w i t h t o o m u c h m e t h o d r e v i s i o n i s t o t h a t d o i t m a y l e a v e o n t h e e a r l y p a
  • 35. r t , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e t i m e w a s t i n g . T h e s e c o n d m e t h o d ( u s u a l l y p r e f e r a b l e ) c a n b e m e c h a n i c a l ; r a n s l a t i o n a l t e x t a n a l y s i s i s u s e f u l a s a a p o i n t o f t r e f e r e n c e , b u t i t s h o u l d n o t i n h i b i t t h e f r e e p l a y of your intuiti on. Altern atively , you may prefer the first appro ach for a relativ ely easy text, the secon d for a harder one. From the point of view of the transla tor, any scienti fic investi gation, both statisti cal and diagra mmati c (some linguis ts and transla tion theoris ts make a fetish of diagra ms, schem as and model s), of what goes on in the brain (mind ? nerves ? cells?) during the proces s of transla ting is remote and at presen t specul ative. The contri bution of psych olingu istics to transla tion is limite d: the positiv e, n e
  • 36. 22 PRINC IPLES •THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 23 o f W Y o Y F o r e a c h s e n t e n c e , w h e n i t i s n o t c l e a r , w h e n t h e r e i s a n a m b i g u i t y , w h e n t h e w r i t i n g
  • 37. i s a b s t r a c t o r f i g u r a t i v e , y o u h a v e e l f : W h a t i s a c t u a l l y h a p p e n i n g F o r s e ? w h a t C a n r e a s o n , o n w h a t g r o u n d s , t o h e r e ? a s k a n d w h a t y o u r s w h y ? p u r p o f o r y o u see it in your mind? Can you visual ise it} If you canno t, you have to 'suppl ement' the lingui stic level, the text level with the refere ntial level, the factua l level with the necess ary additi onal infor matio n (no more) from this level of reality , the facts of the matter . In real life, what is the setting or scene, who are the actors or agents , what is the purpo se? This may or may not take you away tempo rarily from the words in the text. And certai nly it is all too easy to immer se yourse lf in langua g e a n d t o d e t a c h y o u r s e l f f r o m t h e r e a l i t y , r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y , t h a t i s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . F a r m o r e
  • 38. a c u t e l y t h a n w r i t e r s w r e s t l i n g w i t h o n l y o n e l a n g u a g e , n y o u a n d b e c o m e o b j e c t s , a w a r e o f t h e a w f u l g a p b e t w e e w o r d s s e n t e n c e s a n d a c t i o n s ( o r p r o c e s s e s ) , g r a m m a r a n d m o o d s ( o r a t t i t u d e s ) . Y o u have to gain perspe ctive (dista cco, recul) , to stand back from the langu age and have an image of the reality behin d the text, a reality for which you, and not the author (unles s it is an expres sive or an author itative text), are respo nsible and liable. T he refere ntial goes hand in hand with the textua l level. All langu ages have polyse mous words and struct ures which can be finally solved only on the refere ntial level, begin ning with a few multipurpo se, overlo aded prepo sitions and conju nctions, throug h dangli n g D o
  • 39. 24 PRINC IPLES THE ANALYSIS OF A TEST 25 m a T h M y T H E L E V E L O F N A T U R A L N E S S W i t h a t , f o r a l l t e x t s ( e x c e p t t h e o n e s y o u a l l k n o w t h a r e
  • 40. ' o d d ' o r b a d l y w r i t t e n b u t a u t h o r i t a t f v e , i n n o v a t o r y o r ' s p e c i a l ' , e . g . , w h e r e a w r i t e r c u l i a r w a y o f w r i t i n g w h i c h h a s t o b e a r e p r o d u c e d p e s h a s o f o r p h i l o s o p h y , H e i d e g g e r , S a r t r e , H u s s e r l ; s o f o r f icti on an y sur rea list , bar oq ue, an d cer tai n Ro ma nti c wr ite rs) for the va st ma jor ity of tex ts, yo u ha ve to en sur e: (a) tha t yo ur tra nsl ati on ma ke s se ns e; (b) tha t it rea ds nat ur all y, tha t it is wr itt en in or di na ry lan gu ag e, the co m m on gr am ma r, idi o ms an d wo r d s y o u t h a t c a n m e e t t h a t k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n . N o r m a l l y , o n l y d o t h i s b y t e m p o r a r i l y d i s e n g a g i n g
  • 41. y o u r s e l f f r o m t h e S L t e x t , b y r e a d i n g y o u r o w n t r a n s l a t i o n a s t h o u g h n o o r i g i n a l e x i s t e d . Y o u g e t a p i e c e l i k e : U n e d o c t r i n e n e e d a n s u n e f r a c t i o n d u c l e r g i d e I ' A m e r i q u e l a t i n e q u i f o i s o n n e s o u s di ve rs es pl u me s el da ns di ve rs es ch ap ell es et qu i co nn ait de jd un de bu t d' ap pli ca tio n au tor ita ire so us la tut ell e de I' Et at. (L' Ex pr es s, Jul y 19 85 .) Th e pa ssa ge ha s va rio us mi sle adi ng co gn ate s, an d yo u ca n re du ce it to se ns e by gr ad u a l l y e l i m i n a t i n g a l l t h e p r i m a r y s e n s e s ( f r a c t i o n ,
  • 42. n e N o A The fun nel unr avel s an eno rmo us mas s of blac k smo ke like a plai t of hor seh air bei ng un wo und . La che min ee divi de une eno rm efu me e noi re, par eill ea une tres se de cri n qu' on det ord . ( A still ne w pati ent, a thin and qui et per son , wh o had fou nd a pla ce wit h his equ ally thin and qui et fian cee at the goo d Rus sian Tabl e, prov ed, just whe n the mea l was in full swi ng, to be epil epti c, as he suff ered an extr eme atta ck of that type , with a cry who se dem onic and inhu man char acte r has ofte n bee n desc ribe d, fell hea vily on to the floo r and stru ck arou nd with his arm s and legs next to his chai r with the mos t ghas tly cont orti ons. Ein noc h neu er Pati ent, ein ma ger er und still er Me nsc h, der mit sein er e b e n f a l l s m a g e r e n u n d s t i l l e n P l a t z g e f u n d e n h a t t e , e n v i e s B r a u t s i c h , a m d a G u t e n e b e n R u s s e n t i s c h E s s e n d a s i n vol lem Ga ng war , als epil epti sch ind em er ein en kra sse n Anf all die ser Art erli tt, mit jen em Sch rei des sen da mo nis che r un d aus ser me nsc hlic her Ch ara ckt er oft ges chi lde rt wo rde n ist, zu Bo den stii rzt e un d neb en sei ne m Siu hl unt er den sch eus slic hst en Ver ren kun gen mit Ar me n un d Bei nen urn sic h sch lug . ( Y W h
  • 43. 26 27 PRINCI PLES blue eyes'. Again St le regard du pasteur se promenait sur la pelouse, itait-ce pourjouir de la parfaite plenitude verte ou pour у trouver des idies (Drieu la Rochelle) is translated as something like: 'If the pastor's gaze ran over the lawn, was it to enjoy its perfect green fullness, or to find ideas', rather than 'Whenever the pastor cast a glance over the lawn it was either to enjoy its perfect green richness, or to find ideas in it'. Again, son visage etait mauve, 'his face was mauve', sein Gesicht war mauve (malvenfarben) are virtually precise translation equivalents. 'Mauve' is one of the few secondary colours without connotations (though in France it is the second colour of mourning, 'his face was deathly mauve' would be merely comic), and normally, like 'beige', associated with dress - compare a mauve woman, a violet woman ('shrinking violet'?), but a scarlet woman is different. In the 'mauve' example, a retreat from the unnatural 'mauve' to the natural 'blue' would only be justified if the SL text was both 'anonymous' and poorly written. You have to bear in mind that the level of naturalness of natural usage is grammatical as well as lexical (i.e., the most frequent syntactic structures, idioms and words that are likely to be appropriately found in that kind of stylistic context), and, through appropriate sentence connectives, may extend to the entire text. In all 'communicative translation', whether you are translating an informative text, a notice or an advert, 'naturalness' is essential. That is why you cannot translate properly if the TL is not your language of habitual usage. That is why you so often have to detach yourself mentally from the SL text; why, if there is time, you should come back to your version after an interval. You have to ask yourself (or others): Would you see this, would you ever see this, in The Times, The Economist (watch that Time-Life-Spiegel style), the British Medical Journal, as a notice, on the back of a board game, on an appliance, in a textbook, in a children's book? Is it usage, is it common usage in that kind of writing? How frequent is it? Do not ask yourself: is it English? There is more English than the patriots and the purists and the chauvinists are aware of. Naturalness is easily defined, not so easy to be concrete about. Natural usage comprises a variety of idioms or styles or registers determined primarily by the 'setting' of the text, i.e. where it is typically published or found, secondarily by the author, topic and readership, all of whom are usually dependent on the setting. It may even appear to be quite 'unnatural', e.g. take any article in Foreign Trade (Moscow): 'To put it figuratively, foreign trade has become an important artery in the blood circulation of the Soviet Union's economic organism', or any other example of Soviet bureaucratic jargon; on the whole this might occasionally be tactfully clarified but it should be translated 'straight' as the natural language of participants in that setting. Natural usage, then, must be distinguished from 'ordinary language', the plain non-technical idiom used by Oxford philosophers for (philosophical) explanation, and 'basic' language, which is somewhere between formal and informal, is easily understood, and is constructed from a language's most frequently used syntactic structures and words - basic language is the nucleus of a language produced naturally. All three varieties - natural, ordinary and basic - are
  • 44. THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING formed exclusively from modern language. However, unnatural translation is marked by interference, primarily from the SL text, possibly from a third language known to the translator including his own, if it is not the target language. 'Natural' translation can be contrasted with 'casual' language (Voegelin), where word order, syntactic structures, collocations and words are predictable. You have to pay special attention to: (1) Word order. In all languages, adverbs and adverbials are the most mobile components of a sentence, and their placing often indicates the degree of emphasis on what is the new information (rheme) as well as naturalness. They are the most delicate indicator of naturalness: He regularly sees me on Tuesdays. (Stress on 'regularly'.) He sees me regularly on Tuesdays. (No stress.) On Tuesdays he sees me regularly. (Stress on 'Tuesdays'.) (2) Common structures can be made unnatural by silly one-to-one translation from any language, e.g.: 45 Athanogore put his arm under that of (sous celui de) the young man: ('under the young man's'). 46 After having given his meter a satisfied glance (apres avoir lance): ('after giving'). Both these translations are by English students. (c) The packaging having (etant muni de) a sufficiently clear label, the cider vinegar consumer could not confuse it with . . . : ('as the packaging had. . .'). 47 Cognate words. Both in West and East, thousands of words are drawing nearer to each other in meaning. Many sound natural when you transfer them, and may still have the wrong meaning: 'The book is actually in print' (Le livre est actuellement sous presse). Many more sound odd when you transfer them, and are wrong - avec, sans supplement, le tome VII, 'with, without a supplement, Vol.7' ('without extra charge'). Thousands sound natural, have the same meaning, are right. 48 The appropriateness of gerunds, infinitives, verb-nouns (cf. 'the establishment of, 'establishing', 'the establishing of, 'to establish'). 49 Lexically, perhaps the most common symptom of unnaturalness is slightly old-fashioned, now rather 'refined', or 'elevated' usage of words and idioms possibly originating in bilingual dictionaries, e.g. Ilfitses necessites: 'He relieved nature.' Je m'en sipare avec beaucoup de peine: 'I'm sorry to part with it.' Er straubte sich mitHdnden undFussen: 'He defended himself tooth and nail.' Note (a) the fact that the SL expression is now old-fashioned or refined is irrelevant, since you translate into the modern target language; (b) however, if such expressions appear in dialogue, and are spoken (typically or say) by middle-aged or elderly characters, then a correspondingly 'refined' translation
  • 45. PRINCIP LES 28 is appropriate; (c) naturalness has a solid core of agreement, but the periphery is a taste area, and the subject of violent, futile dispute among informants, who will claim that it is a subjective matter, pure intuition; but it is not so. If you are a translator, check with three informants if you can. If you are a translation teacher, welcome an SL informant to help you decide on the naturalness or currency (there is no difference), therefore degree of frequency of an SL expression. (6) Other 'obvious' areas of interference, and therefore unnaturalness, are in the use of the articles; progressive tenses; nouncompounding; collocations; the currency of idioms and metaphors; aspectual features of verbs; infinitives. How do you get a feel for naturalness, both as a foreigner and as a native speaker? The too obvious answer is to read representative texts and talk with representative TL speakers (failing which, representative TV and radio) - and to get yourself fearlessly corrected. Beware of books of idioms they rarely distinguish between what is current (e.g. 'keep my head above water') and what is dead (e.g. 'dead as a door nail'). There is a natural tendency to merge three of the senses of the word 'idiom': (a) a group of words whose meaning cannot be predicted from the meanings of their constituent words (e.g. dog in the manger; Spielverderber; I'empecheurde tourneren rond; (b) the linguistic usage that is natural to native speakers of a language; (c) the characteristic vocabulary or usage of a people. (Elle avait frappe a la bonne pone. (Ca, c'est dufrancaisl) when the original was merely Elle avait trouve la solution ('She had found the solution'), which is also perfectly good French.) The danger of this procedure is that it tends to devalue literal language at the expense of 'idiomatic' language, as though it were unnatural. If anything, the reverse is the case. Certainly, idiomatic language can, being metaphor, be more pithy and vivid than literal language, but it can also be more conventional, fluctuate with fashion, and become archaic and refined ('he was like a cat on a hot tin roof) {sur des charbons ardents; wie aufgliihenden Kohlen sitzen), and, above all, it can be a way of avoiding the (literal) truth. In translating idiomatic into idiomatic language, it is particularly difficult to match equivalence of meaning with equivalence of frequency. Check and cross-check words and expressions in an up-to-date dictionary (Longmans, Collins, COD). Note any word you are suspicious of. Remember, your mind is furnished with thousands of words and proper names that you half take for granted, that you seem to have known all your life, and that you do not properly know the meaning of. You have to start checking them. Look up proper names as frequently as words: say you get Dax, cite de petites H.L.M. - 'Dax, a small council flat estate' may sound natural, but looking up Dax will show you it is incorrect, it must be 'Dax, a town of small council flats' - always assuming that 'council flat' is good enough for the reader. Naturalness is not something you wait to acquire by instinct. You work towards it by small progressive stages, working from the most common to the less common features, like anything else rationally, even if you never quite attain it. There is no universal naturalness. Naturalness depends on the relationship
  • 46. THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 29 between the writer and the readership and the topic or situation. What is natural in one situation may be unnatural in another, but everyone has a natural, 'neutral' language where spoken and informal written language more or less coincide. It is rather easy to confuse naturalness with: (a) a colloquial style; (b) a succession of cliched idioms, which some, particularly expatriate teachers, think is the heart of the language; (c) jargon; (d) formal language. I can only give indications: (avant tout) (F) 50 first of all 51 before you can say Jack Robinson 52 in the first instance 53 primarily plus ou moins (F) 54 55 56 57 more or less give or take within the parameter of an approximation approximately COMBINING THE FOUR LEVELS Kunststuck, tour deforce, 'feat of skill', dimostrazione di virtuosismo: summarising the process of translating, I am suggesting that you keep in parallel the four levels - the textual, the referential, the cohesive, the natural: they are distinct from but frequently impinge on and may be in conflict with each other. Your first and last level is the text; then you have to continually bear in mind the level of reality (which may be simulated, i.e. imagined, as well as real), but you let it filter into the text only when this is necessary to complete or secure the readership's understanding of the text, and then normally only within informative and vocative texts. As regards the level of naturalness, you translate informative and vocative texts on this level irrespective of the naturalness of the original, bearing in mind that naturalness in, say, formal texts is quite different from naturalness in colloquial texts. For expressive and authoritative texts, however, you keep to a natural level only if the original is written in ordinary language; if the original is linguistically or stylistically innovative, you should aim at a corresponding degree of innovation, representing the degree of deviation from naturalness, in your translation - ironically, even when translating these innovative texts, their natural level remains as a point of reference. For sincirite explosive, 'impassioned, enthusiastic, intense or violent, sincerity' may be natural, but sincerite explosive is what the text, a serious novel, says, so 'explosive sincerity' is what you have to write, whether you like it or not (you will get accustomed to it, on s'yfait a tout) - unless, of course, you maintain (I disagree) that the figurative sense of explosif (temperament explosif) has a wider currency than the figurative sense of 'explosive' ('an explosive temperament'), when you are justified in translating explosif by another word you claim comes within its semantic range ('fiery sincerity'?).
  • 47. 30 PRINC IPLES THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 31 P a T h N MB , arr ite a Per igu eux le 13 fev rier , obs erv e act uell em ent une gre ve de la far m. M B, wh o wa s arr est ed in Per igu eux on 13t h Feb rua ry, is at pre sen t obs ervi ng a hun ger stri ke.
  • 48. Y o S i Di e Vi gn ett e hat te Th or wa lds en 18 05 in Ro m ent wo rfe n. Th e vig net te wa s des ign ed by Th or wa lds en in 18 05 in Ro me . Y L' ab ol iti on de ce qu i su bs ist mt de s tu tel le s et la re or ga ni sa ti on du co nl ro le de le ga lil i, no ta m m en t pa r la cr eat io n de s ch am br es re gi on ale s de s co mp tes , le tra nsf ert au x pr esi de nts d'a sse mb lee s del ibe ra nte s de la fo nct io n ex ec uti ve, la cr eat io n de re gi on s de ple in ex er cic e, Г ext en sio n de la ca pa cit e d'i nte rv ent io n ec on om iq ue de s col lec tiv ite s ter rit ori ale s, le tra nsf ert pa r bl oc s au x dif f e r e n t e s c a t e g o r i e s d e c o l l e c t i v i t e s d e c o m p e t e n c e s a n t e r i e u r e m e n t e x e r c e e s p a r I ' E t a t , l e t r a n s f e r t a u x m i m e s c o l l e c t i v i t e s d e s re ss ou rc es d' Et at co rr es po nd an te s, I'i nt ro du c-
  • 49. 32 PRINC IPLES THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 33 lio n de par tic ula ris ms da ns la leg isl ati on, la cre ati on d'u ne fon cti on pu bli qu e ter rit ori ale , I'a da pta tio n des reg ies ant eri eur es de dec on cen tra tio n au x no uve au x rap por ts ent re Eta t el col lec tiv es loc ale s ont сгё ё un e eff erv esc enc e ins titu tio nn ell e co m me not re ad mi nis tra tio n loc ale n'e n av
  • 50. ail pas co nn ue de pui s un sie cle . ( M Y Th e foll ow ing me asu res hav e pro fou ndl y sha ken Fre nch inst itut ion s in a wa y tha t has not bee n kn ow n in loc al go ver nm ent for a cen tur y: wh at has re ma ine d of go ver nm ent sup erv isio n has bee n abo lish ed; con trol of pro ced ura l leg alit y has bee n reo rga nis ed and reg ion al aud it offi ces esta blis hed ; exe cuti ve po wer has bee n tran sfer red to the chai rme n of deli ber ativ e asse mbl ies; regi ons wit h full po wer s hav e bee n crea ted; po wer s of eco no mic inte rve ntio n hav e bee n exte nde d to regi ona l and loca l aut hori ties; po wer s pre vio usly exe rcis ed by the Stat e hav e bee n tran sfer red in co mpl ete stag es to the vari ous typ es of aut hori ties; corr esp ond ing Stat e r e s o u r c e s h a v e b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s ; s p e c i f i c l o c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o le gisl ati on; a terr itor ial civ il ser vic e has bee n cre ate d and pre vio us dev olu tio n reg ula tio ns hav e bee n ada pte d to the ne w rel ati ons bet we en the Sta te and the loc al aut hor itie s. T B e O t H
  • 51. D i I f W e maiso n eleme nt poire metie r Zug Pfeife M y e Ot her pos sib le sol uti ons to the 'wo rd pro ble m' are tha t the wo rd ma y ha ve an
  • 52. 34 PRINC IPLES THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 35 a r B u S o A n ' O n Y B e I n
  • 53. 36 PRINC IPLES THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATING 37 p l c I n D B u ' B M a T I t I thi nk tha t, aca de mi cal ly, tra nsl ati on ca n be reg ard ed as sch ola rsh ip if: U)
  • 54. 38 PRINC IPLES or p hi lo s o p hi c al te xt w ri tt e n in in n o v at or y or o b sc ur e or di ff ic ul t or a n ci e nt la n g u a g e. 58 t 5 I think transla tion 'qualifi es' as researc h if: 6 61 i 62 t T
  • 55. C Lan A c T T 63 S 64 A 65 u A u 39
  • 56. 40 PRINC IPLES LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS, TEXTCATEGORIES AND TEXT-TYPES 41 p H Functionl o Core Writer T Author's status 'Sacred' h h T Type e sec on d fac tor is Other areas of events tha Figure t the Language se functions, tex ts textmu categories and text-st be types wri tte n in T O a n lan gu age tha t is
  • 57. 42 PRINC IPLES LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS, TEXTCATEGORIES AND TEXT-TYPES 43 i m F e I T D e I n p M e W h I a « P ^ • | r a
  • 58. 44 PRINC IPLES ' a N o I T T h I put it in the for m of a flat ten ed V dia gra m: S W o L i F a S e THE METHODS Word-for-word translation "is is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL immediately elow the SL words. The SL word-order is preserved and the words translated 45
  • 59. 46 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION METHODS 47 s i T s A C S C S e S a l n o " l T F I
  • 60. 48 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION METHODS 49 c a T h I • I n I n a n H o C o E I
  • 61. 50 PRINCIP LES METHODS AND TEXT-CATEGORIES Considering the application of the two translation methods (semantic and communicative) to the three text-categories, I suggest that commonly vocative and informative texts are translated too literally, and expressive texts not literally enough. Translationese is the bane of tourist material and many public notices (toute circulation est interdite de 22 h a 6 h; jeglicher Verkehr ist verboten von 22 bis 6 Uhr, 'all sexual intercourse is forbidden between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.'). In the UK the standard of foreign language (FL) publicity and notices is now high but there are not enough of them. In 'informative' texts, translationese, bad writing and lack of confidence in the appropriate linguistic register often go hand in hand; the tendency with familiarlooking but unfamiliar collocations (station hydrominerale; 'hydromineral station' - read 'spa') is simply to reproduce them. On the other hand, the inaccuracy of translated literature has much longer roots: the attempt to see translation as an exercise in style, to get the 'flavour' or the 'spirit' of the original; the refusal to translate by any TL word that looks the least bit like the SL word, or even by the SL word's core meaning (I am talking mainly of adjectives), so that the translation becomes a sequence of synonyms (grammatical shifts, and one-word to two- or three-word translations are usually avoided), which distorts its essence. In expressive texts, the unit of translation is likely to be small, since words rather than sentences contain the finest nuances of meaning; further, there are likely to be fewer stock language units (colloquialisms, stock metaphors and collocations, etc.) than in other texts. However, any type and length of cliche must be translated by its TL counterpart, however badly it reflects on the writer. Note that I group informative and vocative texts together as suitable for communicative translation. However, further distinctions can be made. Unless informative texts are badly/inaccurately written, they are translated more closely than vocative texts. In principle (only!), as they are concerned with extra-linguistic facts, they consist of third person sentences, non-emotive style, past tenses. Narrative, a sequence of events, is likely to be neater and closer to translate than description, which requires the mental perception of adjectives and images. The translation of vocative texts immediately involves translation in the problem of the second person, the social factor which varies in its grammatical and lexical reflection from one language to another. Further, vocative texts exemplify the two poles of communicative translation. On the one hand translation bv standard terms and phrases is used mainly for notices: 'transit lounge', Transithalle, salle de transit. On the other hand, there is, in principle, the 'recreative' translation that might be considered appropriate for publicity and propaganda, since the situation is more important than the language. In fact, provided there is no cultural gap. such skilfully written persuasive language is often seen to translate almost literallv. Scanning the numerous multilingual advertising leaflets available today, I
  • 62. TRANSLATION METHODS 5/ notice: (a) it is hardly possible to say which is the original: (b) how closely they translate each other; (c) the more emotive their language, the more they vary from each other; (d) the variants appear justified. Thus: Young, fresh and fashionable. Jung, frisch und modisch. Jeune. frais et elegant. Indeed, this is Vanessa. In der Tat, so konnen Sie Vanessa beschreiben. Tels snnt les qualificatifs de Vanessa. This model links up with the latest trends in furniture design. Dieses Model schliesst bei den letzten Trends im Mobeldesign an. Ce modile est le dernier cri dans le domame des meubles design. The programme exists out of different items. Das Programm besteht aus verschiedenen Mobeln. Son programme se compose de differents meubles. . . . which you can combine as you want . . . die Sie nach eigenem Bedurfnis zusammenstellen konnen . . . a assembler selon vos besoins . . . (The three versions reflect the more colloquial style of the English (two phrasal verbs') and the more formal German, as well as English lexical influence ('design', 'trend').) Where communicative translation of advertisements works so admirably, producing equivalent pragmatic effect, there seems no need to have recourse to 'co-writing', where two writers are given a number of basic facts about one product and instructed to write the most persuasive possible advert in their respective languages. I should mention that I have been describing methods of translation as products rather than processes, i.e., as they appear in the finished translation. TRANSLATING As for the process of translation, it is often dangerous to translate more than a sentence or two before reading the first two or three paragraphs, unless a quick glance through convinces you that the text is going to present few problems. In fact, the more difficult - linguistically, culturally, 'referentially' (i.e., in subject matter) - the text is, the more preliminary work I advise you to do before you start translating a sentence, simply on the ground that one misjudged hunch about a keyword in a text - say, humoral in le bilan humoral (a fluid balance check-up) or Laetitia in I'actrice, une nouvelle Laetitia (a Roman actress or an asteroid) - may force you to try to put a wrong construction on a whole paragraph, wasting a lot of time before (if ever) you pull up and realise you are being foolish. This is another Wav of looking at the word versus sentence conflict that is always coming up. ranslate by sentences wherever you can (and always as literally or as closely as you can) whenever you can see the wood for the trees or get the general sense, and then °iake sure you have accounted for (which is not the same as translated) each word in ne SL text. There are plenty of words, like modal particles, jargonwords or Stammatically-bound words.which for good reasons you may decide not to transate. But translate virtually by words first if they are 'technical', whether they are
  • 63. 52 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION METHODS 53 ' l R e la t o r, w h o w a s o u ts ta n d i n g l y m o r e a c c u r at e t h a n h is i m it at o rs .
  • 64. I q u o te ti n y s c r a p s o f R it c h ie 's w e a k n e s s e s: L a N o tr e D a m e a v a n c a ' T h e N o tr e D a m e w o r k e d h e r w a y i n' ; L a p l u i e b r o u il l a l e s o bj et s 'T h e ra in o bs c ur e d e v er yt hi n g' ; C et te vi e se s u r p a ss er a p a r le m a rt yr e, et le m a rt yr e n e ta r d er a pl u s 'T h at lif e w as to tr a ns ce n d it se lf th ro u g h m ar ty rd o m a n d n o w m a r t y r d o m w a s n o t t o b e l o n g i n c o m i n OTHER g ' . T hes e last two con cep ts are min e, and onl y pra ctic e can sho w wh eth er the y will be use ful as ter ms of refe ren ce in tran slat ion. MET HODS As a postscr ipt to this chapter , I add further definiti ons of translat ion metho ds. 66 S e r v i c e t r a n s l a t i o n , i . e . t
  • 65. r a n s l a t i o n f r o m o n e ' s l a n g u a g e o f h a b i t u a l u s e i n t o s e d , a n o t h e r b u t l a n g u a g e . T h e t e r m i s n o t w i d e l y u a s t h e p r a c t i c e i s n e c e s s a r y i n m o s t c 67 P l a i n p r o s e t r a n s l a t i o n . T h e p r o s e t r a n s l a t i o n
  • 66. o f e u p o e m s f o r a n d p o e t i c d r a m a i n i t i a t e d b y P e n g u i n B o o k s . U s u a l l y s t a n z a s V . b e c o m e R i p a E . r a g r a p h s , p r o s e p u n c t u a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d , o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s a n d S L c u l t u r e r e t a i n e d , w h i l s t
  • 67. 68 I n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s c o n v e y s a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a n o n l i t e r a r y t e x t , s o m e t i m e s r e a r r a n g e d i n a m o r e l o g i c a l f o r m , i a l l y s u m m a r i s e d , a n d n o t i n t h e s o m e t i m e s f o r m p a r t p a r a o f a
  • 68. C4 ) C o g n i t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s r e p r o d u c e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a S L t e x t c o n v e r t i n g t h e S L g r a m m a r t o i t s n o r m a l T L t r a n s p o s i t i o n s , n o r m a l l y r e d u c i n g a n y f i g u r a t i v e t o l i t e r a l l a n g u a g e . I d o
  • 69. n o t k n o w t o w h a t e x t e n t t h i s i s m a i n l y a t h e o r e t i c a l o r a u s e f u l c o n c e p t , b u t a s a p r e t r a n s l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a d i f f i c u l t , c o m p l i c a t e d s t r e t c h o f t e x t . A p r a g m a t i c c o
  • 70. m p o n e n t m u n i c a t i v e i s a d d e d t o p r o d u c e a s e m a n t i c o r a c o m (5) t r a n s l a t i o n . A c a d e m i c t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s i s h t y p e u n i v e r s i t i e s , o f t r a n s l a t i o n , p r a c t i s e d i n s o m e B r i t r e d u c e s a n o r i g i n a l S L t e x t
  • 71. t o a n ' e l e g a n t ' i d i o m a t i c e d u c a t e d T L v e r s i o n w
  • 72. UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 55 C T h e U n i t o f T r a n s l a t i o n a n d D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s * D
  • 73. y and lexically and coherence which is the notional and logical unity of a text. There is at present a confusing tendency for translation theorists to regard the whole text, the basis of discourse analysis, as the unit of translation (UT), which is the opposite of Vinay's and Darbelnet's original concept. Vinay and Darbelnet define the unit of translation as 'the smallest segment of an utterance whose cohesion of signs is such that they must not be separately translated' in other words, the minimal stretch of language that has to be translated together, as one unit. The argument about the length of the UT, which has been put succinctly by W. Haas, 'as short as is possible, as long as is necessary', is a concrete reflection of the age-old conflict between free and literal translation the freer the translation, the longer the UT; the more literal the translation, the shorter the UT, the closer to the word, or, in poetry, even to the morpheme. Free translation has always favoured the sentence; literal translation the word. Now, since the rise of text linguistics, free translation h a I t i s a f u t i l e , u n p r o f i t a b l e a r g u m e n t , t h o u g h i t • F r o m R e v u e d e P h o n e u q u e A p p l i q u i e , V o
  • 74. ls. 66-8, 1983 (Mons, Belgium). Amended. Clearly the text cannot be the UT in the 'narrow' sense defined by Vinay and Darbelnet. That would be chaos. The largest quantity of translation in a text is done at the level of the word, the lexical unit, the collocation, the group, the clause and the sentence rarely the paragraph, never the text - probably in that order. The text can rather be described as the ultimate court of appeal; every stretch at every level of the translation has to conform to the unity of the text, its integrating properties, what Delisle calls its 'textual organicity', if s u n T h l a M y
  • 75. 'anonymous' in Delisle's sense, its expressive element (all texts have expressive elements) can be eliminated by the translator. For example: L 'avantage de ces medicaments est pourtant obere par ses inconvenient s 'The advantages of these drugs, however, are outweighed by their disadvantage s.' Expressi ve texts, which I call 'sacred' texts, are normally translated at the author's level; informative and vocative at the readership's. The other aspects of text linguistics affecting a translation are: (a) notional; (b) lexical and grammatical; (c) relating to punctuation. COHEREN CE he more cohesive, the more formalised a text, the more information it, as a unit, atiords the translator. Consider first its genre. A Greek or seventeenthcentury rench tragedy; the agenda or minutes of a wellorganised meeting; a recipe, a marriage service or a ceremony all these compel the translator to follow either SL ?£Л^ Practice as closely as possible. Similarly, if a narrative has a formulaic opening Once upon a time') and a formulaic close ('They all lived h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r ' ) t h e f a n s l a t o r h a s t o f i n d s t a n d a r d p h r a s e s i f t h e y e x i s t . O t h e r s t e r e o t y p e s -
  • 76. weather Ports, surveys, enquiries, official forms, medical articles may have standard ormS) a house-style. Recent work on e conversation s of all kinds, stemming from "ce s implicatures and cooperative principle, tends rather optimisticall y to 5 4
  • 77. 56 PRINC IPLES UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 57 s u F o N e I I F o C o 'I wis h you 'd co me' Ich hof fe du ko mm st 'I wis h you cou ld' Si seu lem ent tu po uva is 'I wis h you 'd sto p talk ing' Tu ne рей х
  • 78. do ne pas te tair e? 'Wo uld you car e to' Vo ule zvou s Me n | Wo uld you min d' Ca ne te fait rie n si 'I wo nde r if you ' Je ne sai s pas si tu ^Se e if you can ' Ver suc h's vie llei cht ka nns t du '} war » you to' hh mo cht e, daf i du 'If you 'd just co me her e' Bit te ko m m her See wha t hap pen s if Du wei sst was ges chi eht wen n e a ra C'est '), and the international ism 'O.K.' 'isare' tne tags ',tnat^ere Vfly l are used t0 kee P a йа 88ш8 conversati n on going: l »', 'see', 'you know', which require a standard response.
  • 79. 58 PRINCIPLES The translator has to bear in mind the main differences between speech and dialogue: speech has virtually no punctuation ('The sentence is virtually irrelevant in speech': Sinclair et al., 1975), is diffuse, and leaves semantic gaps filled by gesture and paralingual features. PUNCTUATION Punctuation can be potent, but is so easily overlooked that I advise translators to make a separate comparative punctuation check on their version and the original. The succession of French dashes - to indicate enumerations a, b, c, or 1, 2, 3, or dialogue inverted commas (rarer in French than in English), or parenthesis (often translated by brackets) is obvious. The use of semi-colons to indicate a number of simultaneous events or activities, not isolated or important enough to be punctuated by full stops or exclamation marks, is probably more frequent in French and Italian than in English. The translator has to make a conscious decision whether to drop or retain them. E. W. Baldick, translating L'Education sentimentale, often drops them and unnecessarily connects the sentences (in the name of good old smoothness and naturalness), which, this being a 'sacred' text, is a pity. However, perhaps this is a triviality? My question-mark here indicates irony (I do not think it is a triviality), rather than doubt, scepticism or enquiry. Again, a colon may be made more explicit and improved, being translated as 'namely' or 'which includes', and profuse exclamation marks may signal frustration, emotionalism or limited powers of self-expression. Punctuation is an essential aspect of discourse analysis, since it gives a semantic indication of the relationship between sentences and clauses, which may vary according to languages: e.g. French suspension points indicate a pause, where in English they indicate the omission of a passage; exclamation marks in German are used for drawing attention, for emotive effects and emphasis, for titles of notices (but no longer for 'Dear Mary', in letters) and may be doubled; semi-colons indicate cohesion between sentences; French tends to use commas as conjunctions. SOUND-EFFECTS Further, sound-effects, even at the level beyond the sentence, should be taken into account, not only in poetry, but in jingles, where succulent s's can sometimes be transferred, or in realistic narrative, such as All Quiet on the Western Front, where the continual repetition of sounds and syllables, zer- and ver- words and interjections has a powerful effect. Thus: Granaten, Gasschwaden und Tankflotillen -zerstampfen, zerfressen, Tod . . . Wiirgen, Verbrennen, Tod- 'Shells, gas-clouds and flotillas of tanks - shattering, corroding, death, . . . Scalding, choking, death' (trans. A. W. Wheen, 1931). Here the translator has to some extent extended the sound, as he considered this effect to be more important than the meaning of wiirgen and verbrennen. 59 UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS COHESION Next we consider the relations between sentences. The most common forms these take are connectives denoting addition, contradiction, contrast, result, etc. These connectives are tricky when they are polysemous, since they may have meanings contradicting each other, e.g. cependant ('in the meantime', 'nevertheless'), inverse-ment, par centre ('however', 'on the other hand'), d'autre part ('moreover', 'on the other hand'), d'ailleurs ('besides', 'however'), toujours, encore ('always', 'nevertheless'), aussi ('therefore', 'consequently', 'also'), tout en + present participle ('whilst', 'although', etc.); cf. 'still' pertanto (It.), vse (R), zhe (R), 'why' ('for what reason', 'for what purpose', 'on what ground'), 'so that', des lors, ('from then on', 'that being the case', 'consequently'), en effet. German notably uses modal connectives (rnots-charnieres) such as aber, also, derm, dock, schliesslich, eben, eigentlich, einfach, etwa, gerade, halt, ja, mal, nun, schon, vielleicht, so uberhaupt, bitte, bestimmt - all these in talk three times as often as in newspapers and six times as often as in 'literature' (Helbig). Normally, these words can only be over-translated and therefore they are often rightly and deliberately omitted in translation: their purpose is partly phatic, i.e. they are used partly to maintain the reader's or listener's interest, usually with the nuance that the accompanying information is just a reminder, they should know it already. Note here English's tendency to turn SL complex into coordinate sentences on the lines of Si tu marches, je cours, 'You can walk but I'll run.' REFERENTIAL SYNONYMS Sentences cohere through the use of referential synonyms, which may be lexical, pronominal or general. Thus referential synonyms, as in J'ai achete I'Huma: ce journal m'intiressait, may have to be clarified: 'I bought Humanite. The paper interested me.' Note also familiar alternatives as referential synonyms, such as 'The Emerald Isle', 'John Bull's Other Country', 'the land of the shamrock' or 'of St
  • 80. Patrick' (cf. 'Hibernian', 'Milesian'), or 'Napoleon', 'the Emperor', 'Boney', 4e Petit CaporaV, 'the Bastard', 'he' in more or less consecutive sentences; SL pronouns and deictics including le premier, le second (cf. 'the former', 'the latter') are often replaced by English nouns, since the range of some English pronouns, (it, 'they', 'this one') is much wider than in languages with nouns split between fwo or three genders. An example of mistranslation of pronouns is in the Authorised Version, Isaiah 37,36: 'Then the angel of the Lord went forth and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and four score and five thousand. And when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead.' Today's English Version: An Angel of the Lord went to the Assyrian camp and killed 185,000 soldiers. At dawn the next day, there they lay, all dead.' Note tale (It.), tel (Fr.) are also used as pronoun synonyms. Lastly, words at 1 degrees of generality can be used to connect sentences, from general words Uhing', 'object', 'case', 'affair' (cf. Vetsh (Cz.) Makropoulos), machin, true,
  • 81. 60 PRINC IPLES UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 61 p h I n E L W o F i E l N o F ( W ( 3 > P u i s , U r e c u t l a p e r m i s s i o n d e p a r t i r .
  • 82. w e m a y p e r h a p s a s s u m e t h a t : c o g n i t i v e l y , 1 c o m e s c l o s e s t t o t h e E n g l i s h ; У ' s t i c a l l y , 2 c o m e s c l o s e s t; f u n c ti o n a ll y , 3 c o m e s c l o s e s t, w h il s t 4 i s a p o s s i b l e
  • 83. 63 62 PRINCIPLES compromise. The translator therefore has to establish his priorities, which he can do only by considering the text as a whole. Both French and German have a tendency to put adverbials (prepositional phrases) in the first position even when they are rhematic: En silence Us longerent encore deux pates de maisons - They walked the next two blocks in silence - Schweigend gingen sie an den nachsten Blocks entlang. DerrUre ses lunettes, son visage rond itait encore enfantin - Her round face was still childish behind her glasses - Hinter ihrer Brille war ihr rundes Gesicht noch kindisch (adapted from Guillemin-Flescher, 1981). (Cf. In diesen Gebieten nimtnt das Saarland eine besondere Stellung - The Saarland occupies a special position in these areas (adapted from Wilss, 1982).) German has a tendency to start complex sentences with thematic subordinate clauses, which are finally completed by a brief rhematic main clause; English; reverses this sequence for the sake of clarity and because, unlike German, it is not: used to waiting so long for the main verb: Alles, was er ihr erzdhlte daruber . . . war ihr schon bekannt 'She already knew . . . everything he told her about this.' Thus in considering the functional, semantic and syntactic aspects of a] sentence, the translator may have to weigh the writer's functional purposes against the particular language's word-order tendencies (not rules). One of Firbas's most important perceptions is to point out that the nominal-isation of the verb has gone further in English than it has in other languages. (I believe this is a general trend due to reification, materialism, emphasis on objects rather than activities, etc.) In particular, when a SL verb appears as rheme it is likely to be translated in English as empty verb + verbal noun: elle rit- 'she gave a laugh'; elle les entrevit - 'she caught a glimpse of them' to mark what Nida (1975) calls a particularised event. However the tendency to use verb-nouns as jargon, illustrated in Kenneth Hudson's 'The conversion operation is of limited duration', i.e. 'It doesn't take long to convert the equipment' (Hudson, 1979), which has gone far in English and German, has to be resisted by the translator of any informative text, unless it is an authoritative text where the form has to be reproduced (i.e. a 'sacred' text). For this reason, there is a tension between actualisation (verb), emphasis and jargon in the translation of, say, the sentence La cuisine francaise apprecie depuis longtemps la saveur delicate de I'ecrevisse (from Guillemin-Flescher, 1981): 69 'The delicate flavour of crayfish has long been appreciated in French cooking.' (Actualisation.) 70 'With its delicate flavour, the crayfish has long found favour in French cuisine.' (Emphasis on French cuisine.) (Emphasis on 'favour' can be increased by putting 'In French cuisine' at the head of the sentence.) 71 'With its delicate flavour, the crayfish has long found appreciation in French cooking.' (Jargon.)
  • 84. UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Further aspects of FSP which are of interest to a translator are the various devices for heightening or frustrating expectation, which may differ in two languages. Thus in the sentence: 'There was an uproar in the next room. A girl broke a vase' (Palkova and Palek; Dressier, 1981) the translator may want to show whether the second event is the explanation or the consequence of the first one. Longacre (Dressier, 1981) has pointed out that climax or 'peak' may be attained through tense shifts (e.g. from past to historical present), which is more common in French than in English, or from transition from indirect to direct speech (probably common in many languages). The presence of an 'expectancy chain' ('He killed, cooked and . . . it'; 'he was hoping to succeed but he . . .') is more helpful to the interpreter than to the translator, unless the gap is filled by a neologism, which can then more easily be deciphered. CONTRASTS Climax or focus can also be marked by a negative-positive sequence, where the negative is likely to introduce an opposite or a heightened meaning. Again, this may be useful in assessing neologisms, or unfindable words (I define these as words whose meaning, for any reason whatsoever, escapes you): thus, 'not so much self-confidence as triumphalism'; pas un bikini mais un tanga; 'it wasn't conviction, it was mere tokenism'. Less frequently, the contrast is from positive to negative, the latter being signalled as exceptional: Lesous-marin a une formeparfaitement hydrodynamique; seul le gouvernail fait saillie. The contrast here is between 'smooth' and 'uneven' (Delisle, 1981). Contrasts or oppositions are one of the most powerful cohesive factors in discourse. When they introduce clauses (d'une part. . . d'autre part, etc.) there is no problem, except to bear in mind that in non-literary texts, si (F) or se (It.) usually translate as 'whilst', 'whereas', or 'although' rather than 'if. However, contrasts between objects or actions are just as common. Take De Gaulle's La diplomatic, sous des conventions de forme, ne connait que les realites, where the main contrast between forme and les realites may well be strengthened: 'Diplomacy, behind some conventions of form (purely formal conventions), recognises only realities.' Or later: tant que nous etions depourvus, nous pouvions emouvoir les hommes; nous touchions peu les services. The oppositions between (a) emouvoir and touchions peu and (b) les hommes and les services indicate their meanings: 'As long as we were destitute, we could stir men's emotions but we had no effect on government departments.' Again, Mais aujourd'hui, Vunite franqaise renaissante, cela pese et cela compte. Here there is balance rather than contrast, and as above the shift from SL Verb to English empty verb plus verbal noun strengthens the balance: 'But today, as French unity is reviving, that counts and carries weight'. (Note again that
  • 85. 64 PRINC IPLES UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 65 ' c O t R h N o S e G e T h T I T h 72 W 7 3 7 4 W e m e x n e ° > w o
  • 86. 66 PRINC IPLES UNIT OF TRANSLATION AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 67 c o T h CONC LUSIO N I h a v e t r i e d t o s h o w t h a t a l l l e n g t h s o a c
  • 87. f l a n g u a g e c a n , a t d i f f e r e n t m o m e n t s a n d a l s o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , b e u s e d a s u n i t s o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n
  • 88. LITERAL TRANSLATIO N 69 C L T o n
  • 89. ed in an y pl ac e by ap pe ali ng to th e te xt as an ov err idi ng au th ori ty. Th e pr ev ail in g ort ho do xy is lea di ng to th e rej ect io n of lit er al tra nsl ati on as a le git im ate tra nsl ati on pr oc ed ur e. Th us Ne ub ert (1 98 3) sta tes th at on e w or d of an SL te xt an da TL w o r I n Le s aut res pa ys ont au gm ent s leu rs de pe ns es pu bli qu es rel ati ves a I'e ns eig ne me nt su pe rie ur plu s qu e la Gr an deBr eta gn e pe nd ant les an nie s 19 68 19 70. (L e tau x mo ye n d'a ccr ois seme nt an nu el de s de pe ns es rel ati ves a I'e ns eig ne me nt su pe rie ur est 24, 71 en Fr an ce, 18, 07 au Ja po n, 28,
  • 90. 0 9 e n S u e d e, m a ts s e u le m e n t 8, 1 2 e n G r a n d e B r et a g n e. ) M a is n o ir e p o u r c e n t a g e d u P N B c o n s a c r e a u x d e p e n s e s d a n s I' e n s ei g n e m e n t s u p e ri e u r e st q u a n d mi me plu s gr an d qu e cel ui de pre sq ue tou s no s voi sm s. Th e oth er cou ntri es hav e inc rea sed thei r pu blic exp end itur e rela tive to hig her edu catio n mo re tha n Gre at Bri tain in the yea rs 196 870. (Th e ave rag e ann ual inc rea se in exp end itur e rela tive to hig her edu cati on is 24. 71 in Fra nce , 18. 07 in Jap an, 28. 09 in Sw ede n, but onl y
  • 91. 8. 1 2 in G re at B rit ai n. ) B ut o ur pe rc en ta ge of G N P de v ot ed to ex pe n di tu re o n hi g he r ed uc at io n is ne ve rt he le ss gr ea te r th an th at of al m os t al l o ur ne ig h b o ur s. I d o no t thi nk th e Fr en ch tra nsl ati on co ul d be im pr ov ed on , alt ho ug h y
  • 92. al tra nsl ati on is co rre ct an d m us t no t be av oi de d, if it se cu re s ref er en tia l an d pr ag m ati c eq ui va le nc e to th e ori gi na l. he m e a T b e
  • 93. ter of th e pa ss ag e. Th us in de rri er e lui un ga rq on di str ib ua it po mt ne s ris so le es et pe tit s po is, th e ve rb di str ib ua it is m or e lik el y to be 'w as gi vi ng ou t' (fr ie d po tat oe s an d pe as) th an 'w as dis tri bu tin g' w hi ch so un ds, ex ce pt in so m e idi o l r ,
  • 94. at ot he r co llo cat io ns als o off er alt er na tiv es: for vi vr es, 'di str ib ut e' or 'sh ar e ou t'; co ur tie r, 'de liv er' or 'ha nd ou t'; or dr es, 'gi ve' or 'de al ou t'; ca rte s, 'de al' or 'de al ou t'; ar ge nt, 'di str ib ut e' or 'ha nd ro un d'; ro le, 'as sig n' or 'gi ve ou t'. W hil st th e se co nd alt e r t h I
  • 95. m ma r an d wo rd or der , as we ll as the pri ma ry me ani ng s of all the SL wo rds , int o the tra nsl ati on, an d it is no rm all y eff ect ive onl y for bri ef si mp le ne utr al se nte nc es: 'H e wo rks in the ho us e no w', i/ tra va ill e da ns la m ais on m ai nt en an t. In on etoon e tra nsl L i t
  • 96. ral tra nsl ati on ra ng es fro m on e wo rd to on e wo rd ('h all' , Sa al, sa lle , sa la, га Г ) thr ou gh gr ou p to gr ou p (u n be au jar di n, 'a be aut ifu l ga rd en' , ei n sc ho ne r G ar te n), col loc ati on to col loc ati on (' ma ke a sp ee ch' , / air e un di sc ou rs) , cla us e to cla us 68
  • 97. 70 PRINCIPLES out' (but apre son depart, 'after his departure'), since it can be flexible with grammar whilst it keeps the same 'extra-contextual' lexis. Thus, 'literally', arbre is 'tree' not 'shaft', but words like aufheben, einstellen, Anlage have no literal translation. Here, as in many other cases, my definitions are 'operational' to suit translation discussion (rather than theory), not 'rigorous' or 'exhaustive' (and so on) to suit linguistics. I believe literal translation to be the basic translation procedure, both in communicative and semantic translation, in that translation starts from there. However, above the word level, literal translation becomes increasingly difficult. When there is any kind of translation problem, literal translation is normally (not always) out of the question. It is what one is trying to get away from, yet one sometimes comes back to it with a sigh; partly because one has got used to the sound of what at first seemed so strange and unnatural; beware of this. Une tentation cuisante: can you get nearer than a 'painful' or an 'intense' temptation? 'Burning temptation' is the nearest, it is still not literal. Literal translation above the word level is the only correct procedure if the SL and TL meaning correspond, or correspond more closely than any alternative; that means that the referent and the pragmatic effect are equivalent, i.e. that the words not only refer to the same 'thing' but have similar associations (Mama, 'mum'; le prof, 'the prof) and appear to be equally frequent in this type of text; further, that the meaning of the SL unit is not affected by its context in such a way that the meaning of the TL unit does not correspond to it. Normally, the more specific or technical a word, the less it is likely to be affected by context. Further, a common object will usually have a one-to-one literal translation if there is cultural overlap, though most languages have strange lexical gaps (e.g. 'fingers', 'waist', 'knuckles', 'shins'). A term for a common object sometimes has other common senses ('bank', 'peace') - so that language, particularly in English with its monosyllables, appears inefficient. THE TRANSLATION OF POETRY The translation of poetry is the field where most emphasis is normally put on the creation of a new independent poem, and where literal translation is usually condemned. Thus Rose Marilyn Gaddis, in her stimulating paper on Walter Benjamin (1982) demonstrating Stefan George's superiority over Benjamin as a translator of Baudelaire's Recueillement, states that 'Benjamin's German translation goes into literal English more easily than George's, and is not far removed seman-tically from a literal plain prose English translation of the original' and 'Whereas Benjamin is working with the word, George works with a larger prosodic unit.' I agree that George is the better translator - in my experience, the greatest of all translators of poetry - but what I want to demonstrate is that he is more literal in his translation of the words as well as the structures. Compare George's title Sammlung with Benjamin's Vorbereitung: Benjamin's is way out, George's is materially and figuratively close. Compare the two opening lines:
  • 98. LITERAL TRANSLATION / 7 Sois sage О ma douleur, et tiens-toi plus tranquille (Baudelaire) Set ruhig, О mein kid, und klage schwdcher (George) Gemach mein Schmerz und rege du dich minder (Benjamin) Tu reclamais le Soir; il descend; le void: (Baudelaire) Du riefst den abend nieder, sieh er kam! (George) Der Abend den du anriefst sinkt und gliickt (Benjamin) Both lexically and grammatically, George's openings are nearer to Baudelaire than Benjamin's: even ruhig is closer to sage than is gemach. Again compare George's: Dem einen bringt er run, dem anderen gram (Aux uns portant la paix, aux autres le souci) with Benjamin's: Die jenen friedlich macht und den bedruckt George's: Mein leid, gib mir die hand von ihnen fem (Ma Douleur donne-moi la main; viens par id) with Benjamin's: Gib mir die Hand mein Schmerz lass uns entriickt and finally George's: Horch, leure! horch! die nacht die leise schrdtet! (Entends, ma chere, entends la douce Nuit qui marche) with Benjamin's: Vernimm vernimm sie doch die siisse Nacht die schrdtet. The word- and clause-order correspondence in George and Baudelaire is striking. Purely lexically, George has der sterblichen for des Mortels (Benjamin: der Menschenkinder); gemeiner for vile (taub); toten for defuntes (alten); verblichenen for surannees (no word); Reue for Regret (Verzicht!); wassern for eaux (Flut!); sterben for moribund (nothing); langes for long (nothing). Reading George's translations, I am constantly impressed by his attempts at "teralness, the fact that he abandons literalness only when he has to. Similarly, Leyris's Hopkins is a miracle of literal translation; the strength of Michael Hamburger's translation of Celan's Corona is in its closeness, and he has it easier Slnce he is not constrained by rhyme or metre. Inevitably, when I look more closely
  • 99. 72 PRINCIPLES at a good translation of poetry, I find many points of divergence, and what appeared to me a literal translation and attractive for that reason (the truth, not the cosmetic) is not one. For me, a translation can be inaccurate, it can never be too literal. (The reason why destine a is not normally translated as 'destined for' is not that the latter is too literal, but because destine a is: (a) current; (b) a loose connective; and 'destined for' is: (a) heavy; (b) fateful; (c) not common.) If translation is to be regarded - if only partially - as 'scientific', it has to: (a) reduce its options to the taste area; (b) in claiming accuracy and economy as its main aims, reject both the open choices and the random paraphrasing of free translation; (c) eliminate the universal negative connotations of and prejudices against literal translation. Ordinary or conversational language however must always be translated by ordinary or conversational language, and this is rarely literal translation. Quand il penetra dans Г Hotel Mdtignon, il dit: 'Avec nous, c'est le peuple qui entre ici.' ('When he entered the Hotel Matignon, he said: "With us, it's the people taking over here.'") FAITHFUL AND FALSE FRIENDS However, my main point is that we must not be afraid of literal translation, or, in particular, of using a TL word which looks the same or nearly the same as the SL word. At school and university I was told I must never do this, but 'theatre' is theatre is Theater is teatro is teatr; only in Czech is it divadlo (the same applies to 'music', where the Czech is hudba). The translation of objects and movements is usually more literal than that of qualities and ways of moving. Many common adjectives of feeling cut up meaning in their own way, so that we cannot trust a transparent translation of 'sincere', 'loyal', 'trivial', 'important', 'truculent', 'brutal'; only one or two like 'excellent' and 'marvellous' are usually transparent. And again, the more general and abstract words ('phenomenon', 'element', 'affair') may or may not be translated transparently; there is often a shift at that abstract level {qualiti as 'property') but the translation is still usually one-to-one. In general, there are more faithful friends than faux amis, and we must not hesitate to use them, since any other translation is usually wrong. This presupposes that, in context, the readership of О and T have similar interest and language levels. Otherwise the translation may well be different. Many theorists believe that translation is more a process of explanation, interpretation and reformulation of ideas than a transformation of words; that the role of language is secondary, it is merely a vector or carrier of thoughts. Consequently, everything is translatable, and linguistic difficulties do not exist. This attitude, which slightly caricatures the Seleskovitch School (ESIT, Paris), is the opposite of the one stating that translation is impossible because all or most words have different meanings in different languages, i.e. all words are culture-specific and, to boot, each language has its peculiar grammar. My position is that
  • 100. LITERAL TRANSLATION 73 everything is translatable up to a point, but that there are often enormous difficulties. WORDS IN THEIR CONTEXT All the same, we do translate words, because there is nothing else to translate; there are only the words on the page; there is nothing else there. We do not translate isolated words, we translate words all more or less (and sometimes less rather than more, but never not at all) bound by their syntactic, collocational, situational, cultural and individual idiolectal contexts. That is one way of looking at translation, which suggests it is basically lexical. This is not so. The basic thought-carrying element of language is its grammar. But since the grammar is expressed only in words, we have to get the words right. The words must stretch and give only if the thought is threatened. I am not making any plea for literal or one-to-one translation, since, if it is translationese (and there is far too much translationese published), it is wrong. But the re-creative part of translation is often exaggerated, and the literal part underestimated, particularly in literary translation, but also in other types of texts which have nothing linguistically wrong with them, which are competently written. Take the following extracts from an advertisement by Bendicks Ltd, where we might expect the widest divergences: (1A) 'B are a unique confection, often copied, never equalled.' (IB) В sont de confection unique, souvent imites mais jamais igalis, (1С) / cioccolatini В sono un prodotto senza eguale spesso imitato, mai eguagliato. (ID) Bistein einzigartigerKonfekt, deroftnachgeahmtabernienachgemachtworden ist. (2A) 'Blended together they provide a very distinctive and widely appreciated example of the chocolatier's art.' (2B) Ce melange est I'exemple tris distingue el largement apprecie de I'art du chocolatier. (2C) La lorofusione e un perfetto esempio dell'arte distintiva e vastamente apprezzata del cioccolatiere. (2D) - ein ausgezeichnetes und weithin geschatztes Beispielfachlichen Konnens. One notices first how close these translations are; and they could even be closer, being in some cases elegant (and unnecessary) variations on the original, which is presumably English (e.g., maw in IB; senza eguale in 1С, which is blurred by mai eguagliato). Secondly, syntactical changes in the translation appear to be Precipitated by the lack of a suitable word for 'blend'. Again, as German cannot risk chocolatier (a pity), it has recourse to the more generic fachlich ('professional'), ^erman also introduces an effective word-play (nachgeahmt, nachgemacht) which alters and improves the sense of the English. (Nachmachen means both 'to make up'
  • 101. 74 PRINC IPLES LITERAL TRANSLATIO N 75 a E L i Be ndi cks of Ma yfa ir hav e est abl ish ed a rep uta tio n res pec ted thr ou gh out the wo rld for the ma nuf act ure of cho col ate con fec tio ner y of the hig hes t qua lity . 'Be ndi cks of Ma yfa ir' ont eta bli le w rep uta tio n, rec on nu e da ns le mo nd e ent ier, po ur la co nfe cti on de ch oc ola ts de la plu s ha
  • 102. ute qu alit e. a T I f ' O T N o H S
  • 103. 76 PRINCIPLES LITERAL TRANSLATIO N 77 w o N o A L I n e Qu e ce soit vot re pre mie re ou voi re cin qu ant iem e visi te en Gr an deBre tag ne, par ion s que , ava nt la fin de laj ou me e, vou s n'a ure z pas ma nq ue de re ma
  • 104. rquer mille curiosites nouvelles, typiques du pays el de ses habitants. Ob Du Grofibritannien гит ersten oder sum funfzigsten Mai besuchst, wetten wir, dafi Du jeden Tag immer noch neue Besonderheiten bei Land und Leuten entdeckst. LITERARY TRANSLATION It is ironical that modern literary translators, reacting against a stiff and literary style, a 'periphrastic study in a worn-out poetical fashion', as T. S. Eliot put it in East Coker, should neglect 'the intolerable wrestle with words and meanings', should continually pursue what is to them more natural, more colloquial, more easy, more relaxed, than the original, which was not particularly relaxed anyway, for example, translating ilfaisait chaud as 'it was a blazing hot afternoon'; le soleil incendie les maisons trop seches, 'the sun bakes the houses bonedry'; d'aspect tranquille as 'a smug and placid air'; un lieu neutre as 'a negative place'. What is the reason for this? Certainly not the translators' deficient knowledge of French (ignorance of German is more common); they are often bilingual, perhaps anxious to transfer their own colloquial, easy, non-academic, non-bogus French to their English translation. One reason, then, is their relish for racy, earthy, idiomatic English, which is in flagrant contrast with a neutral original. THE SUB-TEXT Another reason may be the search for the 'hidden agenda', the pursuit of the sub-text, the awareness that when, for instance, the Mayor in Ibsen's An Enemy of the People says: 'We have our splendid new Baths. Mark my words! The prosperity of the town will come to depend more and more on the Baths. No doubt about it', he is expressing his belief in progress and the established order, which he will support even when he learns that it is corrupt, rather than just praising the new baths. Michael Meyer (1974) has made much of the concept of the 'sub-text', what is «nplied but not said, the meaning behind the meaning. 'Ibsen', he writes, 'is a supreme master of the sub-text; almost all his main characters are deeply inhibited People, and at certain crises they are brought to bay with what they fear, and talk evasively, saying one thing but meaning another. To an intelligent reader, the true leaning behind the meaning is cl ea r, an d th e tra ns lat or m us t w or d th e se nt en ce in su ch a w ay th at th e su bte xt is eq ua lly cl ea r in En gli sh. ' th ^C a ^ ove stat eme nt is m fact a Pl e a fo r a c c ur a c y, a n d th e i m pl ic at io n is th at Пе tr a n sl at or s h o ul d n ot g o b
  • 105. PRINCIP LES 78 sub-text to the status of the text. Meyer complains of a previous version of Little Eyolf that the translator 'had repeatedly got the literal meaning and missed the real point, translated the text but missed the sub-text'; however, it suggests to i me that this translator, like the legendary William Archer, had gone wrong not so much in being too literal (unless he had misunderstood metaphors, idioms, colloquial language, phaticisms, cultural references) as in translating Norwegian 'ordinary' language by cumbersome, outdated, bookish language (slightly outdated language is usually comic anyway). Certainly Meyer's own merit as a translator is in his economy rather than his accuracy. (These are to my mind the main purposes of a translation, but accuracy should come first.) One small example: Archer: 'Yes, you remember. Won't you be good enough to give him a friendly talking to and perhaps you can make some impression on him.' Meyer: 'You remember? Perhaps you'd give him a friendly talking to - that might have some effect.' Thus the tautness of dialogue. The dramatist can say in five lines what the novelist needs a page for, as Terence Rattigan said to Meyer. The concept of the sub-text is a useful variant term for the function or the intention of a text, the thin thread which the translator has to pursue throughout his work. But the concept is dangerous and misleading if the sub-text starts to obtrude on the text; put differently, if the description, or the surface text, is partially or wholly replaced by the function, the deep structure of the text, the symbol by its meaning, and so on. You cannot normally translate 'When his father died his mother couldn't afford to send him to Eton any more' by Als sein Vater starb, konnte seine Mutter es sich nicht mehr leisten, ihn aufeine der teuren Privatschulen zu schicken (Honig and Kussmaul, 1982). Now, I am not suggesting that a literal translation - transferring Eton without stating its function - is adequate for an average German readership, though for an educated one it should be enough. But Eton is an essential element of the translation, and Eton's function (the most prestigious school in the UK) is inadequately stated. Thus subtext as a reason for embroidering on the original will not stand. If someone says one thing while he means another, that is a psychological feature that has to be cleanly translated; it must be equally inhibited or concealed in the translation; it may or may not be culturally induced, but, linguistically, the translation is not affected, must not be tampered with. THE NOTION OF THE NO-EQUIVALENT' WORD The difficulties of literal translation are often highlighted not so much by linguistic or referential context as by the context of a cultural tradition. Bagehot wrote about 130 years ago that 'Language is the tradition of nations . . . people repeat phrases inculcated by their fathers, true in the time of their fathers but now no longer true. If you consider Faust's famous struggle to translate the word logos, a word that is virtually context-free, and therefore has to be translated for itselt
  • 106. LITERAL TRANSLATION /У (Weinrich's notorious slogan 'Words are untranslatable, texts can always be translated' - see his brilliant book Linguistik der Luge - is salutary but sometimes the reverse of the truth), how Faust moves hesitantly and subjectively from Wort ('word'), Sinn ('sense', 'meaning', 'thought'), Kraft ('strength', 'power', 'force') to finally Tat ('deed', 'fact', 'action', 'activity') and making his own comments quite independently of the Greek or the referential truth ('I can't possibly rate the Word as highly as that -1 must translate it differently, if only my mind will make it clear to me, so I'll write "sense", "meaning" and I have to think carefully, I'll have to think that line out again, not be over-hasty, can it be "sense" which makes and produces everything, I'll write "force" ("strength", "power") but as I write that, something is warning me I can't stay with that, so I can safely write "deed", "act", "action"') - all this illustrates a painful struggle with four key words, one of which, Kraft according to Gadamer (1976), is conditioned, not by its context in the play or the New Testament, but by its past - its connection with Newtonian physics and its development (integration) in the German public consciousness by Ottinger and Herder: 'the concept of force was made comprehensible on the basis of the living experience of force. As this integration occurred, the technical concept grew into the German language and was individualized to the point of becoming untranslatable.' To write off as 'untranslatable' a word whose meaning cannot be rendered literally and precisely by another word is absurd, particularly when it could at least be better delineated by componential analysis into four or five words, though as a footnote, not in the text of the play. Looking at translation in an ideal sense, Gadamer has pointed out that 'no translation can replace the original . . . the translator's task is never to copy what is said, but to place himself in the direction of what is said (i.e. in its meaning) in order to carry over what is to be said into the direction of his own saying'. Again, this reliance on the vouloirdire and the significance of what the SL text deliberately left unsaid can be dangerous, and applies only to the most difficult texts, where some kind of interpretation and hermeneutics are essential if the translator is to be active, to 'become again the one saying the text'. Here the moment of period and time, as well as the translator's personality, the judgments he has made in the course of his emotional and intellectual development, the pre-judgments (Vorurteile) and preconceptions with which he meets a particular problem (after a year, he will translate the same text in a different way: is this chance or personal change?) - all this is important when one considers translating texts that appear to be on the borders of language and thought, and the struggle is with grammar as well as words, the nuances of mood (modals), and time (tense) and duration (aspect). But in the vast majority of cases, Gadamer is not going to help the translator at all. His statement 'No translation is as understandable as the original' is mis-eading. Many translations have been and are a good, simple introduction, a lead-in nto the original - particularly translations of languages such as German with an artificial word-order inflicted on them by their scribes, their clercs, i.e. the in fact °n-SVO (subject-verb-object) languages, which postpone the lexical elements of
  • 107. 80 PRINC IPLES t h M A t r a n s l a t o r w i t h h i s e y e o n h i s r e a d e r s h i p i s l i k e l y t o u n d e r t r a n s l a t e , t o u s e m o r e g e n
  • 108. A H a l f t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t t r a n s l a t i o n i n B r i t a i n i s d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t s o m a n y t e a c h e r s a n S L t e l l w o r d t h e i r b y p u p i l s t o a v o i d t r a n s l a t i n g a s i m i l a r l o o k i n g T L w o r d w h e n
  • 109. e v e r p o s s i b l e . T h u s t h e p u p i l s e x p a n d t h e i r T L v o c a b u l a r y a n d d i s t o r t t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s . T h e O t h e r T r a n s l a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s T 81
  • 110. 82 PRINC IPLES THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 83 w T h I n I n T h T T c T A T l
  • 111. 84 PRINC IPLES THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 85 ' k I A T I nnter I nati onal orga nisat ions are ofte n kno wn by their acro nym s, whi ch may r e F ( g
  • 112. u a ) ; T r e r i a l a r e a p t t o p u l l u l a t e w i t h i n c o r r e c t t h r o u g h t r a n s l a t i o n s : ' h i g h e s t f l o u r i s h i n g ' , ' p r o g r a m m e building' , etc, which are evidence of translatio nese. Nor mally, throughtranslati ons should be used only when they are already recognis ed terms. SHIFTS OR TRANS POSITI ONS A 'shift' (Catford' s term) or 'transpos ition' (Vinay and Darbelne t) is a translatio n procedur e involvin g a change in the grammar from SL to TL. One type, the change from singular to plural, e.g. 'furniture '; des meubles; 'applause ', des applaudi ssements; 'advice', des conseils; or in the position of the adjective : la maison blanche, 'the white house' is automati c and offers the translato r no choice. A second type of shift is required when an SL grammat ical structure does not exist in the TL. H e I
  • 113. 86 PRINC IPLES THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 87 T h T h I n 7 7 6 7 7 8 7 9 8 0 H F 81 S 82 S 8 84 3 S 85 L S 8 87 6 S 88 L S V uarry wei c S L e e ready' b T C A A gro up of typi cal tran spo siti ons cen tre on a Ro ma nce lan gua ge sub ject : >
  • 114. 88 PRINC IPLES THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 89 89 С е 9 0 T r V A s 77 n'a pas hes ite 'He acte d at onc e' II n'es t pas lac he 'He is extr eme ly bra ve' Y I n c a V i T h O f Y o } m s У о a s e r ( ^ e . e o r s s P '
  • 115. 90 PRINCIPLES -^E OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 91 T T T T T 91 S 92 F o T (1) V D
  • 116. a matter of cultural equivalence, such as 'Dear Sir' translated as Monsieur, 'Yours ever' as Amities. Both the above illuminate what sometimes happens in the process of translating, but they are not usable procedures. As I see it, there are about fourteen procedures within a certain range of probability which are useful to the translator. translations! You will note my reluctance to list 'paraphrase' as a translation procedure, since the word is often used to describe free translation. If it is used in the sense of the minimal recasting of an ambiguous or obscure sentence, in order to clarify it', I accept it. COUPLETS Lastly, here are some suggestions about 'Notes' (when and when not to use them) or supplying additional information in a translation. The additional information a translator may have to add to his version is normally cultural (accounting for difference between SL and TL culture), technical (relating to the topic) or linguistic (explaining wayward use of words), and is ePendent on the requirement of his, as opposed to the original, readership. In e*Pressive texts, such information can normally only be given outside the version, a though brief 'concessions' for minor cultural details can be made to the reader, ^•8- perhaps by translating Hemingway's 'at Handley's' by dans le bar Handley, in erHandleyBar, etc. In vocative texts, TL information tends to replace rather than suPplement SL Couplets, triplets, quadruplets combine two, three or four of the abovementioned procedures respectively for dealing with a single problem. They are particularly common for cultural words, if transference is combined with a functional or a cultural equivalent. You can describe them as two or more bites at one cherry. Quadruplets are only used for metalingual words: thus, if you translate the sentence: 'The nominal-tng clause, a participial clause, occurs in the subject position', apart from a more or less literal translation of 'nominal-tng clause', you might also: (a) transfer it; (b) explain, in an adjectival clause, that the present participle is used as a kind of gerund in English; (c) produce a translation label; (d) give an example, with TL literal and functional NOTES, ADDITIONS, GLOSSES informat ion. Thus if you translate 'you can pay for ceramic tiles
  • 117. 92 PRINC IPLES THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 93 u nd A diti ona l inf or ma tio n in the tra nsl ati on ma y tak e var iou s for ms: ( 93 A s a n a lt e r n a ti v e t o t h e tr a n sl a t e d w o r d : e . g ., l a g a b e ll e b e c o m e s 't h e g a b e ll e , o r s a lt t
  • 118. a x '. 94 A s a n a d j e c ti v a l c l a u s e : e . g ., l a t a il l e b e c o m e s 'l a t a il l e , w h i c h w a s t h e o l d l e v y r a is e d i n f e u d a l ti m e s fr o m t h e c i v il i a n p o p ul at io n' . 9 5 A s a n o u n in a p p o si ti o n: e. g. , le s tr a it e s b e c o m es 't h e tr a it e s, c u st o m s d u es 96 A s a p ar ti ci pi al gr o u p: e. g. , I' o ct r oi b e c o m es 'V o ct r oi , ta x es i m p os ed on fo od stu ffs an d wi ne en ter in g th e to w n'. 97 In br ac ke ts, oft en for a lit er al tra nsl ati on of a tra ns fer re d w or d: e.g . da s K o m bi na t be co me s 'th e ko m bi na t (a "c o m bi ne " or "tr ust ")'. 98 In pa re nt he se s, th e lo ng est for m of ad dit io n: e.g ., a i d e s b e c o m e s ' a i d e s -t h e s e a r e e x c is e d u e s o n s u c h t h i n g s a s d ri n k s, t o b a c c o , ir o n , p r e c i o u s m e t a ls a n d l e a t h e r w e r e i m p
  • 119. o s e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y '. 9 9 C l a s si fi e r: e . g ., S p e y e r, 't h e c it y o f S p e y e r, i n W e st G e r m a n y' . R oun d brac kets shou ld incl ude mate rial that is part of the trans latio n. Use squar e brac kets to make corre ction s of mate rial or mora l fact wher e appr opria te withi n the text. W here possi ble, the addit ional infor mati on shou ld be inser ted withi n the text, since this does not interr upt the reade r's flow of atten tion trans lator s tend to negle ct this meth od too often . How ever, its disad vanta ge is that it blurs the disti nctio n betw een the text and the trans lator' s contr ibuti on, and it ca nn ot be us ed fo r le ng th y ad dit io ns. 100 N otes at bottom of page. 101 N otes at end of chapter. 102 N otes or glossary at end of book. The remainin g methods (2-4) are placed in order of preferenc e, but notes at the bottom of the page become a nuisance when they are too lengthy and numerou s; notes at the back of the book should be reference d with the book page numbers at the top too often I find myself reading a note belongin g to the wrong chapter. Notes at the end of the chapter are often irritating if the chapters are long since they take too long to find. Nor mally, any informati on you find in a reference book should n o s
  • 120. I f w h
  • 121. TRANSLATION AND CULTURE 95 C T I f r
  • 122. lem ther e. 'Mo nsoo n', 'step pe', 'dac ha', 'tagli atell e' are cult ural wor ds ther e will be a trans latio n prob lem unle ss ther e is cult ural over lap betw een the sour ce and the targe t lang uage (and its read ersh ip). Uni vers al wor ds such as 'brea kfas t', 'emb race' , 'pile' ofte n cove r the univ ersal func tion, but not the cult ural desc ripti on of the refer ent. And if I expr ess mys elf in a pers onal way 'you' re w e p A l N o M o H ( Fl or a, fa u n a, w in d s, pl ai n s, hi ll s: 'h o n e y s u c kl e', 'd o w n s', 'si ro c c o' , 't u n dr a',
  • 123. 'p a m p as ', ta b ul ei r o s (l o w pl at e a u) , 'p la te a u' , s el v a (t ro pi c al ra in fo re st ), 's a v a n n (2) a' , 'p a d d y fi el d' Mate rial cultu re (artef acts) 1 0 3 F o o d: 'z ab ag li o ne ', 's ak e', K ai se rs c h m a rr e n 1 0 4 C lo th e s: 'a n o ra k' , k a n g a ( A fr ic a) , s a r o n g ( S o ut h S e a s) , d h o ti (I n di a) 1 0 5 H o u s e s a n d to w n s: k a m p o n g , b o u r g , b o u r g a d e, 'c h al et ', 'l o w ri s e' , 't
  • 124. (3) o w er' 10 6 Tr an sp or t: 'bi ke ', 'ri ck sh a w' , ' M ou lto n', ca br io le t, 'til bu ry' , ca li ch e Soci al cultu re work and leisur e a j a h , a m a h , c o n d o t t i e r e , b i w a , s i t h a r , r a g a , ' r e g g a e ' p r 1 0 7 P ol it ic al a n d a d m in is tr at iv e 1 0 8 R el ig io u s: d h a r m a , k a r m a , 't e m pl e' 1
  • 125. A rti sti c W Gest ures and habit s 'C oc k a sn o o k', 's pi tti n g' 94
  • 126. 96 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION AND CULTURE 97 G A G T h h N i F I n F o T C A g
  • 127. 98 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION AND CULTURE 99 ' b T r N o I u p T h T N W h o s ° c a n c « W her ea pu bli c bo dy or or ga nis ati on ha s an 'op aq ue' na me sa y, M ais on de la
  • 128. 100 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION AND CULTURE 101 C u O n T h I n r e U I I r M E c o
  • 129. 102 PRINCIPLES Religious terms In religious language, the proselytising activities of Christianity, particularly the Catholic Church and the Baptists, are reflected in manifold translation (Saint-Siege, Papstlicher Stuhl). The language of the other world religions tends to be transferred when it becomes of TL interest, the commonest words being naturalised ('Pharisees'). American Bible scholars and linguists have been particularly exercised by cultural connotation due to the translation of similes of fruit and husbandry into languages where they are inappropriate. Artistic terms The translation of artistic terms referring to movements, processes and organisations generally depends on the putative knowledge of the readership. For educated readers, 'opaque', names such as 'the Leipzig Gewandhaus1 and 'the Amsterdam Concertgebouw' are transferred, 'the Dresden Staatskapelle' hovers between transference and 'state orchestra'; 'transparent' names ('the Berlin', 'the Vienna', 'the London' philharmonic orchestras, etc.) are translated. Names of buildings, museums, theatres, opera houses, are likely to be transferred as well as translated, since they form part of street plans and addresses. Many terms in art and music remain Italian, but French in ballet (e.g., fouetti, pas de deux). Art nouveau in English and French becomes Jugendstil in German and stile liberty in Italian. The Bauhaus and Neue Sachlichkeit (sometimes 'New Objectivity'), being opaque, are transferred but the various -isms are naturalised, (but usually tachisme) even though 'Fauvism' is opaque. Such terms tend to transference when they are regarded asfaits de civilisation, i.e., cultural features, and to naturalisation if their universality is accepted. GESTURES AND HABITS For 'gestures and habits' there is a distinction between description and function which can be made where necessary in ambiguous cases: thus, if people smile a little when someone dies, do a slow hand-clap to express warm appreciation, spit as a blessing, nod to dissent or shake their head to assent, kiss their finger tips to greet or to praise, give a thumbs-up to signal OK, all of which occur in some cultures and not in others. Summarising the translation of cultural words and institutional terms, I suggest that here, more than in any other translation problems, the most appropriate solution depends not so much on the collocations or the linguistic or situational context (though these have their place) as on the readership (of whom the three types - expert, educated generalist, and uninformed - will usually require three different translations) and on the setting. I have attempted to indicate the alternatives below.
  • 130. TRANSLATION AND CULTURE 103 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES A Culture Way of life and its manifestations peculiar to one speech community. (1) Ecology Animals, plants, local winds, mountains, plains, ice, etc. (2) Material culture (artefacts) Food, clothes, housing, transport and communications 110 Social culture - work and leisure 111 Organisations, customs, ideas -Political, social, legal, religious, artistic 112 Gestures and habits (often described in 'non-cultural' language) Contrast: universals, i.e. general aspects of nature and humans and their physical and mental activities; numbers and dimensions Distinguish: cultural focus, distance (or gap) and overlap В Frame of reference Contextual factors 113 Purpose of text 114 Motivation and cultural, technical and linguistic level of readership 115 Importance of referent in SL text 116 Setting (does recognised translation exist?) 117 Recency of word/referent 118 Future of referent Translation procedures 119 Transference 120 Cultural equivalent 121 Neutralisation (i.e. functional or descriptive equivalent) 122 Literal translation 123 Label 124 Naturalisation 125 Componential analysis 126 Deletion (of redundant stretches of language in nonauthoritative texts, especially metaphors and intensifiers) 127 Couplet 128 Accepted standard translation 129 Paraphrase, gloss, notes, etc. 130 Classifier
  • 131. to appeal to the senses, to interest, to clarify 'graphically', to please, to delight, to surprise. The first purpose is cognitive, the second aesthetic. In a good metaphor, the two purposes fuse like (and are parallel with) content and form; the referential purpose is likely to dominate in a textbook, the aesthetic often reinforced by soundeffect in an advertisement, popular journalism, an art-for-art's sake work or a pop song: 'Those stars make towers on vowels' ('Saxophone Song', Kate Bush) - tours sur foules?, Turm aufSpur? you have to bear this in mind, when opting for sense or image. Metaphor, both purposes, always involves illusion; like a lie where you are pretending to be someone you are not, a metaphor is a kind of deception, often used to conceal an intention ('Cruise trundling amicably in the English lanes' - The Economist). Note also that metaphor incidentally demonstrates a resemblance, a common semantic area between two or more or less similar things - the image and the object. This I see first as a process not, as is often stated, as a function. The consequence ot a surprising metaphor (a 'papery' cheek? - thin, white, flimsy, frail, feeble, cowardly?) may be the recognition of a resemblance, but that is not its purpose. CHAPTER 10 The Translation of Metaphors DEFINITIONS Whilst the central problem of translation is the overall choice of a translation method for a text, the most important particular problem is the translation of metaphor. By metaphor, I mean any figurative expression: the transferred sense of a physical word (naitre as 'to originate', its most common meaning); the personification of an abstraction ('modesty forbids me' - en toute modestieje ne рейх pas); the application of a word or collocation to what it does not literally denote, i.e., to describe one thing in terms of another. All polysemous words (a 'heavy' heart) and most English phrasal verbs ('put off, dissuader, trembler etc.) are potentially metaphorical. Metaphors may be 'single' - viz. one-word - or 'extended' (a collocation, an idiom, a sentence, a proverb, an allegory, a complete imaginative text). So much for the substance. The purpose of metaphor is basically twofold: its referential purpose is to describe a mental process or state, a concept, a person, an object, a quality or an action more comprehensively and concisely than is possible in literal or physical language; its pragmatic purpose, which is simultaneous, is
  • 132. Note that one of the problems in understanding and translating an original or an adapted and, to a lesser extent, a stock metaphor is to decide how much space to allot to the criss-crossed area of sense, and further to determine whether this area is: (a) positive or negative; (b) connotative or denotative. Thus in the sentence: 'Kissinger: A TV portrait featuring a Metternich of today', it is not clear whether 'Metternich' refers to: (a) Metternich's career as a European statesman; (b) his craftiness (negative); (c) his shrewdness (positive); (d), less likely, his autocratic nature. (This may be clarified in the subsequent sentences.) Here, broadly, the translator has the choice of: (a) a literal translation, leaving the onus of comprehension on the (educated) reader; (b) transferring 'Metternich' and adding the preferred interpretation, e.g. 'a statesman of Metternich's cunning'; (c) for a readership that knows nothing of Metternich, translating simply as 'a cunning (world) statesman'. I use the following terminology for discussing metaphors: Image: the picture conjured up by the metaphor, which may be universal (a 'glassy' stare), cultural (a 'beery' face), or individual (a 'papery' cheek); 'her continual "forgive me" was another professional deformation' (of a Catholic). Object: what is described or qualified by the metaphor, e.g., 'P.J.' in 'P.J. was binding up his wounds'. Sense: the literal meaning of the metaphor; the resemblance or the semantic area overlapping object and image; usually this consists of more than one sense component - otherwise literal language would do. Thus, 'save up for a rainy day' - time of need, financial shortage, gloom, worry, etc., - une poire pour la soif, Notpfennig zuriicklegen. Note that these metaphors are hardly expressive. Usually the more original the metaphor, the richer it is in sense components. Metaphor: the figurative word used, which may be one-word, or 'extended' over any stretch of language from a collocation to the whole text. Metonym: a one-word image which replaces the 'object'. It may be a cliche metaphor ('crown' as monarchy), recently standardised ('juggernaut', masto104
  • 133. 106 PRINC IPLES THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS 107 do nte ) or ori gin al ('si nk' as hol dall rec ept acl e). Me ton ym inc lud es sy ne cdo ch e (i.e ., par t for wh ole , or wh ole for par t) e.g ., 'bo tto m' (bo at) or 'ar my ' (on e sol ide r). Ma ny tec hni cal ter ms suc h as ar br e, to ur, me tie r, ele me nt, pil e, chi en are me ton ym s. Sy mb
  • 134. ol: a typ e of cul tur al me ton ym n wh ere a ma teri al obj ect rep res ent s a co nc ept thu s 'gr ap es' as fer tili ty or sac rifi ce. U W I D D N o I d e H o
  • 135. 108 PRINC IPLES THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS 109 i s I S t T S B W h E n A T h ° c e n o s a c
  • 136. по PRINC IPLES THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS III w h F u S t o n S t T r T h I T h
  • 137. 113 112 PRINCIPLES 'spasmoid'); having sex ('doing a line'); having an orgasm ('making it', 'coming'); woman chaser ('womaniser'); policeman ('fuzz', flic). Recent metaphors designating new objects or processes are treated like other neologisms, with particular reference to the 'exportability' of the referent and the level of language of the metaphor. A recent neologism, 'head-hunting', being 'transparent', can be through-translated (chasse aux tetes), provided its sense (recruiting managers, sometimes covertly, from various companies) is clear to the readership. Again 'greenback', a familiar alternative for a US currency note, has probably only recently come into British English, and is translated 'straight'. 'Walkman', a trade name, should be decommercialised, if possible (transistor portatif). Original metaphors We must now consider original metaphors, created or quoted by the SL writer. In principle, in authoritative and expressive texts, these should be translated literally, whether they are universal, cultural or obscurely subjective. I set this up as a principle, since original metaphors (in the widest sense): (a) contain the core of an important writer's message, his personality, his comment on life, and though they may have a more or a less cultural element, these have to be transferred neat; (b) such metaphors are a source of enrichment for the target language. Tieck and Schlegel's translations of Shakespeare's great plays have given German many original expressins, but many more metaphors could have been transferred. Take Wilfred Owen's 'We wise who with a thought besmirch Blood over all our soul' ('Insensibility') and Gunter Bohnke's translation: Wir weisen, die mit einem Gedanken Blutbesudelr. unsere Seek, whatever this means, the translator can only follow the original lexically since the metre will not quite let the grammar be reproduced - the metaphor is virtually a literal rendering, and the readers of each version are faced with virtually the same difficulties of interpretation. However, if an original cultural metaphor appears to you to be a little obscure and not very important, you can sometimes replace it with a descriptive metaphor or reduce it to sense. Evelyn Waugh's 'Oxford, a place in Lyonnesse' could be 'Oxford, lost in the mythology of a remote, vanished region' (or even, 'in Atlantis'). Finally, I consider the problem of original or bizarre metaphors in 'anonymous' non-literary texts. The argument in favour of literal translation is that the metaphor will retain the interest of the readership; the argument against is that the metaphor may jar with the style of the text. Thus in an economics text, Quelque seduisante que puisse elre une mithode, c'est a la facon dont elle mord sur le reel qu'il la faut juger (Lecerf) - 'However attractive a working method may be, it must be judged by its bite in real life' is not far from the manner of The Economist (or Spiegel). The metaphor could be modified by 'its impact on reality' or reduced to sense by 'its practical effect'. It seems to me that one has to make some kind ot general decision here, depending on the number and variety of such metaphors Ш the whole text. Again, a typical Guardian editorial starts, under the title 'Good
  • 138. THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS paith amid the Frothings', 'and on the second day, the squealing (sic) of brakes was loud in the land . . . The National Coal Board had gone about as far as it could go.' Such metaphorical exuberance would hardly be possible in another European language, and, unless the purpose of a translation were to demonstrate this exuberance ('a ton of enforced silence was dumped on Mr. Eaton . . . window of opportunity . . . dribbling offers, and trickling talks . . . Kinnock scrambles out from under' - all in the first paragraph), the metaphors should be modified or eliminated: 'The NCB suddenly issued no more statements . . .Mr. Eaton made no more statements ... An opportunity . . . Insignificant offers . . . Slow talks . . . Mr. Kinnock emerges' - but a great deal of the sense as well as all the picturesqueness, flavour and sound-effect of the original would be lost. (The connection between metaphor and sound-effects, more often than not sacrificed in translation, is close; metaphor can summon the other three senses only visually.) Original or odd metaphors in most informative texts are open to a variety of translation procedures, depending, usually, on whether the translator wants to emphasise the sense or the image. The choice of procedures in expressive or authoritative texts is much narrower, as is usual in semantic translation. Nevertheless, in principle, unless a literal translation 'works' or is mandatory, the translation of any metaphor is the epitome of all translation, in that it always offers choices in the direction either of sense or of an image, or a modification of one, or a combination of both, as I have shown, and depending, as always, on the contextual factors, not least on the importance of the metaphor within the text.
  • 139. 115 THE USE OF COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION C The a n
  • 140. und ertran slate d in Ger man (ga nz, viell eich t) both lang uage s miss ing the con nota tion of soci al clas s. ense com pone nts have been vari ousl y calle d sem antic feat ures or sem es. (Do not S confuse a seme with a single complete sense of a word, which you can call a sememe if you like.) Any SL and TL word pair that you are analysin g will show some common and some distingui shing or diagnosti c compone nts. Many words also have supplem entary, figurativ e or technical compone nts which become diagnostic in certain contexts; thus for ) po rti C stii ere rze = n 'do = or' 'to (+ fall of ' (+ rail sud wa de y nly car + ria hea ge vil or y car -I, ref the ers ref to ore an wit im h por wi tan nd t ow per ) son or entity)pr un ela ea nc u e = = 'bu 'sle llet nd '(+ er' sla (+ ng) lon ple g+ urs ele = ga 'tea nt rs'( -I+'r ref efi ers ne to d'st obj yle ect I
  • 141. ) 'gawky' = 'gauche (+ maladroit + plaisant) The sense components of a lexical unit may be referential and/or pragmatic. Comprehensiv ely, a SL word may be distinguished from a TL word on the one hand in the composition, shape, size and function of its referent; on the other in its cultural context and. connotations, as well as in its currency, period, social class usage and its degree of formality, emotional tone, generality or technicality and, finally, in the pragmatic effect of its sound composition, e.g., onomatopoeia or repetitive phonemes or suggestive symbolical consonantal clusters. A word like 'chair' (chaise, Stukl) has only referential components, being pragmatically 'neutral'; but 'jolly' in 'jolly good' is mainly pragmatic, a slight, middleclass intensifier, which can only be overtranslated in French (drolement) 114 Material t Length o Finish Softness (silk/cotton, etc.) v p l v e A C A I f a t
  • 142. language communities (such a definition can hardly be challenged) then the value of CA in identifying these components becomes clear. unher, С A attempts to go far beyond bilingual dictionaries; all CAs are based on
  • 143. 117 English hillock German Hugel French coteau hill Berg THE USE OF COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION colline (Pottier) mountain montagne English hamlet German Weiler French hameau village Dorf village bourgade bourg town Stadt ville city Grosstadt Stadt mil Bischof ssitz can ape faut chai tab sieg (gen pou f te grande ville Distin ctive for in + + + + + semes + on for one with with + + + + + + + + + + + + + ± + — + wood or material + + + + + — + — — — Figure 7. Matrix diagram ville episcopate (E)periodical (F)periodique (G) Zeitschrift German Ton Laut English tone for sound , German Schall is Klang Gerausch wissens noise harm (coll.) din (coll.) journ magazi (E) al ne revu magaz newspaper ine (F) journal (G) Zeitung (N.B. Thus 'journal' chaftlic he Zeitschr ift.) Figure 8. Parallel
  • 144. t r e e d i a g r a m SL monolingual dictionaries, the evidence of SL informants, and the translator's understanding of his own language. The only purpose of С A in translation is to achieve the greatest possible accuracy, inevitably at the expense of economy. However, it is a technique that is more precise and limiting than paraphrase or definition. In practice, you are picking out characteristics in their order of importance. Figure 5. Scalar diagrams Ton = sound (± human, vibratio n, loud, long) Laut = sound (+ human, vibratio n, loud, long) Schall = sound (human, + vibration, + loud, + long) Klang = sound (- human, + vibration, + loud, + long) (N.B. This equation diagram is intuitive, not analytical.) Figur e 6. Equat ion diagr am LEXICAL WORDS The first and most obvious use of CA is in handling words that denote combinations of qualities, or combinations of actions and qualities, that appear to show up a lexical gap in the target language: English words such as 'quaint', 'gawky', 'murky', 'loiter', 'hop', 'sleazy', 'dingy'; French words like riche, renacler, bourru, relais, filiere, braderie, bricoleur, moche; German words like duster, bunt, knapp,
  • 145. us PRINC IPLES THE USE OF COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION 119 s c N o A l N o A s B l M i M a M a T D e M y T
  • 146. 120 PRINC IPLES THE USE OFCOMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION 121 t h S I S С c o
  • 147. i p u n a l t h o u g h e n c h a i n e r i s a h i g h f r e q u e n c y w o r d i n m a n y c o n t e x t s a n d n o r m a l l y h a s n o t t h i s f o r c e . S i milarly, a translator may be compelled to make a distinction between lexical sets such as 'appreciate and value' (appreciere t priser), 'assess and evalute (estimer el evaluer), 'esteem and prize' {estimer etpriser), etc., although the distinction would have a considerabl e element of subjectiven ess: O b j e c t i v e P e r s o n a l H i g h R e p o r t A p p r o x i m a t i o n e n j o y m e n t Length regard Thicknes Oblong Roundne appreciate value Regional assess currency evaluate esteem b prize a g u e t t e + f i f l g r m i c h e + + — + b o u l e + +
  • 148. ( a r m y ) T h e t r a n s l a t o r t t r a n s l a t o r c a n ' r e a d c a n o f f ' r e a d t h e o f f t h e c o m p o n e n c o m p o n e n t s , w i t h ' l o a f a s t h e c l a s s i f i e r , c o u p l e d o r n o t w i t h t h e transferred word. Similar sets can be drawn up for many artefacts, e.g., beers, cheeses, nails, windows, shirts, colours. Universal or cultural series or hierarchies are all amenable to CA - kinship terms, ranks, hierarchies, local government administrative units (e.g., region, departement, arrondissement, canton, commune). You will find a nonserious table of English meals on the next page. CONCEPTUA L TERMS CA, together with casegrammar (see Chapter 12), is useful in analysing conceptual terms. Take 'liberalism', with its obvious component of freedom of the individual, which may have further components at every point of the political spectrum, as well as moral and/or intellectual attitudes depending on the relevant national and group culture often the slipperiest word in any language. Note that if a concept-word becomes a key word, i.e., if it is central to a professional non-literary text, it may be useful to analyse the concept componentially in a footnote at its first mention, scrupulously repeating the word at all later citations. Thus Gramsci's egemonia could be translated as 'hegemony, in the sense of cultural leadership and consensus exercised by the intellectuals over a country's institutions, comple-
  • 149. 122 PRINCI PLES THE USE OF COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IN TRANSLATION 123 breakfast 'Great British' Continental coffee break (elevenses) brunch lunch dinner luncheon snap tea break tea (high) tea supper dinner MC, middle class; UMC, uppermiddle class; WC, workin g class. Note also: 'brekk ers' (child ren); 'brakk y' (Austr alian); 'dindi ns' (infan ts' lunch, UMC)
  • 150. ; 'plough man's lunch' (simple pub lunch of bread, pickles and cheese and beer); 'fork lunch' (cold buffet, standin g); 'weddin g breakfa st' (cerem onial meal after weddin g, with champa gne); 'harvest supper' (meal in church hall, after harvest time); 'funeral meal' (referre d to in AngloIrish as a 'wake'); 'Christ mas dinner' (1-3 pm; traditio nally turkey plus Christ mas puddin g - rich, steamed, with suet, dried fruit, spices, brandy butter). CA versions for Jamaican meal terms and an indication of United States meal terms can be found in Robbins Burling's Man's Many Voices. Figure 9. Meals diagram mented or contrasted with political leadership and control'. Here С A and definition or lexicography appear to coincide; С A for the translator, however, is normally based on analysing the difference between an SL word and its closest one-to-one TL approximation. NEOLOGISMS Further, CA is useful in translating neologisms, whether these are new words naming newly invented or imported objects or processes, or new expressions that suddenly fill one of the innumerable gaps in a language's resources for handling human thought and feeling at some level of formality. In each category, it is a question of arranging components in order of importance. In the first category, consider Waldsterben, a German neologism relating to death of forests due to pollution; although the causal component is not in the Germ an term, it is desira ble that it appea r in the transl ation; 'fores t destru ction' is misle ading , 'fores t acid death' may establ ish itself, depen ding on the future of 'acid rain'. In the case of new object s, the SL word is likely to be a trade mark, and
  • 151. CA could only be used as a gloss: thus, 'Mag naski eld, a doubl eglaze d patio door retain ing warm th'. I n the secon d categ ory, the С A of a new idiom such as 'get your act toget her' demo nstrat es four comp onent s: (1) conce rted prepa ration ; (2) ensurin g effecti ve action; (3) implica tion of previo us disarra y; (4) pragma tic inform ality. The translator is left with the proble m of transfe rring the first two compo nents, if not the third, into the TL. (Unfor tunatel y bilingu al diction aries do not give equival ents that are on a different level of formality.) А С A that records pragmatic meaning will ensure that the translator does not merely transfer the denotative meaning of neologisms such as a 'downer' (sedative), a 'wet' (moderate Tory critic of Mrs Thatcher) or a 'ligger' (life-long freeloader). WORDS AS MYTHS Lastly, perhaps, CA is used for the words that have become symbols of untrans-latability and cultural consciousness, the Frenchman's 'bread', the English 'cricket', the American 'baseball', the Italian pasta, the Russian kvass, etc. When such 'opponents' of translation as Robert Graves, Ortega у Gasset and Paul Valery talked about the 'impossibility' of translating pain as 'bread', vin as 'wine' and so on, they were conscious of the gap in feeling and connotation between the SL and the TL word, which they considered to be unbridgeable. But in fact the explanation is the translation. An ordered account of the cultural difference between two words with the same referent but different pragmatic components is offered by CA, rather than two separate definitions. Thus the translator, faced, say, with the different definitions of 'capitalism' given in the UK and the Soviet editions of the Oxford Student's Dictionary of Current English, may first note the common substantive or descriptive component 'private ownership of the means of production' - and the distinguishing functional components - UK: 'basis of a system of society offering freedom to operate or manage property for profit in competitive conditions'; Soviet: 'basis of the exploitation of man by man'. In fact there is nothing specifically English or Soviet about either of these perfectly 'legitimate' definitions of the intern ation alism 'capit alism' , but wher e appro priate it is the transl ator's duty to show whic h sense such word s have in the SL text, and С A offers the most pertin ent, econo mical and neces sary comp rehensi ve meth od of maki ng this distin
  • 152. ction. CONC LUSI ON I have briefly review ed seven uses of С A in translat ion. I see it as a flexibl e but orderly method of bridgin g the numer ous lexical gaps, both linguist ic and cultura l,
  • 153. 124 PRINC IPLES b e The
  • 154. INTRODUCTION Grammar is the skeleton of a text; vocabulary, or, in a restricted sense, lexis, is its flesh; and collocations, the tendons that connect the one to the other. Grammar gives you the general and main facts about a text: statements, questions, requests, purpose, reason, condition, time, place, doubt, feeling, certainty. Grammar indicates who does what to whom, why, where, when, how. Lexis is narrower and sharper; it describes objects (animate, inanimate, abstract), actions (processes and states) and qualities; or, roughly, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Grammar indicates the relations between them, for instance through prepositions of time and place or through the shorthand of pronouns. There is a grey area between grammar and lexis: prepositional phrases like au sein de ('within'), au niveau de, al livello di like venir de ('just'), se borner a to' (habituellement), je рейх only translate each other approximately. Halliday wrote that lexis begins where grammar ends, but I think they partly overlap, like most polar concepts in translation. Natural word-order is an aspect of grammar, but odd (or 'marked') word-order is used for emphasis or stress, which can also be indicated by lexis, e.g., such words as 'precisely', 'itself, 'actual', 'even', 'undoubtedly', and the superlatives of adjective^, and punctuation (italics, capital letters, inverted commas). As translators, we are interested in grammar only as a transmitter of meaning. Therefore Bloomfieldian or 'structuralist' grammar, stretching as far as and including Zellig Harris, is of little interest to us, since it excludes meaning, and the grammars of Saussure and Chomsky, since they deal with langue and 'competence' rather than i.e., with the principles of language rather than with authentic texts, are, as I see it, not very helpful; one can build a theory round the transition from a SL surface through a universal deep to a TL surface structure, but it often becomes an academic exercise. Nida's applica grammar, however, notably in
  • 155. 126 PRINC IPLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION 127 S t L a m a i s o n s e d it a c h e s u r u n f o n d v e r t T h e h o u s e st a n d s o u t a g a i n st a g r e e n b a c k g r o u n d D a s Н а ш h e b t s i c h v o n e i n e m g r ii n e n H i n
  • 156. t e r g r u n d a b . I I I S o H e l m u t S c h m i d t ' A s H e l m u t S c h m i d t s t a t e d ' D a r a u f K i e n a s t ' K i e n a s t r e p li e d ' R a u s ( D e h o r s ) ' G et o ut ' H e r e i n ' C o m e in '. F * a r ' I T e s n i e r e ' s p r e f e r t h e t e r m ' c a s e g r a m m t o ' v a l e n c y t h e o r y ' a n d t o v e r s i o n o f d e p e n d ency gramm ar, since it is transpa rent. Howev er, any element s from whatev er proven ance that are useful as translat ion tools will be incorpo rated into my own version of an extende d case gramm ar. such as Kathe Kollwitz's Brot: 'We want bread', or it may be implied in a vivid nominal and adverbial style, as in Der Untertan, where Heinrich Mann uses verbless sentences in succession as a device which would hardly be correspondi ngly effective in an English translation, thus: Und gefallig schrie das Hauflei n mit. Diederi ch aber, ein Sprung in den Einspa nner und los, hinterd rein ... The little cr o w d o bl ig in gl y e c h o e d D ie d er ic h' s cr y b ut h e, ju m pi n g in to th e o n eh or se c ar ri a g e, st ar te d of f in p ur s ui t. ( D e r W a g e n e n tr o ll t e d e n t T o r, u n d D i e d e ri c h : E s l e b e d e r K a
  • 157. is e r ! T h e c ar ri a g e b o w le d th r o u g h th e g at e w a y a n d D ie d er ic h cr ie d o ut : 'L o n g li v e th e K ai s er !' Fi n al ly a s u s pi ci o u s in di vi d u al b e hi n d a pi ll ar is se e n co nc ea li ng pa pe rs .. . D a a b er D ie d er ic h! W ie d e n St ur m u n d m it K ri e gs g es c hr ei sa h m a n ih n ti b er d e n Pl at z to se n. T I these instances, the translator has a wide semantic choice if he wishes to supply a verb, since stylistically the source language text in omitting the verb is attempting to give a rather general impression of sudden, strong action. Obviously, the selection is finally limited by the context, but contexts (unlike explicit words) often exercise a wide rather than a close semantic constraint. When a verb is omitted it is inevitably semantically underdeterm ined, but given its importance the translator must supply it, if he decides that the reasons for its omission, which may be syntactical, stylistic or pragmatic, do not apply in the target language. Whilst I have shown that, in a number of cases, an English translation has to supply a finite verb that is missing in the SL text, there are many more examples where the 'communicat ive dynamism' of a SL verb shifts to an English verb-noun or gerund, normally retaining its casepartners. (This trend of the English verb has been demonstrate
  • 158. 128 PRINC IPLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION 129 f t u r P h a I r n u Trimmer n : g S d t e a s u P d r e o s d B u e k s t c s h — n » it S t t m a a u t , e e r t i w a a l 4 s % , d a a ll d e u r r S c t h o s p c p h e r r a g Trimmer: e b W u e il it d e r u
  • 159. p o f g u il l o ti n e w a s t e m a d e t h e c o p i e s m o v e o n s k e w , c a u s i n g j a m m i n g , a p p r o x . 4 % o f a ll s t o p p a g e s. I A c o perhaps less important, aspect of case grammar applies to case-gaps in the SL text. Take the following sentence: Le profit ne peut provenir qu d'un progres (тёте mineur) ou d'un effort pour risoudre une carence ou une inadaptation (see Lecuyer, 1978). I take this as an example of a sentence (characteristi c of modern technical jargon) that includes five apparently incomplete verbal nouns: in the event, one might want to know who makes the profit, the progress and the effort; what is lacking, and who is failing to adapt to what. There are in fact several 'missing' or 'empty' casepartners for each verbal noun, whose specific content may or may not be clarified in the larger context. One might assume the following translation: 'Profit can come only from the progress that a company has achieved (even if it is only on a small scale) or from the effort it has made to make up for a shortage in supply or for a failure to adapt to the economy.' The only point I am trying to establish here is not whether I have filled in the gaps correctly, but that most translators
  • 160. 131 130 PRINCIPLES Mandatory case-gap filling This is basically syntactical. Here the translator automatically fills in the case-gap, either because the syntax of the TL requires it, for example: SL I do TL Je le fais (от je Гaime etc.) SL Gib her TL Give if me SL I give up TL j'y renonce; ich verzichte darauf SL Et de ramener le chat a I'ambassade TL And they brought the cat back to the embassy or because a sentence in the SL text is ambiguous or otherwise linguistically defective: SL Die Verhandlungen wurden abge- TL It was reported that negotiations brochen und berichtet had broken down Implied case-gaps These constitute the most important category for a translator: basically this is a semantic category, but there is often a syntactic compulsion to fill in the gap. Thus on the one hand SL words such as 'growth' - croissance; 'claim' - revendication; 'distribution' repartition; 'investment' - placement, Anlage, have strong implications of economy, wages, wealth and capital respectively, but it may be unnecessary to fill them in. A medical or geological text, however, may have to be clarified: Les defauts d'apport et les troubles d'absorption may refer to deficient intake and difficulties in absorbing protein; exageration desfuites et des degradations digestives refers to increased losses and degradation of albumin in the digestive tract; une fissure initiale aussitot injectee (note the past participle injectee instead of the more common verbal noun injection) - 'an initial fissure in the earth's crust into which magma is immediately injected'. Two isolated types of implied categories are associated with verbs for 'to happen' and 'to behave'. 'To happen' normally implies a time and/or a place and a translator would have to supply this detail if it is lacking in the SL text. 'To behave' implies a manner of behaviour. If this is not stated in the SL text (e.g., 'Did you behave?' Hast Du Dich benommen?) it may have to be supplied in the TL text: Tu t'est bien comporte? Tu fest bien conduit} Verbs of duration, living, staying, sitting, standing, existing, and putting, all implying place, form a similar category; here the 'casepartner' is virtually mandatory. 'He went on and on' requires an additional expression of time in the TL. This category is often expressed by a reflexive verb in Romance languages (se tenir, se derouler). Two other case relations, accounted for in traditional grammar by the genitive case, but not usually accounted for in case grammar, are not infrequently implied: (a) la croute, translated as 'the Earth's crust' and 'la crete', the 'ridge crest', where the case-gap represents the whole to which the named term refers; (b) le groupe, translated as the 'student group', 'the group of students', or la rougeole, referring to a particular form of measles, where the missing partner gives a more
  • 161. THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION specific form to the named term, which is collective or generic. The relation between the two nouns is equative ('consists of, 'belongs to'); this type of verb appears to play no part in Tesniere (1965), Fillmore (1968) or Halliday (1973), who do not attempt to 'semanticise' the genitive case, but the translator has to account for the relation (e.g. in 'father', 'president', 'place'). Many case grammars find no place for the genitive or possessive case and its many 'variants', all of them alternate meanings of this case or say the preposition 'of - subjective, objective, associative ('my brother's firm'), quantitative ('pint of milk'), constitutive ('rod of iron'), equative ('City of London'). Since valency theory posits the dependency of all cases on the verb, it does not include the semantic value of the genitive, which 'grammatically' is dependent on its noun; in deep structure, however, it is dependent on a verb and no longer exists as a genitive (e.g. 'the architect's house' = 'the house built/owned/mentioned by the architect'). The above remarks also apply to the single- or multi-noun compounds which, in English and German, replace the 'noun plus of plus noun' group in many combinations. Clearly the translator is much concerned with SL genitive casegaps. Frequently, nouns after objects have to be added after collective nouns such as 'group', 'party', 'number', Variety', 'range', etc. In a French medical text, elliptical expressions such as les series, le fibrinogine, la paroi, une chaleur locale are best expanded to 'patient groups', 'the fibrinogen method', 'vessel wall', 'a localised area of heat'. Optional case-partners These are semantic and stylistic. The translator is at liberty to supply them or not as he wishes. This is partly a pragmatic decision, partly a decision dictated by reasons of exhaustiveness or style. A satisfactory example would require a large context. One could select from verbs such as 'hinder', 'protect', 'threaten', 'prevent', 'appoint', 'supply', 'give', etc. all of which have a mandatory direct object (objective? goal? patient?) partner, and one or two other partners which may be mentioned, implied or omitted in another part of the text. Take the sentence: Der Ausschufi emannte Herrn Schmidt- 'the committee appointed Herr Schmidt': the nature of the appointment (e.g. гит Vorsitzenden, гит Professor, zum Konsul) is probably implied in the text, and the translator could supply it if it is not clear in the immediate context. Other case-partners such as time, place and duration of the appointment, the number of other candidates and the purpose of the appointment (e.g., to teach what subject where?) are optional, provided they are stated elsewhere in the text. Supplementary information (Helbig's 'free indications') This is 'referential'. It consists of additional information, not given in the text, but which the translator chooses to supply from his knowledge of the situation and the cultural context. Thus if the drink 'tea' were to be culturally explained, it would be
  • 162. 132 PRINC IPLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION 133 g i I t L a I C e te m ps c h a u d in vi te a la p ar es se In th is w ea th er I fe el la zy // es t de b
  • 163. a n to n d a n s U s m ili e u x di ts m o d er es d e pr it e n dr e q u e (T hi el, 19 80 )In p ol iti ca ll y m od er at e ci rc le s it is go od fo r m (f or pe o pl e) to m ai nt ai n th at In ge m af H gt en K re is en , be h a u pt et m a n ge m B ec au se w e co ul d n ot co nt ro l th e ad ult s, th e re act io n wa s to ta ke it ou t on ou r ch ild re nW eil wi r di e Er w ac hs en en ni ch an di e H an d ne h m en ko n nt en , re ag ier te n wi r, in de nt wi r u ns er en Ar ge r an de n Ki nd e m au slt eft en D er Sc hl u/i au f R ad iu m w ar zw in ge nd - We conclu ded that it must be radium . In the above and other cases, the translator may feel that the subject should be manifestly expressed, although it would not be difficult to reproduce the rather impersonal SL original. As I see it, the most common missing casepartner is the direct object, in semantic terms, the thing directly affected. In Romance languages there is a long series of verbs: pousser, persuader, obliger, inciter, empecher, defendre, engager, inviter, forcer, etc., without an object that take de or a with the infinitive, where the translator has two standard alternatives. Thus for Une publiciti tapageuse incite a acheter des marchandis es тёте inutiles he can supply the subject: 'Encouraged by obtrusive advertising, we buy goods, even unnecessary ones' - or leave it implied: 'Goods that may well be unnecessary are bought (by people) as a result of loud and showy H P l u s n o s s o c i e t e s s o n t p r e o c c u p i e s d e Ы е п i t r e , p l u s e l l e s t e n d e n t a p r o j e t e r { ' a s p i r a ti o n e g a li t a i r e . . . e ll e s r e d u i s e n t l e s e c a r t s e c
  • 164. o n o m i q u e s . . . I ' e x i g e n c e e n c e d o m a i n e n ' a j a m a i s e t C a u s s i a r d e n t e . (R. Aron). H
  • 165. 134 PRINC IPLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION 135 a c F i N o C o T e F i T I I
  • 166. 136 PRINC IPLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION 137 ' e T h N N 1 o I Purpose (inten sentence) G a n 3 Main proposition H I S e
  • 167. 138 PRINCI PLES THE APPLICATION OF CASE GRAMMAR TO TRANSLATION J9 1972) to the most important component in a sentence. Thus in an extract from a medical piece on haemorrhoids, Une douleur sourde plus ou moins localisable a la pression: abces possible, the directive verb is replaced by the colon and the attention is drawn to the abscess. The semantic subject of this sentence is the abscess, so that a translation could read 'A possible abscess is indicated by a dull pain' etc., which would however emphasise the pain and weaken the force of the verb, as the passive voice always does. The translation therefore has to retain the French wordorder and use an equative verb, which always stresses its complement: 'A dull pain which can be detected (depending on the amount of pressure applied) may be indicative of an abscess.' Here the adjective possible forms the other element of the verb in translation, i.e. 'may'. Similarly, Une douleur crampoide. . . estuneproctalgiefugace 'A cramp-like pain may be regarded as spasmodic proctalgia.' Thus the wordorder of a sentence is influenced by the logical order (SVO etc.), the grammar of the language / and its contextual stresses (as in FSP, discussed in Chapter 6) but the translator's priority is to reproduce the same degrees of communicative dynamism as on the corresponding nuclei of his text as given in the original.
  • 168. i m A REM ARK ON TESNI ERE I t m a y a p p e a r s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , t e d e o f l i t t l e v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o T e s n i e r e , I i n h a v e s p i m a u s e o f h i s r e m a r k a b l e 4 0 p a g e c h a p t e r
  • 169. o n t h e m e t a t a x e , r e l a t i o n w h i c h w a s a b e t w e e n c a s e p i o n e e r i n g g r a m m a r s t u d y t r a n s l a t i o n a n d o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; h e d e f i n e s h i s m e t a t a x e s a s ' d e e p t r
  • 170. a n s l a t i o n s a n 1 3 a p p l i e d t y p e s w h i c h m e c h a n i c a l l y ' . h a v e t o b e r e t h o u g h t r a t h e r t h T h e f a c t o f t r a n s l a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e h i s t h e i s
  • 171. d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r e l e v a n t S L a n d T L c o n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n a n y p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s l a t i o n p r o b l e m s ; t h e r e f o r e t h e y a r e i n s t a n c e s o f c o
  • 172. n t r a s t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s , r a t h e r t h a n o f t r a n s l a t i o n n d t h e o r y . b e f o r e F u r t h e r , o f h i m i n V i n a y t h e a n d s t y l e D a r b e l n e t ) o f M a l b l a n c ( a h e t e n d s
  • 173. t o b e d o g m a t i c i n s e t t i n g o u t e q u i v a l e n t s , i g n o r i n g g e b e n a l t e r n a t i v e s , S i e e . g . , S e i e n S i e s o g u t u n d m i r d a s B u c h ' B e s o k i n d a n d g i v e m
  • 174. e t h e b o o k ' A y e z l a b o n t e d e m e d o r m e r l e l i m e , a n d i n t s t o { D e r u s e i s t r a t h e r i m o d d G e r m a n t o p r o v e h i s p o S t a n d e u n d e r w u r g t m i c h ) . H e w
  • 175. r o n g l y c l a i m s t h e r e i s n o F r e n c h e q u i v a l e n t f o r h e r a u s ( d e h o r s ) . H e c o u l d h a v e m a d e h i s p o i n t w i t h h e r e i n ( e n t r e z ) T h a t s a i d , T e s n i e r e ' s c h a
  • 176. p t e r i s b r i l l i a n t a n d s t i m u l a t i n g ; h i s t r a n s l a t i o n x i s p r i n c i p l e ( ' b e g g o v e r n i n g b e s e e c h ' , t h e i n p a s s a g e f r o m p a r a t a a n d f a c t o r a r e a t q u e o b s
  • 177. e c r a r e ) t o h y p o t a x i s ( p r i e r a r d e m m e n i ) g o e s b e y o n d c o n t r a s t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s t o w a r d s t r a n s l a t i o n t h e o r y . CONCLUSION I n a p r e v i o u s p a p e r ( N e w m a r k , 1 9 8 2 )
  • 178. I s t a t e d t h a t w h i l s t c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n l e x i c o g r a p h y , i t h a s a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t r a n s l a t i o n . I h a v e n o w c o m e t o t h i n k t h
  • 179. a t t h e r o l e a n d u s e o f c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s i n t r a n s l a t i o n i s m u c h m o r e
  • 180. THE TRANSLATION OF NEOLOGISMS 141 and disc contextu C T N e I pr op os e to re vi e w tw el ve ty pe s of ne ol og is m (s ee fr a m e of re fe re nc e, p. 15 0)
  • 181. OLD WO RDS WIT H NE W SEN SES Take first existi ng word s with new sense s. Thes e do not norm ally refer to new objec ts or proce sses, and there fore are rarel y techn ologi cal. How ever crene au, whic h starte d as a meta phor as crene au de vente (there fore it is a 'pseu doneolo gism' ) can norm ally be transl ated techn ically as 'mark et outlet ' or infor mally as 'a range of dema nd for a partic ular type of produ ct', depe nding on the type of reade L e T h T a k
  • 182. now the term 'wet' in the sens e of '(rela tivel y) leftwing Tory oppo nent of Mrs That cher' s polic ies'. Sinc e this term seem s unlik ely to acqu ire perm anen ce, or to be impo rtant in any TL cultu re, any initia l onetoone trans latio n is misguid ed, and the trans lator has to selec t the appr opria te funct ional and desc ripti ve TL sens e com pone nts as econ omic ally as possi ble in the cont ext, possi bly addi ng a nega tive I f
  • 183. 'urba n rene wal' is tendi ng to be limit ed to hous es, reha bilit atio n (Ren ovie rung ) may be appr opria te. Cons ider also mou vanc e 'sphe re of influ ence' ; 'soph istic ated' ('tec hnic ally expe rt, of a pers on') expe rt, spec ialis e; lang ue de bois -'hea vy, bure aucr atic lang uage' ; com post eur 'tick etpunc hing mac hine' ; pass eur-' traffi cker in illeg al imm igran ts.' 140
  • 184. 142 PRINC IPLES THE TRANSLATION OF NEOLOGISMS 143 T o E x T r n a I n T h I T h N o H o
  • 185. 144 PRINCIPLES authority?), and he believes himself to be the first translator to do so, he should put it in inverted commas. Thus reprographie is important and permanent; gaziniere is a familiar alternative for four a gaz, but note we have 'gas stove', 'oven' or 'cooker' -1 expect this last predominates. Televideo appears to be an earlier version of video, which has several meanings ('tape', 'recorder', 'cassette'). Note however that most of these words are virtually context-free. Monetique is the use of plastic cards to pay for goods and services. This may transplant as 'monetics' ('plastic money'?), but perhaps such a coinage (!) should have the authority of a bank rather than of an individual translator. Iconique and iconographie (which has other senses) lost out to 'iconology', i.e., the study and interpretation of images. Tilematique (i.e., telecommunications and data processing) appears to be a later version of teleinformatique, the latter existing for a time at least in Common Market English as 'teleinformatics' - the present equivalent may be 'teleprocessing', but 'telematics' is winning out. I think the translator has to distinguish the serious derived neologisms of industry from the snappy ingenious derived neologisms (blends in particular) created by the media, including the advertisers, which may be short-lived. Thus 'oillionnaire'; 'steelionnaire'; 'daffynition' ('crazy definition') - definition farfelue; Abkufi (Abkiirzung-Fimmel, 'mania for abreviations'). Whether they are permanent or not, the translator has to consider their function (advertising? neatness? phonaesthetic quality?) before deciding whether to re-create them in the TL or to translate the completed component of the blends (e.g., 'oil millionaire'). One a week appears in the Sunday Times, e.g., 'high concept' for an idea so simple that even the most stupid can grasp it. Note that medical neologisms (e.g., 'chronopharmacology', 'somatomedin' (a hormone, prostaglandin)), and particularly the approved chemical names of generic drugs can often be reproduced with a naturalised suffix (French -ite, English -itis; French -ine, English -in). But bear in mind that Romance languages do this more easily than others, since it is their home territory, and you should not automatically naturalise or adopt a word like anatomopathologie (1960). Occasionally French adds a suffix to a word (megoter, 'quibble') which must be rendered by sense. Again, Romance languages combine two or more academic subjects into a single adjective, thus medico-chirurgical, medico-pedagogique, etc., in a manner that Shakespeare was already satirising in Hamlet (II.2) ('pastoralcomical', 'tragical-historical', 'tragical-comical-historical-pastoral' etc.) Such combinations should normally be separated into two adjectives in the translation (e.g., 'medical and surgical', 'both medical and surgical') but 'physio-' (from physiology), 'physico-' (physics) and 'bio-' are common first components of interdisciplinary subjects. In all derived words, you have to distinguish between terms like ecosysteme and icotone which have a solid referential basis, and fulfil the conditions of internationalisms, and those like 'ecofreak' and ecotage (sabotage of ecology), which, whatever their future, do not at present warrant the formation of a TL neologism.
  • 186. THE TRANSLATION OF NEOLOGISMS 145 ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations have always been a common type of pseudoneologism, probably more common in French than in English (fac, philo, sympa, Huma, 'copter', Uni, 'fab', 'video'). Unless they coincide (prof, bus) they are written out in the TL. COLLOCATIONS (see also p. 212) New collocations (noun compounds or adjective plus noun) are particularly common in the social sciences and in computer language. Thus 'lead time', 'sexual harassment', 'domino effect', fuite en avant, 'clawback', 'cold-calling', 'Walkman' (brand name for 'personal stereo'), 'acid rain', 'norm reference testing', 'criterion reference testing', 'rate-capping', 'jetlag', 'lateral thinking', 'wishful thinking', promotion sociale, aminagement du territoire, 'machine-readable', 'sunshine industries', 'narrow money', 'graceful degradation', 'hash total', 'go-no-go test' -Ja-nein Kontrolle - test oui-non' Kontrollsumme, total de verification. The above represent varying problems. The computer terms are given their recognised translation - if they do not exist, you have to transfer them (if they appear important) and then add a functional descriptive term - you have not the authority to devise your own neologism. 'Sexual harassment' (assiduites abusives) is a universal concept, at least in any culture where there is both greater sexual freedom and a powerful women's movement - and I think you are entitled to have a go. For German, I suspect it will come out as Sexualschikane, for French, importuniti sexuelle (but assiduites abusives already exists). It will have to be translated by a descriptive term until a TL standard term is formulated. 'Lead time', a term for the time between design and production or between ordering and delivery of a product, has at present to be translated in context; 'domino effect', which could be a (political) universal, applying as much to the USSR as to El Salvador or Vietnam, probably has to be explained, unless dominoes are familiar to the TL culture and a literal translation in inverted commas is risked; 'cold-calling' (soliciting on the doorstep) may not last as a term, though the practice will; 'jetlag' may have settled down to decalage horaire, but the Germans are likely to transfer it; 'clawback' (retrieval of tax benefits) may not last; 'acid rain', unfortunately a universal, is likely to be literally translated everywhere, since it is 'transparent'; 'sunrise industries' refers to electronics and other 'hightech' industries, and is likely to be ephemeral, therefore the metaphor can be ignored or reduced to sense; 'Walkman' is a trade name (eponym) and therefore should not be transferred; 'rate-capping' is 'cultura. has no future outside the UK and has to be explained in accordance with the specialist or general requirements of the readership - transference would be superfluous, except for a highly specialised TL readership; 'norm' and 'criterion reference testing' are both recent terms for educational assessment and require explanation until the terms
  • 187. 146 PRINC IPLES THE TRANSLATION OF NEOLOGISMS 147 b e T h N o E e
  • 188. 148 'longitudinal springs'; numerate - 'humeral artery'; la Charrue - 'The Plough and the Stars'; la Trilaterale - a private political commission with representatives from the USA, Western Europe and Japan. I have tried to give a comprehensive undogmatic view of how to translate ihe words that teeter on the edge of language, that may stay, may vanish, depending on the 149 THE TRANSLATION OF NEOLOGISMS ACRONYMS (see also p. 198) Acronyms are an increasingly common feature of all non-literary texts, for reasons of brevity or euphony, and often to give the referent an artificial prestige to rouse people to find out what the letters stand for. In science the letters are occasionally joined up and become internationalisms ('laser', 'maser'), requiring analysis only for a less educated TL readership. Some enzymes are internationalisms SGOT, 'SPGT' (cf. 'ACTH' and other important substances). Acronyms are frequently created within special topics and designate products, appliances and processes, depending on their degree of importance; in translation, there is either a standard equivalent term or, if it does not yet exist, a descriptive term. Acronyms for institutions and names of companies are usually transferred. Acronyms are sometimes created or move into common language for referents that have been in existence for a long time, e.g. 'GCHQ'; 'We have to change at TCR' (i.e., Tottenham Court Road) and these are normally 'decoded' in translation. Further, the translator must look out for acronyms created simply for the purpose of one text - difficult to locate if he has to translate only an extract. When acronyms are as important in the SL as in the TL, they may be different in both languages ('MAOT - monoamine oxidase inhibiters - becomes IMAO in French). Acronyms for international institutions, which themselves are usually through-translated, usually switch for each language, but some, like 'ASEAN', 'UNESCO', 'FAO', 'CERN', 'ANC, 'UNICEF', 'OPEC are internationalisms, usually written unpunctuated. When a national political or social organisation, e.g., a political party, becomes important, it is increasingly common to transfer its acronym and translate its name, but this may depend on the interests of the TL readership. Note that if the name of an organisation (and therefore its acronym) is opaque, e.g., 'OU', 'CNAA', it is more important to state its function than to decode the initials. Arabic resists most acronyms and explicates them. SL acronyms are often retained for convenience so that they can be used at other points in the TL text. real or artificial needs of their users, many of them not yet 'processed' by language and therefore extra-contextual - others, designating new objects and processes, are assured of their place. And the only generalisation I can make is that the translator should be neither favourable nor unfavourable in his view of new words. His responsibility is to see that the mental and the material world that is inhabited by people should be accurately and, where possible, economically reflected in language. This consideration overrides the rather large number of contextual factors with which this chapter has been concerned. PRINCIP LES manifestations ('raga', 'kung fu'), are translated like any other cultural words, therefore usually transferred together with a generic term and the requisite specific detail depending on readership and setting. PSEUDO-NEOLOGISMS Lastly, the translator has to beware of pseudo-neologisms where, for instance, a generic word stands in for a specific word, e.g., rapports (d'engrenage) - 'gear ratios'; longitudinaux (ressorts longitudinaux) - THE CREATION OF NEOLOGISMS In non-literary texts, you should not normally create neologisms. You create one only: (a) if you have authority; (b) if you compose it out of readily understood Graeco-Latin morphemes. Say, in a French medical text, you meet the word floraline as an item of light diet to be given to typhoid fever patients, and the word is unfindable. There is no point in creating a neologism by transferring the word, since it is likely to be a brand name (owing to its suffix, though the word is not capitalised - the other (unlikely) alternative is that it is a local or regional word) and the product may no longer be on the market. As a translator, your job is to account for (not necessarily translate) every SL word, and you therefore have to guess the word's meaning: the external evidence (i.e., the linguistic and situational contexts) suggests it is a light food or preparation; the internal evidence (the composition of the word) suggests that the product is made of flour (cf. fleurde farine: 'fine wheaten flour'). Therefore you may translate floraline by 'a light flour preparation', adding a footnote for your client: 'The SL original floraline not found. Probably a brand name.' I finish by discussing the translator's right to create neologisms. Firstly, in a literary text, it is his duty to re-create any neologism he meets on the basis of the SL neologism; in other authoritative texts, he should normally do so. Secondly, when translating a popular advertisement, he can create a neologism, usually with a strong phonaesthetic effect, if it appears to follow the sense of its SL 'counterpart' and is pragmatically effective. Thirdly, he can transfer an SL cultural word, if for one reason or another he thinks it important. If he recreates an SL neologism using the same Graeco-Latin
  • 189. morphemes, he has to assure himself: (a) that no other translation already exists; (b) that both the referent and the neologism are not trivial, and that they are likely to interest the SL readership. He should not transfer SL neologisms, say in computer science, which are evidently recent or devised for the particular SL text (progiciels, tableurs). He should acknowledge at least with inverted commas any neologism he creates. The more formal the language, the more conservative he should be in respect of neologisms. In technology, he should not usurp the terminologist, who usually works within a team and is in contact with the ISO. The more general questions of neologism translation are dependent on language planning, policy and politics. Given the world domination of English,
  • 190. ISO PRINC IPLES m o T
  • 191. A FRA ME OF REFE RENC E FOR THE TRAN SLAT ION OF NEOL OGIS MS Type A. Existing lexical new senses 10. Internationalisms Contextual factors 1. Value and purpose neolog 2. Importance of 1. Words (a) SL culture; (b)TL 2. Collocations culture; (c) general 3. Recency B. New forms 4. Frequency 1. New coinages 5. Likely duration 2. Derived words 6. Translator's (including blends) 7. Recognised 3. Abbreviations 8. Existence of 4. Collocations TL culture 5. Eponyms 9. Transparency or 6. Phrasal opaqueness of words neolog 10. Type of 7. Transferred referents) 11. Readership 8. Acronyms (new 12. Setting old referents) 13. Fashion, clique, 9. Pseudocommercial 14. Euphony 15. Is neolog in competition with others? 16. Is neolog linguistically justified? 17. Is neolog likely to become internationalism? 18. Is neolog (acronym) being formed for prestige reasons? 19. Milieu
  • 192. INTR ODU CTIO N Techni cal transla tion is one part of special ised transla tion; institut ional transla tion, the area of politic s, comm erce, financ e, govern ment etc., is the other. I take technic al transla tion as potenti ally (but far from actuall y) noncultura l, therefor e 'univers al'; the benefits of technol ogy are not confine d to one speech commu nity. In principl e, the terms should be translat ed; instituti onal translati on is cultural (so in principl e, the terms are transfer red, plus or minus) unless concern ed with internat ional organis ations. For this reason, in general, you translat
  • 193. e ILO as BIT (F), IAA (G), but you transfe r 'RSPC A' in official and formal contex ts, but not in inform al ones, where 'RSPC A' would becom e somet hing like britisc her Tiersc hutzbund, societe britan nique pour la protec tion des anitna ux. T he profes sion of transla tor is coextensi ve with the rise of technol ogy, and staff translat ors in industr y (not in internat ional organis ations) are usually called technic al translat ors, althoug h instituti onal and comme rcial terms are 'umbrel la' (Dach) compon ents in all technic al translati on. Te chnical translati on is
  • 194. primar ily disting uished from other forms of translation by termin ology, althou gh termin ology usuall y only makes up about 5-10% of a text. Its charac teristic s, its gramm atical feature s (for Englis h, passiv es, nomin alisati ons, third person s, empty verbs, presen t tenses) merge with other varietie s of languag e. Its charact eristic format (see Sager, Dungw orth and McDon ald, 1980 for an excelle nt review of technic al writing) is the technic al report, but it also include s instructi ons, manual s, notices, publicit y, which put more emphas is on forms of address and use
  • 195. of the second person . TECH NICA L STYL E Furthe r, unless its nontechni cal langua ge is jazzed up and popula rised, it is usuall y free from emotiv e langua ge, connot ations, soundeffects and origin al metap hor, if it is well writte n. French medic al texts are often just the contrar y, and the translat or's job is precisel y to elimina te these features . Thus le triptyq ue de ce 151
  • 196. 152 PRINC IPLES TECHNICAL TRANSLATION 153 t r H E v C o C o E h 13 13 2 P 13 3 P H 1 1 3 1 3 N
  • 197. 154 PRINC IPLES TECHNICAL TRANSLATION 155 g o P r B u W h C o I i I B
  • 198. /56 PRINC IPLES TECHNICAL TRANSLATION 157 I t W h Y o N T h i T Ho we ve r, the re is a cla ssi cal no tio n wh ich di d no t ch an ge: the % of go od res ult s de cre as es as the ori gi nal ac cid ent be co me s ol
  • 199. de r. . . W he n tre ate d pr ec oc io usl y th er e is m or e th an 80 % ch an ce of su cc es s, w hi ch m ay be sp ect ac ul ar as it is sti ll rat he r rar e. M T h e l a rk. Al l the se are us ual ly tra nsf err ed ex ce pt in ca ses : (1) wh ere a 'tit le' (P r., C he fa rzt , Pr iv at do ze nt, Pr im ar iu s) ha s a rec og nis ed co m mo n tra nsl ati on eq uiv ale nt ('P rof .', 'Ph ysi cia n in ch arg e of de par tm ent ', 'H ea d of cli nic ', 'U ne sta bli sh ed uni ver sit y
  • 200. 1S8 PRINC IPLES 159 TECHNICAL TRANSLATION d i 13 13 8 13 9 14 0 14 1 Y F W V ' Y t e S ( Y I n A s L e
  • 201. 160 PRINC IPLES TECHNICAL TRANSLATION 161 a m A P M y H o i M s e a u p o i n t U t i l i s a t i o
  • 202. n a R t . e i L t o e i n N n e t l t e i , r q J e u . t i F d d a e e b r l e e a n e t s b P c i . i o S n l e t o v i g r l i e l e s L a s c i n t i l l a t i o n e n m i l i e u l i q u i d e r e p r e s e n t e l ' u n e de s m et ho de s le pl us co ur a m m en t e m pl oy ee s po ur de te ct er et co m pt er le s ra di oe le m en ts e m ett eu rs de pa rti cu le s be ta de fai bl e en er gi e. C ett e te ch ni qu e, rel ati ve m en t re ce nt e (1 95 0) , ne ce ssi te un e pr ep ar ati on de s ec ha nti llo ns b i o l o g i q u e s e t u n a p p a r e i l l a g e c o m p l e x e s a i n s i q u ' u n t r a i t e m e n t a p p r o p r i e d e s r e s u l t a t s . E l l e a t o u t e f o i
  • 203. s p e r m i s d ' e x p l o r e r d i f f e r e n t s m e t a b o l i s m e s p a r l a d e t e c t i o n e t l e d o s a g e d e s m o l e c u l e s e d ' e l e m e n t s r a d i o a c t i f s b e t a a a u s s i e s s e n t i e l s q u e l ' a i d l ' h y d m a r q u e e s r o g e n e ( H ) , l e c a r b o n e ( ,4 C ) , l e s o u f r e ( " S ) o u l e c a l c i u m (4S C a). D es et ud es su r l'e au [2 ], la le uc in e [9 ] et de s m ed ic a m en ts [1 4] m ar qu es on t ai ns i de m on tre l'i nt er et de ce tte m et ho de da ns le ca dr e de re ch er ch es bi ol og iq ue s. 1. G E N E R A LI T E S S U R L A S CI N T I L L A T I O N E N M I L I E U L I Q U I D E U n s c i n t i l l a t e u r l i q u i d e p o s s e d e l a p r o p r i e t e d ' e m e t t r e , l o r s q u ' i
  • 204. l e s t e x p o s e a d e s r a y o n n e m e n t s n u c l e a i r e s i o n i s a n t s , d e s p h o t o n s l u m i n e u x s i t u e s d a n s l e p r o c h e u l t r a v i o l e t . C e t t e l u m i n e s c e n c e o u r a d i o l u m i n e s c e n c e p o r t e l e n o m d e s c i n t i l l a t i o n l o r s q u ' e l l e a p p a r a i t d ' u n e m a n i e r e di sc on ti nu e [3 ]. L a pr op ri et e de ce ph en o m en e es t ut ili se e po ur le s m es ur es de ra di oa cti vi te d' el e m en ts in tr od ui ts au se in m e m e de la so lu ti on . P o ur ce tt e m es ur e la so lu ti o n sc in til la nt e, co nt en an t le ra di oi so to pe e m e t t e u r d e e d i s p o s e e p a r t i c u l e s e n t r e b e t a , p h o t o m u l t i p l i c a t e u r s . e s t p l a c e e d a n s u n e f i o l d e u x C e u x c i ,
  • 205. p a r l e u r p h o t o c a t h o d e , l u m i n e u s e s a p p a r u e s a u d e t e c t e n t s e i n l e s d e s c i n t i l l a t i o n s m e m e l a s o l u t i o n e t t r a n s m e t t e n t l e u r s r e p o n s e s s o u s l a f o r m e d ' i m p u l s i o n s e l e c t r i q u e s a u n s y s t e m e d e c o i n c i d e n c e . C e s y s t e m e p er m et d' el i m in er la pl u p ar t d es i m p ul si o ns er ra ti q u es li ee s a l'i m p er fe ct io n d e I' el ec tr o ni q ue et au x ra y o n ne m en t co s m iq ue s et te ll ur iq ue s. L 'u n d es a v a nt a g es es se nt ie ls d e ce tt e te c h ni q u e d e c o m p t a g e r e s i d e d a n s l a s u p p r e s s i o n d e l ' a u t o a b s o r p t i o n d u r a y o n n e m e n t b e t a , t r e s g e n a n t e l o r s q u e
  • 206. l e s r a d i o e l e m e n t s o n t u n e e n e r g i e f a i b l e . D e p l u s , l e s p a r t i c u l e s b e t a s o n t f a c i l e m e n t d i f f u s e e s p a r l a m a t i e r e . L a m i s e e n s o l u t i o n d e s e c h a n t i l l o n s r a d i o a c t i f s p e r m e t d ' e v i t e r c e s p e r t e s d e c o m p t a g e . L a q u a s i t ot al it e d es e m is si o ns b et a es t d o n e ut ili se e a pr o d ui re d es sc in til la ti o ns . S i ce tt e te c h ni q u e d e c o m pt a g e es t se d ui sa nt e, sa m is e e n o e u vr e es t tr es d el ic at e. L' in tr o d u ct io n d' ec h a nt ill o n s e u r r a d i o a c t i f s l i q u i d e d a n s l e d e t e c t n e c e s s i t e . . . (Rev 1755
  • 207. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 163 CHAPTER 15 The Translation of Serious Literature and Authoritative Statements sueur, du travail, des larmes (figurative language, but these are symbols, to be understood literally as well as figuratively); 'the underbelly of the Axis' (Churchill, January 1943) - le bas-ventre de I'Axe - not le point vulnerable (an original metaphor). Further, the element of self-expression in authoritative statements is only incidental but the translator has to pay the same respect to bizarreries of idiolect as in fantastic literature: La France у voit un renfort decisifde notre latiniti a I'avantage de tous les hommes - 'France sees it as a decisive strengthening of our Latinity benefiting all men' (De Gaulle). A further generalisation for the translator: literature broadly runs along a four-point scale from lyrical poetry through the short story and the novel to drama. INTRODUCTION Theorists sometimes maintain that cognitive translation (the transfer of cold information) is perfectly possible and may be possibly perfect - it is the hard core, the invariant factor; the only snag comes when: (a) there is an emphasis on the form as well as the content of the message or; (b) there is a cultural gap between SL and TL readers (different ways of thinking or feeling, material objects) or there is a tricky pragmatic relation, i.e. between on the one hand the writer and on the other the translator and/or reader. There is a certain truth in these generalisations, though they miss one point, that the adequacy of a translation basically depends on the degree of difficulty, complexity, obscurity of the whole passage, rather than the one or the other aspect. Further, any passage that stresses SL form can be perfectly explained and therefore over-translated into the TL, though it will not have the naked impact of the original. However, if one must make generalisations, I can say that normally the translation of serious literature and authoritative statements is the most testing type of translation, because the first, basic articulation of meaning (the word) is as important as the second (the sentence or, in poetry, the line) and
  • 208. the effort to make word, sentence and text cohere requires continuous compromise and readjustment. Buhler's expressive function of language, where content and form are on the whole equally and indissolubly important, informs two broad textcategories: serious imaginative literature and authoritative statements of any kind, whether political, scientific, philosophical or legal. The two categories have obvious differences: (a) authoritative statements are more openly addressed to a readership than is literature; (b) literature is allegorical in some degree; authoritative statements are often literal and denotative and figurative only in exceptional passages, as in broad popular appeals ('islands amongst the literal language), such as 'The wind of change is blowing' - Un grand courant a"air souffle (both stock metaphors); 'I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat' (Churchill, 13 May 1940) -Je n'ai a vous offrir que du sang, de la which essentially reproduces the tone of the original; and (b) accurate translation of metaphor. Consider Tieck's version: POETRY Poetry is the most personal and concentrated of the four forms, no redundancy, no phatic language, where, as a unit, the word has greater importance than in any other type of text. And again, if the word is the first unit of meaning, the second is not the sentence or the proposition, but usually the line, thereby again demonstrating a unique double concentration of units. Thus in: . . . doch derMensch, der stolze Mensch, In kleine kurze Majestat gekleidet, Vergessend, was am mind'sten zu bezweifeln, Sein glasem Element wie zom'ge Affen, Spielt solchen Wahnsinn gaukelnd vor dem Himmel, Dafi Engel weinen . . . (trans. Tieck and Schlegel, Ma/ifurMafi) . . . But Man, proud man Drest in a little brief authority, Most ignorant of what he's most assured His glassy essence, like an angry ape, Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep . . . (Shakespeare, Measure for Measure, ILII. 117) Here the word - and line units have been preserved with the punctuation; the image 'plays such fantastic tricks' becomes 'plays such madness, conjuring' but the other images are preserved, whilst 'most ignorant of becomes 'forgetting' and the positive 'most assured' becomes the double negative 'least to be doubted', which is a common modulation. The greatest and unnecessary loss here is the 'fantastic tricks' metaphor. Original metaphor is the controlling element in all creative the integrity of both the lexical units and the lines has to be preserved within a context of: (a) corresponding punctuation, 162
  • 209. 164 PRINCIPLES language, evoking through a visual image - even abstract images such as justice or mercy become people or objects - not only sight but the four other senses (e.g., fur as touch, food as taste, flowers as smell, bells or birds as sound) as well as the concomitant human qualities, good or evil, pleasure or pain, that these images (sensory, sensuous, sensual, sensitive, perhaps even sensational, to liven up language) can produce. Poetry presents the thing in order to convey the feeling, in particular, and however concrete the language, each represents something else - a feeling, a behaviour, a view of life as well as itself. Original metaphors the translator has to reproduce scrupulously, even if they are likely to cause cultural shock. Shakespeare's 'Shall I compare thee to a summer's day' (Sonnet 18), as Neubert has commented, will leave Arabic or Eskimo readers cold, but the Arabic or Eskimo reader must make the effort to fina out the truth of the simile, which is at least half-revealed in the next line: 'Thou art more lovely and more temperate'. A cultural metaphor (e.g., the technical term '(Summer's) lease') is not so important. The translator can boldly transfer the image of any metaphor where it is known in the TL culture. But for lines such as Walter de la Mare's: And even the thought of her when she is far Narcissus is, and they the waters are (Reflections) or Kingsley Amis': Should poets bicycle-pump the heart Or squash it flat? (Something Nasty in the Bookshop) faced with literal translations in cultures where Narcissus and the bicycle-pump are not known, the reader is not so much culturally shocked as baffled. In such poems there is a case for creating a culturally equivalent TL metaphor, or converting the SL metaphor to sense or, where there is space, adding sense to the metaphor; but if the translator regards the metaphor as important, it is his duty to carry it across to launch it on the target language and its culture. Whilst I think that all images have universal, cultural and personal sources, the translator of poetry cannot make any concession to the reader such as transferring the foreign culture to a native equivalent. If autumn in China is the season not of Keats's 'mists and mellow fruitfulness' but of high clear skies and transparent waters, and the sound of clothes laundered for the cold weather pounded on the washing blocks, then the reader must simply accept this background and, if he wants to feel it, repeated reading is more likely to make it his possession than are detailed background, explanation of allusions and so on. Nevertheless, the European must be aware that, for the Chinese culture, jade is not jade-coloured but white ('jade snow', 'jade beads', 'jade moon'), that comparisons with eyebrows assume the custom of painting women's eyebrows green, that the phoenix has no myth of resurrection, that dragons are close and kindly, that cypresses suggest grave-yards, as in the West (see Graham, Poems of the Late Tang).
  • 210. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 165 The transition from Chinese to English culture is made easier because all the images mentioned are not unfamiliar to an English reader. The difficulty comes when and if local flowers and grasses are used as metaphors. I am sceptical about the idea that a translator of poetry is primarily communicating - that he is, to his readers in the conventional definition of communicative translation, trying to create the same effect on the target language readers as was created by the poet on his own readers; his main endeavour is to 'translate' the effect the poem made on himself. A translator can hardly achieve even a parallel effect in poetry - the two languages, since all their resources are being used here as in no other literary or non-literary medium, are, at their widest, poles apart. Syntax, lexis, sound, culture, but not image, clash with each other. Valery wrote: 'My aim is not literary. It is not to produce an effect on others so much as on myself- the Self in so far as it may be treated as a work ... of the mind. I am not interested in writing poetry without a view to its function.' Compare John Cairncross, who was not trying to disprove that French, or poetry, or French poetry, or Racine, was untranslatable, or to present Racine to his English readers, or to present his English readers with Racine, but set about translating simply because the English words started forming themselves in his ear, and so he quotes Racine again: Ce que j'ai fait, Abner, j'ai cru le devoirfaire'What I have done, Abner, I had to do' (Athalie, 1.467), which is itself an echo of уе-урафа, уеурафа - Pontius Pilate's 'What I have written I have written'. Take it or leave it. Now I think that in most examples of poetry translation, the translator first decides to choose a TL poetic form (viz. sonnet, ballad, quatrain, blank verse etc.) as close as possible to that of the SL. Although the rhyming scheme is part of the form, its precise order may have to be dropped. Secondly, he will reproduce the figurative meaning, the concrete images of the poem. Lastly the setting, the thought-words, often the various techniques of soundeffect which produce the individual impact I have mentioned have to be worked in at later stages during the rewriting (as Beaugrande has stated in his fine translation of Rilke). Emotionally, different sounds create different meanings, based not on the sounds of nature, nor on the seductive noises in the streams and the forests, but on the common sounds of the human throat: Sein oder nicht sein - das ist hier die Frage appears to have a ring of confidence and challenge in it which is foreign to Hamlet's character - is it the redoubled ei sound? - that opens up the whole question of the universal symbolism of sounds. All this plangency, this openness is missing in 'To be or not to be - that is the question' which is almost a word-for-word translation, though the German hier - 'that is here the question' appears to underline the challenge which is not in Shakespeare. The fact is that, however good as a translation, its meaning will differ in many ways from the original - it will, in Borrow's phrase, be a mere echo of the original, not through Gogol's glass pane - and it will have its own independent strength. A successfully translated poem is always another poem. Whether a translator gives priority to content or manner, and, within manner, what aspect - metre, rhyme, sound, structure - is to have priority, must depend not only on the values of the particular poem, but also on the translator's
  • 211. 166 PRINCIPLES theory of poetry. Therefore no general theory of poetic translation is possible and all a translation theorist can do is to draw attention to the variety of possibilities and point to successful practice, unless he rashly wants to incorporate his theory of translation into his own theory of poetry. Deliberately or intuitively, the translator has to decide whether the expressive or the aesthetic function of language in a poem or in one place in a poem is more important. Crudely this renews Keats's argument concerning Truth and Beauty: 'Beauty is Truth, Truth, Beauty - that is all you know, and all you need to know', when he maintains that they define and are equivalent to each other, as well as the later argument between art as a criticism of life (Matthew Arnold) and art for art's sake (Theophile Gautier) which characterised two French poetic movements as well as much turn-ofthe-century literature -'All art is useless', wrote Oscar Wilde, whose own art belies the statement. Clearly Keats, who was not thinking of translation, oversimplified the argument. If Truth stands for the literal translation and Beauty for the elegant version in the translator's idiom, Truth is ugly and Beauty is always a lie. 'That's life', many would say. But a translation theorist would point out that both these versions, the literal and the elegant poem, would normally be equally unsatisfactory as translations of a poem or of anything else. Some fusion, some approximation, between the expressive and the aesthetic function of language is required, where in any event the personal language of the poet which deviates from the norms of the source language is likely to deviate even more from those of the target language. Thus Karl Kraus complained that Stefan George, by 'doing violence' to the English sense of Shakespeare's sonnets and to German verbal and grammatical usage, had produced 'a unique abortion'! But, in my belief, George is the closest and most successful of all translators. Thus: Lebwohl! zu teuer ist dein besitzfur mich Und du zveifit wohl wie schwer du bist zu kaufen Der freibriefdeities werts entbindet dich Mein recht aufdich ist vollig abgelaufen. which is: Farewell! too dear is your possession for me And you well know how hard you are to buy The charter of your worth releases you My claim to you has fully run its course. which becomes: Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing, And like enough thou know'st thy estimate: The Charter of thy worth gives thee releasing; My bonds in thee are all determinate. (Sonnet 87)
  • 212. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 167 George's translation is notable for its tautness and flexibility, and particularly for its emphasis on the corresponding theme-words ('dear', 'charter', 'releasing', 'bonds', 'determinate'). Where he is unable to reach Shakespeare is in the polysemy of 'estimate', 'releasing', 'bonds', and 'determinate', and thus he restricts the meaning of the quatrain - and above all in the splendid logical statement of Shakespeare's opening with its communicative dynamism on 'possessing', where George is forced into an inversion. Angus Graham, in his discussion on the translation of Chinese poetry, says that the element in poetry which travels best is concrete imagery. A crib or trot of Chinese such as: Kuang Heng write-frankly memorial. Success slight Liu Hsiang transmit classic. Plan miss. could be rewritten as: A disdained K'uang Heng, as a critic of policy, As promoter of learning, a Liu Hsiang who failed. Here the poet is miserably contrasting his failures with the success of two statesmen, but contrast this with: Tartar horn tug North wind, Thistle Gate whiter than water Sky, hold-inmouth Koknor Road Wall top moon thousand mile I note that, even in a Times Literary Supplement review, Erich Segal comments on most translators 'metarophobia', their unease in the presence of metaphor. Pindar speaks of man being skias onar 'the dream of a shadow' but Richmond Lattimore turns it round to the conventional 'shadow of a dream'. According to Aeschylus, Prometheus stole the anthos/pyros, the 'blossom of fire', but according to half the translators he merely 'plucked the blossom'. 'Dichten equals condensare', as Ezra Pound wrote in ABC of Reading, mistakenly thinking that dichten is related to dicht ('dense' or 'thick'), but stating a truth. Original poetry itself has no redundancy, no phatic language, but the translator usually needs a little extra space, he relies on redundancy in over-translating, say, veule as 'flabby' or 'weak and soft' and here he is often hemmed in by the metre. Racine's wonderful line Lejour n'est pas plus pur que le fond de moncoeur may become: 'My heart is candid as the light of day' (Dillon) or: 'The daylight is not purer than my heart' (Cairncross) and whilst the second translation is closer and more successful, it cannot match the fullness and softness of the original; the alliteration, the monosyllables, the repeated r's, the emotive fond are missing.
  • 213. 168 PRINCIPLES I have said that original metaphors have to be translated accurately, even if in the target language culture the image is strange and the sense it conveys may only be guessed. Undjener, der'du'zu ihm sagte trdumt mit ikm: Wir(Cehn,InMemoriam Paul Eluard): 'And he who addressed him as "thou" will dream with him: We.' The translator Michael Hamburger has to use 'thou', although the connotations of friendship and love - what I would call le plaisir de te tutoyer - will be lost on the reader of the translation or perhaps soon on the reader of the original, now that the intimate du, tu has been taken over by the Left and all the under-thirties. Le plaisir de te tutoyer has almost gone, unless you are old, but so, thankfully, has das erste Du stammelte aufihren keuschen Lippen. Sound-effects are bound to come last for the translator, except for lovely minor poetry such as Swinburne's. Inevitably, he must try to do something about them and, if not, compensate, either by putting them elsewhere or substituting another sound. German, the Brudersprache to English, often finds its adjectives and nouns fretnde Frau, 'alien woman'; laue Luft, 'tepid air' - unreproduced, but longer alliterations. Und schwolle mit und schauerte und triefte (G. Benn, Untergrundbahn) can usually find a modest, suggestive equivalence: To swell in unison and stream and shudder (trans. M. Hamburger) John Weightman has stated that French poetry is untranslatable into English. I cannot accept this. Firstly, because a lot of French poetry (Villon, Rimbaud, Valery) has been more or less successfully translated into English; secondly because although there are obvious minuses - the syntactical differences; the huge English vocabulary compared with the small French vocabulary, so that many French words appear to be generic words covering many English specific words that themselves lack a generic word (e.g., humide, mouille: 'humid, damp, dank, moist, wet, clammy, undried'; noir: 'black, dark, dim, dull, dusky, deep, gloomy, murky'), making French 'abstract' and intellectual whilst English is concrete and real - yet, in the actual particular of a text, English has infinite creative resources, English has the disyllables as well as the monosyllables, English in the eighteenth century got close to all the so-called French properties and, given empathy, given sympathy, there is no reason why, one day, even Racine should not find his inadequate but challenging English translator. John Cairncross sets out three considerations for the translation of Racine: (1) the translator must adopt ten-syllable blank verse; (2) Racine must be translated accurately; (3) Racine's verse is particularly difficult owing to his capacity of evoking music from the most unpromising material -1 could think of more. Hippolyte's confession of love -1 would not call it that, it is too restless and feverish - to Aricie (Phedre, 11.524-60) is often considered to be precieux, i.e.,
  • 214. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 169 affected, conventional, too polished, sophisticated, class-bound, with too many stock metaphors, but for me they have always been Racine's most beautiful lines, crystallising the neurotic exposed mental and nervous obsession which is the essence of the Racine characater. Taking the critical lines 539-48, it appears to me that in any modern version, the language must be kept modern and formal, the polar oppositions (fitir, trouver, suivre, eviter, lumiere, ombre) retained, the stresses and repetitions preserved, the image of the hunted, haunted animal (Hippolyte) kept clear, and some attempt made to keep the simple language, the soft sounds with occasional alliteration. Consider first the version of John Caircross. In general it is accurate, though a new image is unnecessarily created ('Cut from my moorings by a surging swell') and some oppositions blurred: Present I flee you; absent you are near Presenteje vousfuis absente, je vous trouve and the stresses often changed. The translation, written in 1945, has a few old-fashioned phrases: 'in thrall', 'a single blow has quelled'. With all this, lines such as Before you stands a pitiable prince . . . Who, pitying the shipwrecks of the weak . . . Deep in the woods, your image follows me. Dans lefond desforits voire image me suit The light of day, the shadows of the night. La lumiere dujour, les ombres de la nuit. (the latter a one-to-one translation) Everything conjures up the charms I flee I seek but cannot find myself again Maintenant je me cherche, el ne me trouve plus (note the unusual number of French monosyllables) are close to the original and successful. George Dillon, like Cairncross, uses blank verse, and prefers formal accuracy to musicality. His translation is closer than Cairncross's, so that lexical inaccuracies such as 'surprise' for trouble and 'hurt' for dechirer are disconcerting, as is the weak line: 'Your image moves with me in the deep forests' (the alliteration is compensatory). Some stresses and contrasts are more clearly rendered than Cairncross's: With you and with myself, vainly I strive (1.541)
  • 215. THE SHORT STORY/NOVEL 170 PRINCIPLES All summon to my eyes what I avoid (1.545) I seek myself and find myself no more (1.548) (the latter the most successful line) - such lines show how simply and precisely Racine can be translated. Both Dillon and Cairncross hit on the same translation for line 544 and there are occasions where one or two lines of Dillon's could improve Cairncross's rather better overall version; Dillon's Only my deep sighs echo in the wood; My idle couriers have forgotten my voice. is better than Cairncross's My idle steeds no longer know my voice And only to my cries the woods resound. (I do not know why Caircross has reversed the lines.) Robert Lowell's 'imitation' of Phedre is another matter. These rhymed pentameters attempt to explicate the image of the speech: Six months now, bounding like a wounded stag I've tried to shake this poisoned dart, and drag Myself to safety from your eyes that blind When present, and when absent leave behind Volleys of burning arrows in my mind. I do not know how such lines would strike a reader or spectator new to Phedre. For myself, with Racine's images burned into my mind, I find them unsatisfying, because, like Hippolyte, I am continuously looking for and failing to find even the simplest images which Lowell would have had no difficulty in retaining or recapturing. In fact I find the greatest loss in Racine translations is the resonance of the only 1800 words that are used in the twelve plays. From a translator's point of view, the short story is, of literary forms, the second most difficult, but here he is released from the obvious constraints of poetry - metre and rhyme - whilst the varieties of sound-effect are likely to play a minor role. Further, since the line is no longer a unit of meaning, he can spread himself a little -his version is likely to be somewhat longer than the original though, always, the shorter the better. He can supply cultural glosses within the text - not, as in poetry or drama, delete or banish them to some note or glossary: L'ascenseur ne fonctionnait
  • 216. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 111 pas, en raison des economies de courant - 'With the war-time electricity cuts, the lift wasn't working.' Since formal and thematic concentration and unity may distinguish the short story from the novel, the translator has to be careful to preserve certain cohesive effects. I use Thomas Mann's Tonio Kroger to illustrate two types of key-words I propose to define: leitmotifs are peculiar to a short story, characterising a character or a situation. When they are repeated, they should be appropriately foregrounded and repeated in the translation: Zigeuner im griinen Wagen - 'gypsies in green wagons' for the artists; die Blonden und Blauaugigen - 'the blond and blue-eyed ones' for the ordinary people; die Feldblume im Knopfloch - 'the wild flowers in his buttonhole' for the respectable bourgeois Knaak with his gedampfte Stimme -'muffled or subdued voice', or for Magdalena: the clumsy ones, die immer hinfallen - 'who always fall down'. Descriptive leitmotifs were used in Romantic short stories before Wagner invented the term, e.g., in Gotthelf's Dark Spider, giftigglotzend-'gaping poisonously', where the alliteration is moderately compensated. As dialogue becomes more important in fiction, certain phrases become attached to characters (Grev's billiard remarks in The Cherry Orchard, the numerous tags for Dickens's characters, Holden Coulfield's 'phoney', Esme's 'extremely' in Salinger (now it is 'totally' for anyone) and these have to be foregrounded. The second type of key-word is the word or phrase that typifies the writer rather than the particular text: sich verirren, jagen, beirrt, namlich, beengen and all the Beamte words may be said to typify Kafka, as powerful verbs like entrainer, epier, agir, fremir, exiger, grelotter, tressaillir, obsider may typify Mauriac. Some of these words go into a ready one-to-one translation into English, and get their connotational significance from repetition and context (situational and linguistic) which can more or less be reproduced by the translator. Words like jagen and entrainer are difficult: jagen suggests 'hectic chase' and entrainer (Quelle force m'entraine?), 'impel irresistibly'. For key-words, translators have to assess their texts critically; they have to decide which lexical units are central, and have the more important function, and which are peripheral, so that the relative gains and losses in a translation may correspond to their assessment. (I realise that many translators will claim they do all this intuitively, by instinct, or by common sense, and they do not need translation theory to make them aware of relative importance.) There is no advantage in making generalisations about the translation of serious novels. The obvious problems: the relative importance of the SL culture and the author's moral purpose to the reader - it may be exemplified in the translation of proper names; of the SL conventions and the author's idiolect; the translation of dialect; the distinction between personal style, literary convention of period and/or movement; and the norms of the SL - these problems have to be settled for each text. The signal importance of the translation of some novels has been the introduction of a new vision injecting a different literary style into another language
  • 217. 172 PRINCIPLES culture, and when one looks at Weltliteratur translations in this sense - I think of Proust, Camus, Kafka, Mann, Pavese - it is clear that the translators have often not been bold, which means not literal, enough: these are the million cases where a literal translation is aesthetically not inferior to a free translation, fashionably justified as 'sub-text', formerly the 'spirit' or the 'genius' of the language or the author. DRAMA The main purpose of translating a play is normally to have it performed successfully. Therefore a translator of drama inevitably has to bear the potential spectator in mind though, here again, the better written and more significant the text, the fewer compromises he can make in favour of the reader. Further, he works under certain constraints: unlike the translator of fiction, he cannot gloss, explain puns or ambiguities or cultural references, nor transcribe words for the sake of local colour: his text is dramatic, with emphasis on verbs, rather than descriptive and explanatory. Michael Meyer, in a little noticed article in Twentieth Century Studies, quoting T. Rattigan, states that the spoken word is five times as potent as the written word -what a novelist would say in 30 lines, the playwright must say in five. The arithmetic is faulty and so, I believe, is the sentiment, but it shows that a translation of a play must be concise - it must not be an over-translation. Meyer makes a distinction between dramatic text and sub-text, the literal meaning and the 'real point': i.e. what is implied but not said, the meaning between the lines. He believes that if a person is questioned on a subject about which he has complex feelings, he will reply evasively (and in a circumlocutory manner). Ibsen's characters say one thing and mean another. The translator must word the sentences in such a way that this, the sub-text, is equally clear in English. Unfortunately, Meyer gives no examples. Normally one would expect a semantic translation of a line, which may be close to a literal translation, to reveal its implications more clearly than a communicative translation, that simply makes the dialogue easy to speak. Lines such as 'Aren't you feeling the cold?' and 'I think your husband is faithful to you' have potential implications of escape and suspicion respectively in any language, provided there is cultural overlap between them. (They would not have the same implication if the climate or the sexual morality respectively differed considerably in the SL and the TL culture.) Finally a translator of drama in particular must translate into the modem target language if he wants his characters to 'live', bearing in mind that the modern language covers a span of, say, 70 years, and that if one character speaks in a bookish or old-fashioned way in the original, written 500 years ago, he must speak in an equally bookish and old-fashioned way in the translation, but as he would today, therefore with a corresponding time-gap - differences of register, social class, education, temperament in particular must be preserved between one character and another. Thus the dialogue remains dramatic, and though the
  • 218. THE TRANSLATION OF SERIOUS LITERATURE AND AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENTS 73 / translator cannot forget the potential spectators, he does not make concessions to them. Given the emphasis on linguistic form, and the subtlety of the SL, his version is inevitably inferior but also simpler and a kind of one-sided introduction to the original. Kant is easier to read in French than in German, perhaps even for a German. Whilst a great play may be translated for the reading public's enjoyment and for scholarly study as well as for performance on stage, the translator should always assume the latter as his main purpose - there should be no difference between an acting and a reading version - and he should look after readers and scholars only in his notes. Nevertheless, he should where possible amplify cultural metaphors, allusions, proper names, in the text itself, rather than replace the allusion with the sense. ('Hyperion to a satyr' becomes 'a sun god to a monster' in Chinese.) When a play is transferred from the SL to the TL culture it is usually no longer a translation, but an adaptation. CONCLUSION Finally in discussing the translation of serious literature, I must make it clear that I am trying to look at the future. There is no question that translators such as Stuart Gilbert, who translated Malraux and Camus into English and Joyce into French, had a quickening effect on translation: possibly reacting against the stiff and literary translation style which so fouled up the translation of Russian literature at the turn of the century. Profoundly influenced by Hemingway who was mainly responsible for bringing fiction closer to normal speech, Gilbert produced a lively enough equivalence: Aujourd'hui, maman est morte ou peut-itre hier, je ne sais pas becomes 'Mother died today, or maybe yesterday, I can't be sure'; Je prendrai Г autobus a deux hemes etj'arriverai dans Vapres-midi. 'With the two o'clock bus I should get there well before nightfall' (examples from Camus, L'Etranger). You can see that half the time Gilbert is trying to be more colloquial than the original, yet every time he might have said that the further colloquialism was in the subtext, i.e., implied or implicated in the original. Nevertheless it is hard to see how one can justify translating Ilfaisait tres chaud as 'It was a blazing hot afternoon', and there are a thousand other examples of such 'deviations' which show that these translators may have been aiming at 'intuitive truth', an instinctive naturalness (there is no question usually of ignorance, of carelessness, such as is so common in translations from the German) rather than accuracy at any level. I am suggesting that some kind of accuracy must be the only criterion of a good translation in the future - what kind of accuracy depending first on the type and then the particular text that has been translated and that the word 'sub-text' with its Gricean implications and implicatures can be made to cover a multitude of inaccuracies.
  • 219. REFERENCE BOOKS AND THEIR USES; TRACING THE UNFINDABLE' WORD / 75 CHAPTER 16 Reference Books and their Uses; Tracing the 'Unfindable' Word used outside dictionaries (maybe 'posology', 'physiological solution', 'compass declination'). It is useful to look up in dictionaries words you have known by their contexts for years, because you often find you have missed an essential component of their core meaning (for 40 years I thought 'mercenary' meant 'mean', for example). In fact the experience gives the lie to Wittgenstein's notorious 'For a large class of cases (though not for all). . . the meaning of a word is its use in the language', since this is often an excuse for a translator's vagueness and inaccuracy. From context, you often deduce function rather than description, and admittedly function is the first element in meaning and translation. But a fork is essentially an object with between two and four prongs on the end of a ha"^lp as well as something to eat with. INTRODUCTION This is the age of reference books. A combination of popular demand and improved information technology (IT) combines to ensure that a greater variety as well as a greater number of these books is continually produced, and can now be updated annually without difficulty (e.g., the Petit Larousse). I remind you there are dictionaries of toponyms, symbols, idioms, rare words, phrasal verbs, cliches, euphemisms; good dictionaries are including an increasing number of collocations, but there is still a gap in this area. All these can be useful if you bear in mind their greatest drawback for languagelearners as well as for translators: information about the current frequency of the items; further, description is sometimes either confused with function, or function is missing (a knife is for eating, cutting with, as well as a tool with a (usually) metal blade and a handle). As a translator you have to know where as well as how to find information. All reference books, however bad, are potentially useful, provided that you know their limitations - which include the date of their publication (so, for German, an old Muret-Sanders is good for translating A. von Humboldt). Multilingual dictionaries give few collocations, and therefore are only useful as initial clues to a further search; bilingual dictionaries are indispensable, but they
  • 220. normally require checking in at least two TL monolingual dictionaries and sometimes an SL monolingual dictionary, to check the status (i.e., modern currency, frequency, connotations) of the word. Hilaire Belloc once wrote that the translator should look up every (presumably SL) word, particularly those he is familar with; others say translators should mistrust all dictionaries, sometimes assuming that knowledge of the topic or subjectmatter of the text has precedence over questions of equivalence, or that one cannot translate words, only sentences (or texts) words alone are meaningless. All these remarks, like most about translation, have a partial truth. Bilingual dictionaries often contain too many 'dictionary words', i.e. words that are rarely RESOURCES You need firstly a good English dictionary Collins English Dictionary, because it is clear, well arranged and has a high proportion of proper-name head-words. If you can, use also the Concise Oxford and Longman's Dictionary of the English Language (1984). Secondly, you must have a Roget, at least the new Penguin; a thesaurus is essential for: (a) bringing up words from your passive memory; (b) giving you the descriptive words that show up the lexical gaps in the source language; (c) extending your vocabulary. Thirdly, you should have a large Webster (three volumes) within reasonable distance. Often you look up an SL technical term in the English Webster before you look it up in an SL monolingual or an SL-TL bilingual dictionary. Find your way round the EB (Encyclopaedia Britannica); the Micropaedia has a surprisingly large number of dictionary as well as encyclopaedia terms and names. For new words use the two Barnhart Dictionaries of New English and the Supplements to the Oxford English Dictionary. For word-meanings at various periods, consult the OED (but its merger of the old OED and the Supplements is bad lexicography). Buy all the Penguin specialist dictionaries (there are over 30) in your field. A modern dictionary of collocations is missing - there is only the great A. Reum's Dictionary of English Style (also for French) (1920). For keywords use Bullock and Stallybrass's Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought (also its Biographical Companion by Bullock and Woodings), Roger Scruton's Dictionary of Political Thought, Raymond Williams's Key Words (2nd edition), Edward de Bono's Word Power, Antony Flew's Dictionary of Philosophy (which also has tables of logic, set theory and formal language symbols). But note that many 'internationalisms' in keywords, not only political ones, have different meanings in other languages (see Newmark, 1982, 1985). For British institutional terms, use the annual Britain 198published by the Central Office of Information (COI); Whitaker's Almanack is class-biased but has useful statistics. Consult Keesinfs for current events. Payton's Proper Names (Warne) is brilliant and essential, as is P. Thody and H. Evans, Faux Amis and Key 174
  • 221. 176 PRINC IPLES 177 REFERENCE BOOKS AND THEIR USES; TRACING THE UNFINDABLE' WORD W o T 14 14 3 14 4 14 5 14 6 14 7 14 9 T D C T N N 1 4 B 1 5 151 M i 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 157 5 P 158 r E 159 x D i E D a n s l a r e p o n s e i n f i a m m a t o i r e , l e s m o l e c u l e s c
  • 222. o m p r e n n e n t e n p a r t i c u l i e r I ' h i s t a m i n e , l e s e r o t o n i n e , l e s y s t e m e d u c o m p l e x e , g r o u p e c o m p l e x e d e n e u f p r o t H n e s . I n t h e i n fl a m m a to ry re s p o n se , th e c h e m ic al s u b st a n c es c o n si st in p ar ti c ul ar of hi st a m in e, se ro to ni n a n d th e c o m pl e m e nt s y st e m , a c o m pl e x gr o u p of ni n e pr ot ei n s. T I translator's search, often assuming that English is the source language.
  • 223. 178 PRINCIPLES Bilingual general and specialised dictionaries may be consulted first; whether or not they produce answers or clues, they must be followed up with careful checks and cross-checks in SL and TL monolingual dictionaries to determine cognitive and pragmatic equivalence as well as the currency of the TL word cited. It may be a 'dictionary' word (or phrase) - i.e. existing only in dictionaries, particularly if the dictionary is written by SL writers. For English, this hunt covers: (1) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, the most up-to-date and comprehensive English-language dictionary available which will 'sweep up' many technical terms, new collocations, acronyms, collocations, colloquialisms and foreign words (e.g. Luftmensch, Yiddish (not German) for 'dreamer' in the sense of 'Johnny head in air'); (2) the Oxford English Dictionary for archaisms and dialect words (cf. Littri for French) and its Supplements (ed. R. W. Burchfield), A-G (1972), H-N (1976), O-Sc (1982); (3) the Micropaedia of the Encyclopaedia Britannica for proper names, concepts and technical terms; (4) The Times Atlas of the World and the Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World for geographical terms in various languages; (5) Collins English Dictionary for current British English colloquialisms and slang. Secondly, the translator has to consider the possibility of a misprint, misspelling or variant spelling: 'ch', 'c' and 'k' (e.g. 'calli', 'kalli'); 'f, 'ph' and 'th'; 'oe' or 'ae' (and 'e') alternate between British and American English for words derived from classical Greek; 'y', 'u' and 'j' may alternate. Misprints may create mis-leadingly plausible neologisms: 'astrolobe' or 'astropode' for 'astrolabe'; Kern may be a 'convincing' misprint for Keim. An apparently English word, 'autochemist', may be put into a French SL text as an equivalent of auto-analyseur when only 'auto-analyser' is usually acceptable: this provides a further reminder that the translator can take no word for granted, certainly not the existence of a word in his own language, because it appears in an SL text, unless he is already acquainted with it. The translator must be prepared to engage in the lateral thinking and Cloze test techniques (filling in missing letters) which the problem of misprints and misspellings presents. Consider the problem of Elle avail un uveakolobrom congenital. The 'uvea' is clear, but the kolobrom has an improbable non-medical suffix. 'If к doesn't work, try c' is a translator's hint, and this produces 'a congenital coloboma of the uvea' (i.e. a fissure of the iris). The largest number of neologisms are technical terms made up of morphemes based on classical Greek and Latin, the meaning of which are listed (as are acronyms) in the body of modern dictionaries. The composites are usually not difficult to elucidate (e.g. 'ambisonics': stereophonic sound coming from all parts of a room). Neologisms are usually created by analogy (e.g. 'terrisphone' or 'endorphine'). Unfortunately there is no English (or German) equivalent to the French periodical La Banque des Mots or the Dictionnaire des Mots Contemporains (a revised edition of the Dictionnaire des Mots Nouveaux) that attempts to keep up with neologisms; the Council of Europe's Le Petit Termophile (edited by Martin Weston) and Verbatim are the nearest equivalents. The most elusive unfindable words are
  • 224. REFERENCE BOOKS AND THEIR USES; TRACING THE 'UNFINDABLE' WORD 179 often one-syllable slang words which may be abbreviations, figurative or onomatopoeic (e.g., 'zonked') but these indications are only clues and require further search. A general awareness of historical sound-shifts is valuable in tracking the meaning of slang words, even if in doing so the translator invents his own folk etymologies: thus 'lizzers' (social parasites) (g and y). Unfindable Romance words (e.g. Italian nictemerale) should be pursued in modern French dictionaries {Robert, Lexis, QuillletFlammarion, Larousse) after allowance has been made for changed spelling (nycthemeral) - or in Webster ('nychthemeral' or 'nycthemeral'). Again, 'panchronic' (in a translation of Saussure's Cours) is panchronique in Lexis. Lexicographers are only slowly taking into account that French dictionaries must give appropriate value to metropolitan, Canadian, Swiss and Walloon words (note for instance that the Canadianism crapet is denotatively 'a fresh water fish' or 'a type of axe', connotatively a 'brat' (cf. crapaud); German to FRG, GDR, Austrian and Swiss words (legal terminology is a common source of differences in all states). Cassells was claiming in 1959 that its Spanish Dictionary was the first to give the Spanish of Latin America its due place. Arguably, English dictionaries should include more Welsh words (e.g., fawr; Plaid Cymru); neither Intershop nor Exquisit (GDR German) are explained in many English or West German reference books on German (Collins: Intershop: 'International shop'!). New compound nouns are particularly prolific in the more recent technologies, and meanings often have to be surmised from their components. Blends appear in technology for fusing two nouns ('biostatics', 'biostatistics'); frequently they are internationalisms, but others ('stagflation', 'ecocide') may have to be separated out in translation. Many local dialect (patois) words are only now being recorded at a time when they are disappearing, some at the same time as their relevant trades and industries. For English words, The Language of British Industry by Peter Wright should be consulted. A translator should be able to surmise the new sense of many existing words by taking into account the force of analogy, which is both social (conforming) and psychological (association of images). Thus 'thankfully', based on 'hopefully', 'mercifully', etc. is 'fortunately' with sometimes a religious connotation ('thanks be to God'), cf. 'sadly'; 'sophisticated' moves from inanimate ('advanced') to animate to become 'skilled, subtle, resourceful'. Ephemeral neologisms are a translator's nightmare. In order to extract meaning from the Tory 'wets' of today, it may be necessary 50 years hence to look up the newspaper files to establish that 'wets', meaning 'feeble, foolish, not conforming to type', was used to denote Tory MPs opposing Mrs Thatcher's monetarist policy. Old words with new senses can often only be detected if the translator is humble enough to check almost every word in his text, since the word or collocation (e.g. 'polytechnic', 'intercity', 'playgroup', 'morphology', 'juggernaut', 'with
  • 225. 180 PRINC IPLES REFERENCE BOOKS AND THEIR USES; TRACING THE 'UNFINDABLE' WORD 181 i A t c C o I B r S L c o P r I n T h C T r D i
  • 226. 182 PRINCIPLES often monosyllables and appear as slight deformations of standard words or as figurative language. English dialect words may be tracked in the OED, Wright's vast English Dialect Dictionary (18981905) and Eric Partridge's Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. The translation of isolated dialect words depends both on the cognitive and pragmatic purposes for which they were used. Immigrants are developing new varieties of British English, in particular Pakistani and Jamaican English (see F. G. Cassidy and R. B. Le Page's Dictionary of Jamaican English). Unfamiliar connotations and symbolic meanings of words or proper names in a SL text may be universal (birth, sex, death, food, shelter), cultural or personal to the SL writer. When not covered by a modern dictionary such as Collins (1978), they may be found in the Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art by James Hall (Murray), J. C. Cooper's Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols (Thames and Hudson) or J. E. Cirlot's Dictionary of Symbols, E. Lehner's works or Man and his Symbols and other works influenced by C. G. Jung. Universal and personal symbols can usually be translated 'straight', but cultural symbols should usually be interpreted as well as translated. Translation procedure Whether a third-language or TL word introduced into the SL text is transferred or translated depends on whether it is used for 'expressive' or 'informative' purposes -respectively! A TL word, if appropriately used, would normally be 'returned'. If the 'unfindable' word is established as a misprint, misspelling, misuse of words, rare spelling, etc., the deviation is normally ignored and the correct word is translated. If the 'unfindable' word is found as a little-known proper name a person or a geographical feature - it is normally transferred (or transliterated) with the addition of some generic information (e.g., 'Kocerga, a small town in the Irkutsk region, USSR'; the river Egiyn, in the Lake Baikal region'; 'Snoilsky, a nineteenth-century Swedish poet'). If the word is verified as a neologism, the translator has the choice of various procedures (transference, new coinage, literal translation, general or cultural equivalent, label) depending on various considerations (importance of referent, type of text, nature of readership) - all of which I have previously discussed in Chapter 13 above; see also my Approaches to Translation (1981). When the name of a new or unimportant institution is identified, it is either transferred with a statement of its function and status, or replaced by a generic name, such as 'body', 'committee', 'company', etc., with a statement of its function. An old 'linguistic' word used in a new sense (e.g., 'jogging', 'kicks) may require componential analysis before translation and therefore may be translated by two or more words. An old 'institutional' word used in a new sense (e.g. Fachhochschule, IUT, 'polytechnic') may be given an approximate cultural equivalent (as above) or, for a more technical text, be transferred, accompanied by a brief
  • 227. REFERENCE BOOKS AND THEIR USES; TRACING THE 'UNFINDABLE' WORD 183 functional definition. (A functional definition explains the purpose of the referent, a descriptive definition states its size, colour, composition.) The translator can never 'abandon' an unfindable word, must never assume, because it appears to be nonsensical (a non-existent word, or an existing word clearly out of place), that nothing was intended, that it can be ignored. On the contrary, he must finally make some kind of guess at the word he cannot find, some compromise between the most likely contextual meaning of the word (again, a kind of Cloze test technique) and the meaning suggested by the morphology or form of the word, if such exists. Needless to say, he has to append a note stating 'Not found', and giving his reasons for his interpretation of the unfindable word, showing the extremes of the most likely contextual gap and the apparent extra-contextual meaning of the word build up by its component morphemes. If he suspects that a word has been misread by the typist ('miscopied'), he must say so in a note. In locating and interpreting 'unfindable' words, the translator requires common sense even more than resourcefulness, imagination and 'good connections'. The chase for words, and the sudden relief or satisfaction when the word is found, are amongst the greater attractions of the job.
  • 228. TRANSLATION CRITICISM 185 C T T y a
  • 229. , ev en be tte r, t w o or m or e tr an sl ati o ns of th e sa m e te xt . (S ee P ar t II, es pe ci all y Te xt s 1 01 3. ) Y o u so o n be co m e a w ar e n ot o nl y of th e la rg e 'ta st e ar ea ', b ut th at a te xt m ay be di ff er en tl y tr an s l Ce tte ru e, cet te pl ac e res se mb len ta la ru e, a la pl ac e d'a lor s: ell es ne so nt pa s les mi me s, et, les au tre s, je pu is av oir I'i mp res sio n qu' ell es exi ste nt en co re. ( Th ose pla ces loo k as the y did the n, but the y are not the sa me ; an d as for the oth ers ,I ha ve the fee lin g tha
  • 230. t th ey sti ll ex ist . T he p oi nt he re is n ot h o w g o o d th is is as a tr an sl at io n or w h y it w as n ot m or e cl os el y tr an sl at ed , pe rh ap s in to : 'T hi s st re et, th is sq ua re ar e li ke th e st re et, th e sq ua re of th os e ti m I 1 a n T r A
  • 231. tr an sla tio n m ay be ev al ua te d by va rio us au th ori tie s (I ns ta nz en ): (a) th e re vi se r e m pl oy ed by th e fir m or th e tra ns lat io n co m pa ny ; (b ) th e he ad of se cti on or of th e co m pa ny (th is m ay be de sc rib ed as 'Q ua lit y C on tro l', if tra ns lat
  • 232. 186 PRINCI PLES TRANSLATION CRITICISM 187 a t I T Thi s thir d sec tio n of yo ur crit iqu e sho uld con sist of a dis cus sio n of tra ns- I T
  • 233. 188 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION CRITICISM 189 l a T h F A f a F I T h R e
  • 234. 190 PRINC IPLES TRANSLATION CRITICISM 191 m o S e T h a I T Y
  • 235. 192 PRINCIPLES QUALITY IN TRANSLATION CHAPTER The question remains: What is a good translation? What fails? (And what is a bad translator sans emploi, as the great Louis Jouvet phrased it inimitably in Quai des Brumes?) What is a distinguished translation? 'Often we cannot agree what a particular translation should be like. But can one teach what one does not know?' (Neubert, 1984, p. 69). Rhetorical questions such as: would you employ this man to do your translations? are useful only because they produce an immediate instinctive reaction. Ultimately standards are relative, however much one tries to base them on criteria rather than norms. A good translation fulfils its intention; in an informative text, it conveys the facts acceptably; in a vocative text, its success is measurable, at least in theory, and therefore the effectiveness of an advertising agency translator can be shown by results; in an authoritative or an expressive text, form is almost as important as content, there is often a tension between the expressive and the aesthetic functions of language and therefore a merely 'adequate' translation may be useful to explain what the text is about (cf. many Penguin Plain Prose translations), but a good translation has to be 'distinguished' and the translator exceptionally sensitive; for me, the exemplar is Andreas Mayor's translation of Proust's Le Temps retrouve - 'Time Regained'. In principle, it should be easier to assess a translation than an original text, since it is an imitation. The difficulty lies not so much in knowing or recognising what a good translation is, as in generalising with trite definitions that are little short of truisms, since there are as many types of translations as there are of texts. But the fact that there is a small element of uncertainty and subjectivity in any judgment about a translation eliminates neither the necessity nor the usefulness of translation criticism, as an aid for raising translation standards and for reaching more agreement about the nature of translation. Shorter Items 18 WORDS AND CONTEXT Many translators say you should never translate words, you translate sentences or ideas or messages. I think they are deceiving themselves. The SL text consists of words, that is all that is there, on the page. Finally all you have is words to translate, and you have to account for each of them somewhere in your TL text, sometimes by deliberately not translating them (e.g. sometimes words like schon and dejd), or by compensating for them, because if translated cold you inevitably over-translate them, e.g., Ich bin schon langefertig-'l have been ready for ages'; 1000 francs, c'est dejd ma/- '1000 francs, that's not bad at all'. I am not suggesting you translate isolated words. You translate words that are more or less linguistically, referendaily, culturally and subjectively influenced in their meaning, words conditioned by a certain linguistic, referential, cultural and personal context. The linguistic context may be limited to a collocation (90% of the time, it is no more than that): un hiver blanc - 'a white winter' (blanc has many other meanings); or it may be as large as a sentence in the case of an extended metaphor or a proverb. And occasionally, a word may be linguistically conditioned by its use beyond the sentence, when it is a concept-word variously repeated or modified or contrasted in other sentences or paragraphs, or again where it is used as a stylistic marker or leitmotif throughout the text. Secondly, the referential context. This relates to the topic of the text. Often only the topic will nail the meaning of a thousand technical words such as defilement ('scrolling'), stockage ('storage'), rechercher ('search'), fusionner ('merge'), appel ('calling'), which happen to be related to electronic data processing. However, the number of such words even in an 'opaquely' technical text, i.e., one that is comprehensible only to the relevant expert, does not usually exceed 5-10%. Thirdly, there is the cultural context, words related to ways of thinking and behaving within a particular language community, and words which may be cultural (e.g., kuffiah, an Arabic head-dress) or universal (e.g., 'tea') denoting a specific material cultural object.
  • 236. Lastly, there is the individual context, the idiolect of the writer, the fact that we all use some words and collocations in a way peculiar to ourselves. 193
  • 237. /95 194 PRINCIPLES All words are more or less context-bound in their meanings. The least so are the technical words like 'haematology', which is normally 'context-free', unless it is a code-word. Such words bring their contexts with them. Further most words for common objects and actions are hardly contextually bound if they are 'unmarked', e.g., 'tree', 'chair', 'table'. Only when they are 'marked', i.e., technically used, e.g., arbre ('shaft'), metier ('loom'), ckaine ('radio channel') can they be realistically described as context-bound. A common mistake is to ignore context. A not uncommon mistake is to make context the excuse for inaccurate translation. THE TRANSLATION OF DIALECT It is normally accepted that the literary genres which in translation necessarily suffer varying degrees of loss of meaning are poetry, sonorous prose, texts with a large proportion of word-play or cultural content, and dialect. This does not mean that these genres are unsuitable for translation. Poetry in particular has been superbly and closely (or more freely) translated at various times, resulting in a brilliant fusion of the poet's and the poet-translator's language, and often demonstrating the translator's suggestive and tactful compensatory sound techniques: The expense of spirit in a waste of shame Is lust in action; and till action, lust Is perjured, murd'rous, bloody, full of blame, Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust. (Shakespeare, Sonnet 129) Verbrauch von geist in schandlicher verzehr 1st lust in tat, und bis zur tat, ist lust Meineidig, morderisch, blutig, voll unehr, Wild, tierisch, grausam, roh, des lugs bezvusst. (trans. Stefan George) Some of the sound-effects of prose, advertisements, jingles can be captured or compensated, and puns can usually be partially replaced. In all these cases, the translator has to be aware, not that he is attempting the traditionally impossible -'poetry is what gets lost in the translation' (R. Frost); even 'bread' and pain have completely different meanings (thus Robert Graves who, as Chukovski (1984) pointed out, mutilated Homer) - but that he can have only partial success, and that if he tries to reproduce or compensate for all the sound-effects of his original, he will be 'over-translating' with a vengeance and inevitably mangling the sense. Normally, he reproduces sound-effect here and there, in a minor key, suggestively, tactfully as indeed a small echo of the original since, in a serious poem, the main effect is created by its rhythms, its literal or figurative meaning, and its metre. I now turn to the translation of dialect, not particularly because you will have
  • 238. TRANSLATION CRITICISM to translate it, but because it is sometimes set up as the ultimate impossibility in translation, which it is not. If dialect appears metalingually, i.e. as an example of language, you normally transfer it, translate it into neutral language, and clarify the reasons why it is cited. However, when dialect appears in fiction or drama, the problem is different. In my opinion there is no need to replace a coalminer's dialect in Zola with, say, a Welsh coalminer's dialect, and this would only be appropriate, if you yourself were completely at home in Welsh dialect. As a translator, your main job is to decide on the functions of the dialect. Usually, this will be: (a) to show a slang use of language; (b) to stress social class contrasts; and more rarely (c) to indicate local cultural features. Given the decline of dialects in present-day British English, a translation into dialect runs the risk of being antiquated. For the English translator, the most important thing is the ability to use and possibly neologise phrasal verbs and nouns. On the stage, a workingclass accent is quite enough to cover apparent distortions like: Wenn ich blofi wi/ite, was du meenst - 'Wish I know what you meant'; a shift to dialect 'tha meant' would not help. But take: Die hat a erscht gar nich mehr in der Tasche, der Hungerleider, verdammte, dahier. In ganzen Kreese mufi a sich rumpumpen. Nischte wie Schulden, wo man hinheert. Wie lange werd's dauem, da is a fertig da mufi a selber naus aus dent Hause statts dafi a andre Leute la fit nausschmeifien. (Gerhard Hauptmann, Fuhrmann Henschel; Silesian dialect of the 1860s.) Here a few dropped h's and missing agreements to suggest uneducated 'peasants' would be ineffective. The important thing is to produce naturally slangy, possibly classless speech in moderation, hinting at the dialect, 'processing' only a small proportion of the SL dialect words: He hasn't got a bean any more, the bastard, he's cleaned out, he's near starving. He's scrounging around all the time, you hear that anywhere you go. Don't ask me how long it's going to be before he's bloody skint. Then he'll have to clear out here, instead of chucking other people out. This is no model, but I am trying to show that I have ignored the 'bad grammar' and 'mispronunciation' (faulty spelling) of the original; these linguistic features are irrelevant in a dialect, which is a selfcontained variety of language not a deviation from standard language. The main dialect effect has to be left to the cast. YOU AND THE COMPUTER If you have anything to do with computers, it seems to me you are likely to be engaged on one or more of eight tasks: (1) Pre-editing (Taum?).
  • 239. 196 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 197 16 0 F 16 1 '1 6 1 6 1 16 6 5 O 16 6 G T I f W 16 16 8 ' C P r t P I n I T I n
  • 240. 198 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 199 F A N o I o r I T T h
  • 241. 200 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 201 c I I i m ( S J F a
  • 242. 202 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 203 E n I t T r I n F a F a P r e s e n t a n d f o r m e r l y b i l i n g u a l a r e a s a r e a r e a d y s o u r c e o f f a m i l i a r a l t e r n a t i v e
  • 243. t e N O b F u E
  • 244. 204 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 205 a c T T h h T h I I H o d e d u c t i o n T A o f t a x m a y b e c l a i m e d i n r e s p e c t o f a n y
  • 245. p e r s o n w h o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a i n t a i n s a t h i s o w n e x p e n s e , a n d w h o i s ( i ) a r e l a t i v e o f h i s o r h i s w i f e a n d i n c a p a c i t a t e d b y o l d a g e o r i n fi r m it y f r o m m a i n t a i n i n g h i m s e lf o r h e r s e lf o r (i i) h i s o r h i s w if e 's w i d o w e d m o t h e r, w h e t h e r i n c a p a c it a t e d o r n o t o r (i ii ) h i s d a u ght er wh o is res ide nt wit h hi m an d up on wh os e ser vic es he is co mp ell ed to de pe nd by rea so ns of old ag e or inf ir mi ty. I If yo u ma int ain a rel ati ve of yo urs or yo ur wi fe' s wh o is un abl e to wo rk be ca us e of old ag e or inf ir mi ty, yo u ca n cla im a tax de du cti on. Yo u ca n als o cla im a de du cti o n i f y o u m a i n t a i n y o u r w i f e ' s o r y o u r o l d w i d o w e d m o t h e r , w h e t h e r s h e i s u n a b l e t o w o r k o r n o t . I f y o u m a i n t a i n a d a u g h t e r
  • 246. w h o l i v e s w i t h y o u a n d h a s t o l o o k a f t e r y o u b e c a u s e e o l d o r i n f i r m , y o u c a n a l s o n i v e a u g e : e l l e e n c o r e e s t l i i e i n f e n e u r , o n c l a i m t r o u v e a n l a a l l o w a n c e . C h a p e l l e y o u N W h T h A a r u n d e l a V i e r a u n c u l t e f o l k l o r i q u e , i s s u d e r o c h e r s a f le ur de so l. Le ci m eti er e lo ca l fla nq ue ce ba s sa nc tu ai re, de di e a la M er e de Di eu . i Lo we r do w n sti ll, su rro un de d by th e lo cal ce m ete ry, th er e is a ch ap el de di cat ed to th e Vi rgi n M ar y, th ou gh it is als o lin ke d to a tra dit io na l cu lt co nn ect ed wi th so m e ne ar by ro c k s .
  • 247. 206 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 207 p u I N o u s a v o n s e t e f r a p p i d g a l e m e n t p a r l e f a it q u ' a u c u n d e c e s e n f a n t s n e p r e s e n t a it d e d if fi c u lt e s s c o l a ir e s i s o l e e s o u q u i a u r a i
  • 248. e n t p u it r e r a tt a c h e e s a d e s c a u s e s s i m p l e s , p a r e x e m p l e u n a b s e n t e t s m e d u a l a fr e q u e n c e p l u s o n m o i n s g r a n d e d e s c r i s e s d ' a s t h m e o u p a r e x e m pl e d es tr o u bl es in st r u m e nt a u x c o m m e u n e d ys le xi e o u u n e d ys o rt h o g r a p hi e. W e w er e al so i m pr es se d b y th e fa ct th at n o ne of th es e ch il dr en ha d di ffi cu lti es at sc h o ol w hi ch w er e is ol at ed or cou ld hav e bee n ascr ibe d to sim ple cau ses suc h as abs ent eeis m due to mor e or less freq uen t asth ma atta cks or mer ely inst rum ent al dis ord ers suc h as dys lexi a or poo r spel ling . T h O I I n A g A m e A I N e G li s c ei c c hi o b b e di s c o n o al v ol er e di A ll a h. II v ol er e di A ll a h п о п p u d e ss er e al tr o c h e b u o n o. D u n q u e la st re tt a n e U 'e r o g a zi o n e d el g re g gi o d ai p o zz i d el G ol f о P er si c o п о п p u d
  • 249. e ss er e al tr o c h e u n b e n e. S h ei k hs o b e y th e w ill of A ll a h. T h e w ill of A ll a h ca n o nl y b e g o o d. T h er ef or e th e sc ar ci ty in th e su p pl y of cr u d e oi l fr o m th e w el ls in th e P er si a n G ul f ca n o nl y b e a bl es si n g. T h I
  • 250. 208 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 209 i t M e T N o S W I f T h I n
  • 251. 210 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 211 T o r e d u c e t h e r i s k o f w a r r e q u i r e s t h e c l o s e s t c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e i r j o i n t r e s o u r c e s t o u n d e r p i
  • 252. n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s ' e c o n o m i e s i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s t o p e r m i t t h e f u l l m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i r l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s a s w e l l a s t h e a d e q u a t e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e s. W T o r e d u c e t h e ri s k o f w a r, r e s o u r c e s h a v e t o b e a d e q u a t e l y c o o r d i n a t e d w h il st e n s uri ng tha t the se co unt rie s' liv ing sta nd ard s are sec ure d. H A l On e of the ma in obj ect s of a the or y is ob vio usl y to en abl e sys te ma tic an d ex ha ust ive de scr ipt ion an d ex pla nat ion of ea ch an d ev ery ph en om en on reg ard ed as bel on gin g to the sp her e it co ver s; an d wh en a the or y do es not ma ke it po s s i b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l t h e p h e n o m e n a r e c u r r i n g i n t h e r e s e a r c h f i e l d , a n d c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f i t , t h e f a u l t i s w i t h t h
  • 253. e t h e o r y a n d n o t w i t h t h e p h e n o m e n a ; a n d t h e t h i n g t o b e d o n e i s t o r e v i s e t h e t h e o r y , n o t d i s c a r d t h e f a c t s w h i c h r e s i s t b e i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r b y it s t e r m s. ( G W T h 'B o ur ge oi s id eo lo g y ca n sp re ad o ve r ev er yt hi n g. It ca n w it h o ut re si st an ce su bs u m e b o ur ge oi s th ea tr e, art and hu ma nity und er thei r eter nal ana log ues ; it can exno min ate itse lf wit hou t rest rain t wh en ther e is onl y one sin gle hu ma n nat ure left. ' ( B D u T
  • 254. 212 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 213 ( C I T h I ( 1 6 9 'h e a v y l a b o u r' , t r a v a il m u s c u l a i r e , s c h w e r e A r b e it 1 7 0 'r u n a w a y ( g a ll o p i n g ) i n fl a ti o n' , g a l o p p i e r e n d
  • 255. e I n fl a ti o n , I' i n fl a ti o n g a l o p a n t e 1 7 1 'e c o n o m i c si t u a ti o n' , s it u a ti o n i c o n o m i q u e , K o n j u n k t u r l a g e 1 7 2 'i n fl a ti o n a r y p r e s s u re ', p re ss io n s (t e n si o n s) in fl at io n ni st e s, I nf la ti o n s d r u c k ( 2 1 7 3 'n er v e c el l', c el lu le n e r v e u s e, N e r v e m el le 1 7 4 'g o v er n m e nt se c ur iti es ', ef fe ts p u bl ic s, St a at s (3) pa pie re (St aat san leik en) 175 'ey eba ll', glo be ocu lair e, Au ga pfe l s V e r b d e n o t e s p l u s o b j e c t , w h i c h i n o r m a l l y a n o u n t h a t a n a c t i o n , a s i n ' r e 1 7 6 ' p a y a v is it ', / a i r e u n e v i s il e , e i n e n B e s u c h m a c h e n ( a b s t a tt e n ) 1 7 7 's c o r e ( w i n ) a v i c t o r y' , r e m p o r t e r u n e v i c t o i r e
  • 256. , e i n e n S i e g e r z i e l e n 1 7 8 'r e a d a ( n ) ( a c a d e m i c ) p a p e r' , / a i r e u n e c o m m u n i c a ti o n , e i n R e f e r a t h a lt e n 1 7 9 'a tt e n d a le ct u r e' , e i n e V o r l e s u n g h o r e n o r b e s u c h e n , s u i v r e u n e co nfe ren ce T h A Y o H o T r I
  • 257. 214 PRINC IPLES SHORTE R ITEMS 215 t h T h 'fl o c k of s h e e p' , u n tr o u p e a u d e m o ut o n s, S c h af h e r d e 'h er d of c at tl e', u n tr o u p e a u d e b et ai l, ei n e H er d e R in d e r 's et of to ol s', a ss o rt m e nt d' o
  • 258. u ti ls , W e r k z e u g 'p a c k of c ar d s', je u d e c a rt e s, K a rt e n s p ie l I C o T h T h N T h n a T h W h I 1 A s s a n c t a b o u t t h e S L p r o p e r n a m e . 1 8 1 T h e n a m e i s i n c o n g r u o u s a n d s h o u l d r a i s e a s m i l e o r a l a u g h . 18 2 ' 18 3 18 4 18 5 H a T L A ( N
  • 259. 216 PRINCIPLES likely to be known to the TL readership: thus, Tipp-Ex', du liquide correcteur Tipp-Ex; 'Татрах', un tampon Татрах; 'Anglepoise lamp', une lampe de bureau a pieces reglables (Anglepoise). You have to ensure you do not become an instrument to promote the advertiser's attempts to make an eponym out of the product's name (unless you are translating the advert). For drugs, you have to consult a pharmacopoeia to check whether the drug is marketed under another name in the TL; it is prudent to add the generic name. Geographical terms You have to be up to date in your rendering, to check all terms in the most recent atlas or gazetteer and, where necessary, with the embassies concerned. You have to respect a country's wish to determine its own choice of names for its own geographical features. Some features are sufficiently politically uncontested to remain as they were in English: Belgrade (Beograd), Prague (Praha), Algiers (Al-Djazair), Tunis (Tunus), Tripoli (Tarabulus - Libya and Lebanon); the transliteration of many Egyptian and Middle East towns appears rather wayward and wilful. Note also that Italian names for German and Yugoslav towns can be rather obscure: Monaco (Munich), Agosta (Augsburg), Aia (Aachen), Colonia (Cologne), Treviri (Trier, Treves (F)). Note also Lione (Lyon) and Marsiglia (Marseille). When there is no official line, and perhaps the town lacks an airport (the airlines are keeping 'Nuremberg' going?), you should encourage the trend to revert to the correct name (Livorno, Braunschweig, Hannover) and respect Romania (not Rumania). Where appropriate, you have to 'educate'. Austerlitz is Slavkov, a town in Czechoslovakia; Auschwitz, the most terrible word in any language, is Oswiecim. Do not invent new geographical terms: Saaletal is 'the Saale valley', not 'Saaletal' nor 'the valley of the Saale'. Fecampois is Fecamp (not 'Fecampien') - all French towns, even villages, have adjectival forms, which have to be reduced to the place name. Note, in general, that 'the works of Mozart' is becoming as (pompous and) obsolescent as 'the books of the boy'. Even professional translators are often mesmerised by de, von, di, etc. into forgetting that 'apostrophe -s' is usage, not 'of plus noun', unless one is talking about Marx, Hodgkiw, Ramus. Finally, in an age of misprints, do not trust any proper name that you are not familiar with. An article in Le Monde refers to an universite d'ete (political party summer school? summer university?) at 'Sofia-Antipolis' (Alpes-Maritimes). Bulgaria in France? In fact it is Sophia Antipolis, a new industrial and cultural complex, and barely on the map. Again, a German textbook refers to a people of Guyana as the Akkawau. In Webster, this is 'acawai', 'akawai', 'acawais' or 'akawais'. Lastly, distinguish between toponyms as names or items in an address, when they are transferred, and as cultural scenery in an advertising brochure, when at least the classifiers such as 'river', 'plain', 'mountains', 'church', even 'street' can be translated. In a guidebook, the two procedures can be combined in a couplet.
  • 260. SHORTER ITEMS 217 THE TRANSLATION OF PUNS One makes a pun by using a word (e.g. 'tit'), or two words with the same sound ('piece'/'peace'), or a group of words with the same sound (personne alitee/ personnalite) in their two possible senses, usually for the purpose of arousing laughter or amusement, and sometimes also to concentrate meaning. Puns are most common in English and Chinese, since they are most easily made with monosyllables. Puns are most easily translated if they are based on Graecolatinisms that have near-equivalents in the source and target languages, particularly if they simply contrast the material and the figurative sense of the word; thus there would be no difficulty in translating both senses of words Шс point, animal, infernal, if a pun were made on them in French and, again, the material and figurative sense of a word often corresponds with one-to-one equivalents, such as 'sleep', 'die', 'be born'. Further, animals (pig, ape, mouse) and colours sometimes have the corresponding double meanings. If the purpose of the pun is merely to raise laughter, it can sometimes be 'compensated' by another pun on a word with a different but associated meaning. This is done in the translation of Asterix into many languages, and requires exceptional ingenuity. Puns made by punning poets are most difficult to translate, since they are limited by metre. Often, the pun simply has to be sacrificed. However, when the two senses of the pun are more important than the medium, they can sometimes be translated by reproducing the two senses in an incongruous way; thus 'dans lepanneau' referring to a misleading signboard system introduced into a city (panneau - (a) 'a sign board', panneau indicateur; (b) 'a trap', tomber dans le panneau) could be translated as 'the signboard mess'. Finally, where a pun is used in a SL text to illustrate a language, or a slip of the tongue, or the sense is more important than the witticism, it has to be transferred, translated (in both senses) and usually explained. (See Newmark, 1981, pp. 106-7.) The translation of puns is of marginal importance and of irresistible interest. THE TRANSLATION OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES, QUANTITIES AND CURRENCIES The translation of units of the metric system and others (say the Russian verst) will depend on their setting and the implied readership. Thus in translating newspaper and periodical articles into English, they are normally converted to the (so-called) Imperial system, i.e., miles, pints, pounds, etc. In translating specialised articles, professional magazines, etc., they are usually transferred (i.e., the metric system is retained) but for cookery articles they are both transferred and converted to the Imperial system.
  • 261. 218 PRINCI PLES SHORTER ITEMS 219 For fiction, the decision whether to convert or transfer depends on the importance of retaining local colour. Unless there are strong arguments (e.g., time in a period novel, as well as region), I suggest you convert to miles, pounds, acres, gallons, etc. You have to take care not to confuse long and metric tons (tonnes) when accuracy is important. Note that 'billion', formerly 1012, now usually means a thousand million (109); 'milliard' (106) is no longer used. When approximate figures are given in the SL text, translate with correspondingly approximate figures (thus 10 km would be 6 miles, not 6.214 miles). Note that figures like trow dizaines, trois douzaines, etc. can be translated by '(about) three dozen' or 'between thirty and forty', etc. depending on which sounds more natural. SI units should be used in all scientific translations and supplementarily, where approppriate, in others. Non-English currency is usually transferred when English is the TL. 'Crowns' are tending to revert to krone (Danish, Norwegian) or kcs (Czechoslovak). The British pound usually has a standard translation. AMBIGUITY I take 'ambiguity' in the sense of a stretch of SL text, normally a word or a syntactic structure, having apparently more than one meaning, in or in spite of its context; 'vagueness' or 'obscurity' can usually be reduced to ambiguity. I am not here discussing the deliberate ambiguities of puns or double-entendres. Grammatical ambiguity If a sentence is syntactically ambiguous within its context, it must be poorly written. All the notorious ambiguous sentences and groups ('the shooting of the hunters', 'John's book', 'slow neutrons and protons', 'flying planes can be dangerous') as well as less obvious ones ('modern language teaching', 'considering my ignorance', 'What he performed at first was of
  • 262. n o o L A g W P I
  • 263. 220 PRINC IPLES s u Y I Y R for Exa ms and De adli nes 18 6 S 18 7 W 1 18 8 9 L 19 0 Y 19 1 L 19 2 D 19 3 T 194 S 195 p M a 221
  • 264. 222 PRINCIPLES 196 There are two basic articulations of meaning - those of words and those of sentences. Usually, the meanings of words cannot be stretched beyond certain limits. But when a culture looks at an object in a different way {chateau d'eau -'water tower'), one word is replaced rather than translated by another. The meaning of sentences must cohere with those of the previous and the following sentences, then the paragraph, then the text. 197 Your translations have to be referentially and pragmatically accurate. Withdraw from literal translation when you become inaccurate for these reasons only. 198 Grammar is more flexible than lexis. You can sometimes make a translation natural by using an alternative structure, converting a clause into a group, a verb into a noun. SL words that won't go into one TL word may go into two. 199 Make use of all the time available. If you have the time, revise separately for accuracy, naturalness (usage), collocations, sentence connectives (logic), punctuation (correspondence or divergence from original), word-order. 200 It is essential to read your version without looking at the original, paying particular attention to unfamiliar adjective-plusnoun collocations. 201 Correspondingly, compare your version closely with the original at least to make sure you've not omitted any word, sentence or paragraph. You have to account for the meaning (function) of every SL word, but you don't always have to translate it. 202 Play for safety with terminology, but be bold with twisted syntax. 203 Do not replace the dictionary with the encyclopaedia. Do not replace/ translate explanations in the TL text with TL encyclopaedia explanations. Do not translate a technical term by a descriptive term (which is usually wider), unless the technical term does not exist in the TL. Contrariwise, do not translate a descriptive term by a technical term, but this is occasionally justified provided: (a) the technical term does not exist in the SL; (b) the descriptive term is not being used to make a 'linguistic' contrast; (c) an expert assures you that the TL technical term would be better understood. 204 Always consider the use of couplets for translating institutional and cultural terms and recherche metaphors, for the purpose of informing expert and uninformed readers. (Experts may require a transference, educated readers a functional equivalent, uninformed readers a cultural equivalent.) 205 The more context-free a word, the more it is likely to be used in its primary (most frequent) meaning. 206 Write well and naturally, unless the SL text is 'sacred' or linguistically banal or innovatory. In that event, follow the banalities or innovations of your SL text. 207 Finally, fill in all gaps, guided by your contextual understanding of the piece. Do not write alternative translations. 208 Normally, write your own note only: (a) when you have translated a word you have not located. Write 'not found' and, if appropriate, briefly justify your translation. 223 REVISION HINTS FOR EXAMS AND DEADLINES 209 if there is a factual mistake in the text which you have corrected. 210 possibly, if there is a substantial ambiguity in the text, where the second version would make almost equally good sense. 211 Be suspicious of and particularly careful with easy (looking) texts. Examiners have to differentiate. Scaled marking can magnify mistakes. 212 Unless you detest pencils, use pencils first and write over with ballpoints. 213 Remember the marker will note linguistic and referential mistakes of accuracy as well as pragmatic mistakes of usage. Usage is almost as important as accuracy. 214 There is no such thing as a correct or perfect or ideal translation of a challenging text. Ten first-rate translators may well produce ten different, more or less equally good translations of a complicated sentence. The area of taste in a translation remains, after the area of science, skill and art. So take courage. 215 If you are working for an employer or a client and you fix your own deadline allow for at least a two-day gap between your main revision and your final reading, so that you can return to your version and see it in a different light. You may have to spend more time pursuing one word than on the whole of the rest of the piece. All these hints are my own, not objective, not subjective, for you if you prefer to react against.
  • 265. BY WAY OF A CONCLUSION 225 C B e
  • 266. n si m il a r f o r m a ts , st y l e s a n d r e g is t e r s, i m p o rt a n t p e r h a p s, b u t g r e y, d r e a r y, te d i o u sl y l o n g , n u m e r o u s, r e c u rr e n t, b o ri n g , t h e o c c u p W h a u '
  • 267. S p le n d o u rs a n d m is e ri e s o f tr a n sl at i o n' : t h u s O rt e g a у G a s s et , f o ll o w in g B al z a c w h o s o d e s cr ib e d c o u rt e s a n s. T hi s st r u g gl e w it h a te xt w hi c h m a y o u
  • 268. h il st t h is st r u g g le al w a y s e m b r a c e s s o m e m i n o r d e f e ct s, it m u st b e m ai n ly s u c c e ss f ul it is to o i m p o rt a nt to b e a n yt hi n g el s e ( T h o m a s M a n n p oi nt e d o u a t
  • 269. )) . A n d t h is is w h y al l t h e st at e m e n ts a b o u t t h e i m p o s si b il it y o f tr a n sl at io n ( Q ui n e ta k e n u p b y F ra w le y a n d hi s fe ll o w s, B e nj a m in b y D er ri d a a n d D er ri d a i s
  • 270. r o c e s s, n o t a s a st at e. O nl y a st at e is p er fe ct . 224
  • 271. Introductory Note The thirteen texts that follow are material for four types of exercise: (a) a trans-lational analysis of a source language text; (b) translations of the same text to illustrate the difference between 'semantic' and 'communicative' translation as methods; (c) translations with commentaries; (d) examples of translation criticism. Both topic and register of the thirteen texts are varied. No attempt has been made to treat these texts in a uniform way. Commentaries can always be written either in the order that the problems appear, or the examples can be grouped under heads such as grammar, metaphor, proper names, and so on. Each text presents rather similar types of problems, but their degree of importance, and the way they are solved (they are always solved) differ. In no sense are these workings to be regarded as models, fair copies or paradigms. They are simply the way I handled the problems a year ago - next year I would be handling them slightly differently. They are to be regarded as hints and suggestions of working methods both for students and teachers, to be helpful as preparation for classes and exams. The text analysis serves first to sensitise you to problems (all deviations from literal translation are problems and present choices, including the return to literal translation after smoother options have been abandoned); the writing of 'communicative' and 'semantic' versions is a useful training in writing a variety of stylistic registers as opposed to a text that retains either every originality or oddity or every crudity or banality of the original. Translation commentaries and criticisms are creative as well as critical and when you criticise a translation solution, you inevitably feel prompted to produce a better one, even when you feel your thought, your comprehension, is like a prisoner within your language. The texts here are deliberately mixed. Text 1 (from The Economist), Text 5 (on the French Socialist Party— and Text 13 (on the FRG) are the 'least' authoritative - in principle, what the authors thought is not as important as the texts' effective expression. In the medical texts, the facts are vital, and they must also be persuasively presented. Proust, Waugh and De Gaulle are authoritative, and you have to be faithful to them. But in the case of Proust, you are listening to an interior voice, and I do not think any reader is as important as yourself as receptor; while De Gaulle addresses the French, his readers, you have also to be aware of this
  • 272. 229
  • 273. METHODS 230 relationship Waugh writes beautifully, but his attitude and his themes are often trivial, so you may consider making cultural concessions to your readers, explaining a local or period custom, if you can do it elegantly. ... I am exceptionally grateful to Dr David James for his painstaking and expert comments on my draft treatments of the three medical texts (Texts 2,7 and 8). TEXT 1 Power Needs Clear Eyes A great power knows it is dangerous to flinch, because its assorted enemies arou take new heart and its friends' knees kn power also knows that if it sets out on without seeing precisely what it needs to do do it, it can get into bad trouble. In 5 Grenada, President Reagan this week reje flinch and moved in to achieve a identified, and achievable, objective. more important Lebanon, he is still the rock and the hard place. The bom Beirut which killed about 300 Amer French soldiers on Sunday morning plain that the United States went into last IO year with fine general intentions but after the first few weeks, either a clea action or the military strength needed out one possible clear plan of action. The relatively easy business in Grenada, difficult business in the Falklands last straightforward objective: the defeat and is removal of a fairly small number of m had shot their way into local pow operation in Lebanon has no such sim The four-country force, of which A marines are the core, was originally i to be a cordon between the Israeli arm outskirts of Beirut and the shambles the city. But then the Israelis pulled ba the edge of Beirut and 20 the marines, having sailed away and h sailed back again, found the supervising a mishmash of very d purposes. Part of the new job, admirably done by
  • 274. was to protect the surviving Palestinians in the refugee camps of southern Beirut. The rest of the multinational force slid, inexorably, into politics. The French were there 25 demonstrate that Lebanon was still a French interest. The tiny British unit was there to hold an American little finger. The American contingent last month used naval gunfire to save the Maronite Christian militia and the Lebanese army from defeat by the Druzes in the hills above Beirut. But the Americans have also been trying to persuade the minority Maronites to give 30 up some of the majority of Lebanese political power they have held sin Source: The Economist, 29 October 1983 231
  • 275. 232 MET HODS POWER NEEDS CLEAR EYES 233 1 9 4 3 . I t i s s o m e t i m e s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t a m a n w i t h o n e a r m w h i l e r e m o v i n g h i s t r o u s e r s w i t h t h
  • 276. e e G o t h e r , b u t i t i s w a t c h i n g I n t e n t i o n : T o n o t e a s y t o e x p l a i n t o t h e p e o p l o n t e l e v i s i o n : o r t o t h e m a n h i m s e l f . T h s t a t e t h e a i m s a n d c o m p l e x i t i e s o f U S p o l i c y i n t h e L e b a n o n , a n d c o n t r a s t t h e m w i t h S y r i a 's ai ms . Ty pe of Te xt: Inf or ma tiv e. Re ad ers hi p: Ed uc ate d En gli sh rea der shi p wit h go od ge ner al kn ow led ge of top ic. 'Se tti ng1 : Jo urn al wit h wi de pol itic al an d ec on om ic int ere sts. La ng ua ge : Ed uc ate d, inf or ma l, wit h wi de var iet y of me tap hor s an d col lo- q u i a l i s m s . W e l l w r i t t e n . W a r m i n t o n e . I n t e n t i o n o f t r a n s l a t o r : T o t r a n s l a t e t h e t e x t a c c u r a t e l y a n d e
  • 277. c o n o m i c a l l y t o a n a n e d u c a t e d A r a b i c r e a d e r s h i p o f a s i m i l a r j o u r n a l , o r f o r a c l i e n t . T h e r e a r e n o p r o b l e m s o f c u l t u r e t r a n s f e r . M e t h o d : C o m m u n i c a t i v e , a t l e v e l o f r e a d e r s h i p . T it l e : A ll u s i v e . C h a n g e t o d e s c ri p tive titl e, e.g. , 'US in Le ban on' ? (If so, wh y?) Sy nta x: Rat her lon g sen ten ces . Po ssi ble gr am ma tic al shi fts: 'to be see n to flin ch' (1. 1); 'ha s no suc h sim pli cit y' (1. 16) ; 'Th e bo mb ing s.. . kill ed' (1. 8); 'fo urcou ntr y for ce' (1. 16) ; 'In mu ch mo re im por tan t Le ban on' (1. 6). Ge og ra phi c a l t e r m s : F a l k l a n d s ; G r e n a d a ( w h e r e ? ) ; A m e r i c a n . M e t a p h o r s : 216 Dea d : ' c o r e ' ( 1 . 1 7 ); ' m o v e d i n ' ( 1 . 5 ); ' p u ll e d b a c k
  • 278. ' ( 1 . 1 9 ) ; 's a il e d a w a y ' ( 1 . 2 0 ). 217 Stan d a r d : 'f li n c h ' ( 1 . 1 ) ; ' k n e e s k n o c k ' ( 1 . 2 ); ' g e t i n t o b a d tr o u b l e ' ( 1 . 4 ); 's h a m b l e s' ( 1 . 1 8 ) ; 's h o t t h e i r w a y i n t o ' ( 1 . 1 5 ) ; ' c o r d o n ' ( 1 . 1 8 ) ; l e a n b a c k ( 1 . 3 7 ). 218 Ori g i n a l : 's li d e i n t o p o li ti c s' ( 1 . 2 4 ); ' p r o t e c t w i t h o n e a r m w h i l e r e m o v i n g h i s t r o u s e r s w i t h t h e o t h e r ' ( 1 1 . 3 1 2 ) . ( 4 ) O b s c u r e : ' b e t w e e n t h e r o c k a n d t h e h a r d p l a c e ' ( 1 . 7 ) ; ( A m e r i c a n m e t a p h o r ) ; ' t i n y u n i t t o h o l d a
  • 279. l i t t l e f i n g e r ' ( 1 1 . 2 5 6 ) . ' f i n e ' ( 1 . 1 0 ) ; L e x i s : ' b u s i n e s s ' ( 1 . 1 3 ) ; A s s o r t e d ' ( 1 . 1 ) ; ' s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ' ( 1 . 1 4 ) ; ' m a r i n e s ' ( 1 . 1 7 ) ; ' i n e x o r a b l y ' ( 1 . 2 4 ) ; ' m i l i t i a ' ( 1 . 2 7 ) ; ' b l a n d ' ( 1 . 3 5 ) . C o l b q u i a l i s m s : ' s h a m bl es' (1. 18 ); 'm is h m as h' (1. 21 ). R ecr ea ti on s: 're je ct ed th e fli nc h' (1. 5). R ep eti ti on : 'cl ea r pl an of ac tio n' (1 1. 11 12 ). C O N C L U S I O N H o w (1 ) a c c ur at e, (2 ) e c o n o m ic al is th e tr N
  • 280. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY 235 T P n C S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S O u t o f 9 5 p a ti e n
  • 281. ts re fe rr e d fo r u p p er g as tr oi nt es ti n al e n d o sc o p y af te r a b ar iu m m e al e x a m in at io n, 4 4 u n d er w e nt a c h a n g e in m a n a g e m e nt . S o m e c h a n g es w er e m in or b ut in 1 2 p a ti e n ts a d e c is i o n o n s u r g e r y w a s r e q u ir e d . S e v e n o f t h e s e p a ti e 5 n ts w e r e a m o n g a g r o u p o f 1 3 f o r w h o m t h e r e f e rr i n g c
  • 282. v ai la bl e, w hi le th e ot h er fi v e w er e su bj ec te d to a n u n pl a n n e d la p ar ot o m y. T h es e fi n di n g s s u p p or t th e pr a ct ic e of p er fo r m in g e n d o sc o p y o n p at ie nt s w h o se s y m pt o m s a r e n o t f u ll y e x p l a i n e d b y b a ri u m m e a l e x a m i n a ti o n , e s p e c i a ll y p a ti e n ts a g e d o v e r 4 5 . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e p r o c e d u r e a ls o s e e
  • 283. m s to b e ю costeffecti ve. I N T R O D U C T I O N Fibreo ptic endosc opy is now widely used to investi gate suspec ted upper gastroi ntestin al tract diseas e. In our four district s some 2500 exami nation s are done yearly, which repres ents a consid erable load; thus an exami nation of the useful ness or otherw ise of the techni que seeme d long overdu e. Its value in 15 acute upper gastroi ntestin al haemo rrhage has been assess ed but it has not been evalua ted objecti vely in M E T H O D 25 30 p f 3 5 T
  • 284. aim of these notes is: (1) to demon strate the referen tial level of the text; and (2) to give some hints for transla ting it in accord ance with natural usage. GENE RAL The purpos e of the paper is to presen t the results of a clinica l trial into the value of upper gastroi ntestin al endosc opy. This is a proced ure in which the linings of the oesoph agus (the gullet, the part of the alimen tary canal or digesti ve tract betwee n the pharyn x and the stomac h) and the stomac h are exami ned under direct vision by passin g a flexibl e fibreo ptic 234
  • 285. 236 MET HODS 237 UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY P 219 220 221 222 225 226 227 P T i ' r ' b ' u ' a 1 1 2 2 2 ' c ' f ' d 2 2 2 2 3 1.17 231 232 1.21 ' c ' u '1 11.29- . 3 1 1.32 1 '
  • 286. BRIDESHEAD REVISITED 239 T B E J u li a l e f t S e b a s ti a n a n d m e a t B r i d e s h e a d a n d w e n t t o s t a y w it h a n a u n t, L a d y R o s s c o m m o n , i n h e
  • 287. r vill a at Ca p Fer rat. All the wa y she po nd ere d her pro ble m. Sh e ha d giv en a na me to her wi do we rdip lo ma t; she cal led hi m 'Eu sta ce', an d 5 fro m tha t mo me nt he bec am e a fig ure of fun to her , a littl e i n t e r i o r , i n c o m m u n i c a b l e j o k e , s o u g
  • 288. a r d s a n d f a l l i n l o v e w i t h h e r a n d o f f e r h e r j u s t t h o s e g i f t s s h e h a d c h o s e n , s h e s e n t h i m a w a y m o o d i e r a n d m o r 1 0 k i n d o f g e r o n t o p h i l i c s n o b b e r y ; y o u n g m e n w e r e h e l d t o b e g a u c h e a n d p i m p l y ; i t w a s t h o u g h t v e r y m u c h m o r e c h i c t o b e s
  • 289. een lun chi ng at the Rit z -a thi ng, in an y cas e, all ow ed to fe w girl s of tha t day , to the tin y cir cle of Jul ia's inti ma tes; a thi ng loo ke d at ask anc i? e by the eld ers wh o ke pt the sco re, cha ttin g p l e a s a n tl y a g a i n s t t h e w a ll s o f t h e b a ll r o 20 2? t M f d S N G T T h 233 234 235 236 '' v 1 1 ' w '
  • 290. E u s t a c e ': S li g h tl y c o m i c u p p e r c l a s s f i r s t n a m e , r a r e n o w . T r a n s f e r a s it s t a n d s . 237 'f i g u r e o f f u n ': R e c o g n i s e d p h r a s e ( d e 2 3 ' i 238
  • 291. 240 MET HODS BRIDESHEAD REVISITED 241 1.6 '1 .e L ib wa ch e, etc . Ho we ver , as it is not an im por tan t cul tur al ref ere nc e, it co 1.8 uld be tra nsl ate d by a fun cti on al/ des cri pti ve eq uiv ale nt: 'a (ro yal ) ca val ry reg im ent '. I see no poi nt her e in tra nsf err ing the ter m. '2 3 2 4 1 1hi s fts ha ve be en ma de; the ext rao rdi nar
  • 292. y ga p bet we en 'm ore ' (1. 12 ) an d ' t a c i r 2 4 2 1.19 4 '2 4 2 1.20 4 1.20 ' 1.20 " '1 1.25 . '2 4 2 11.31- 4 2 1 . 1 1.40 t S i o u s l y '. I f o n e s y n o n y m i s u s e d , u n d e r t r a n s l a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . I n e v i t a b l y t h e r e w i l l b e s e m a n t i c l o s s i n t h e
  • 293. UNE CERTAINE IDEE DE LA FRANCE 243 T U C m a
  • 294. S'il advi ent que la medi ocrit e mar que, pour tant, ses faits et gest es, j'en epro uve la sens ation d'un e absu rde ano mali e, imp utabl e aux faute s des Fran cais, non au geni e de la patri e. Mais aussi , le cote posit if de mon espri t me conv ainc que la Fran ce n'est reell eme nt in ellemem e qu'a u pre mier rang ; que, seul es, de vast es entre prise s sont suscepti bles de com pens er les ferm ents de disp ersio n que s o A i n S
  • 295. F e r s T h N o a s A T n c i e t c i a s n n g o r t e a b t e . F C r o a m n m c e e n t u a n r l y j e
  • 296. ' g e t s o m e i d e a ' . I n t h i s m o r e f o r m a l t e x t , t h e s e n s e o f / a i r e i s s t r e n g t h e n e d . 242
  • 297. 244 MET HODS 1.2 a 2 248 4 I ' 2 250 4 p a 251 l e 2 5 2 5 A L T T 245
  • 298. 246 MET HODS 247 LE PARTI SOCIALISTE C T T D e 254 255 1.2 11.21.3 257 l a I n 260 261 5 258 259 t h 2 5 c e 1 . l t o ' f m N
  • 299. A LA RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PERDU 249 been avo stand) ra T A M l a
  • 300. reco nnu e, notr e cceu r bat, nou s pres sons le pas, et nou s rest eron s touj ours a dem i pers uad es que c'eta it elle, pour vu que la fem me ait disp aru: ce n'est que si nou s pou von s la rattr aper que nou s com pren ons notr e erre ur. SEM ANT IC TRA NSL ATI ON I was in one of those perio ds of youth , that are lacki ng in a partic ular love, that are vaca nt, wher e every wher e C T 1.1 11.2- T 8
  • 301. Here, as throu ghou t, there is gross overs impli ficati on. This trans latio n overl ooks the three paral lel succe ssive acts or mov emen ts, desir ing, searc hing, seein g; beaut y is perso nalis ed rathe r than perso nifie d; the regis ter beco mes infor mal; the seco nd sequ ence of four verbs is also fudg ed. Vario us little word s have been put in to make the transl ation more com monplace . In an 'idio matic ' transl ation , vaca ntes migh t transl ate as 'empt y 248
  • 302. PRESENTATION D'UN CAS Source: Bordeaux Medical, No. 10 (October «Translation by Sheila Silcock (adapted). 1968). 2S0 DE TOXOPLASMOSE 251 T E X T 7 P r e s e n t a t i o n d ' u n c p a L L ' c o
  • 303. l faut soulig ner l'intere t de sa realisa tion syste matiq ue, au meme titre que 15 d'autre s explor ations serolo giques , chez tout malad e porteu r d'une maladi e de Hodgk in. Ces proble mes diagno stiques deja assez compl exes peuve nt etre rendus plus 20 difficil es encore quand les deux affecti ons sont associ ees, comm e N d a n s Mme D . . . Lucette, vingtsix ans. D.M. Fondati on Bergoni e, 66.599. 25 C'est en novembr e 1965 que cette jeune l ' o b s e r v a t i o n T s EJ . XT A Tn 7 A c q u e a n o u s e p r e s e n t o n s : O B S E R V A T I O s o f t o x o p l a s m o m a T h M I n
  • 304. femm e comm ence a presen ter une alteraoccurr ed on March 17,19 66. In April 1966, tion de l'etat gener al, avec febric ule, qui she devel oped prurit us and left supras'acce ntue surtou t apres un avorte ment clavic ular adeno pathy. Hodg kin's diseas e surve nu le 17 mars 1966. En avril 1966, зо was d i a g n o s e d a f t e r a l y m p h n o d e b i o p s y , a s l ' a p p a r i t i o n d ' u n prurit et d'une adenothe appeara nce of the tissue was entirely pathie susclavicul aire gauche conduit a la characte ristic of the disease, biopsie d'un ganglio n dont l'exame n histologique permet de porter le diagnos tic de maladie de Hodgki n, devant des aspects 35 tout a fait typique s et indiscut ables. NOTES This text illustrat es some of the mi ao T i o n f e a t u r e s o f F r e n c h t o E n g l i s h m e d i c a l t r a n s l a t c r A s T ' a c o A u 1.2 r 1.4 a 1 11.4-5 .
  • 305. 1.5 syndr ome febrile : Syndr ome, 'syndr ome' are both overus ed jargon words. In fact fever is a sympt om, usuall y a featur e of a syndro me, which is a collect ion of sympt oms and signs. n g s e v e r a l ( ' p o l y ' ) g l a n d s ( ' a d e n ( o ) ' ) polya denop athie: Diseas e ('pathy' ) affecti a t o n c e. ' P o l y a d e n o p a t h y' e x is t e d , b u t t h e 'l y m p h' c o m -
  • 306. 252 MET HODS PRESENTATION D'UN CAS DE TOXOPLASMOSE 253 po ne nt has to be sho wn , as ly mp hat ic tiss ue is not gla nd ula r. 'Po ly-' is co ver ed by 'ge ner alis ed'. 1 11.6-7 . 262 p 263 e c 264 e g 1.11 a 265 l C ' 2 6 2 268 6 i l 2 6 2 271 7 p o por teu rs de tu me urs . Not e that Ro ma nce adj ecti ves , pre sen t and pas t pa rtici ple s and rela tive cla use s are oft en use d, as her e, wh ere
  • 307. En glis h has a pre pos itio n (be twe en tw o no uns ), pro vid ed an 'em pty' ver b is use d (thi s is the 'ho use onthe hill ' con str uct ion ). 2 7 2 7h T e sen ten ce is coord ina ted by 'an d' in En glis h to rei nfo rce in dej d co mp lex es, wh ich cou ld be alte rna tel y ren der ed by a rel ati ve cla use : 'Th ese 1.21 274 276 278 1.29 1.36 pro ble ms, wh ich are . . .' o b 2 7 p r 2 7 f e 2 7 a 1 . 1 1 t ( b Sheila Silcock and the author.)
  • 308. DIALYSEBEHANDLUNG BEI mer,lower incidence on M. ground TEXT О the CASE ОG. Sieberth, the Bulla, W. 75 TEXT H.RETORTS 35 that acute renal Mennicken, G. Hubner, M. failure is less frequently 'Arantil' intoxication A Case Siemon 1: diagnosed in children. Dialysebehandlung bei 30 As there are few reports wasTreatment of acute sixteen-month-old boy, who on Prof. in children, fourteen cases dialysis Medizinische fully conscious, had taken about ten Universitatsklinik (Director:will be Prof. dinik of acuteNierenversaakutem of ■to Universitatstablets Gross) insufficiency (0.075grenal failure in Dr R. renal and Arantil discussed. aminophenazone, 0.125g aminophenazone derivatives perchildren by dialysis* gen im Kindesalter* tablet). In spite of gastric wash-out and infusion treatment, the child became increasingly drowsy. Generalised convulsions appeared twelve hours after admission. Oliguria with a compensated acidosis developed at the same time. As pyrazolone poisoning is almost always fatal, once convulsions occur, the insertion of an arteriovenous shunt over the femoral vessels was immediately followed by six hours' dialysis. In the course of the dialysis, the attacks stopped and the child's conscious level returned to normal. Two days after the treatment, retinal dot-haemorrhages were observed, but these completely receded in a week. Four days after the onset of convulsions there were still considerable delta-wave AKUTEM NIERVERSAGAN 255 Hn . GM . V S i e b e r t h , M . B u l l a , W . H u b n e r , M . M e n n i c k e n u n d G . S i e m o B e
  • 309. gegeben, wenn sich erste Zeichen einer Uramie einstellen oder einer Uberwasserung, die nicht auf Saluretika anspreche n. Das Verfahren ist stets nur Teil einer Gesamtbe handlung. Das akute Nierenver sagen, besonders im engeren Sinne (6), wird im Kindesalt er viel seltener beobacht et als bei Erwachse nen. Das ist deshalb bemerken swert, weil •Professor Dr. H. Sarre zum 65, Geburtsta g. Bet we en 19 66 and 19 69 hae mo dia lysi s or per ito nea l dia lysi s wa s per for me d on 14 chi ldr en age d fro m 7 we eks to 14 yea rs. Th e ind icat ion s we re: acu te ren al fail ure 5 (7 chi ldr en) , hep atic co ma (2), dru g poi son ing (2), hae mo lyti cura em ic syn dro me (1), hy per ten siv e enc eph alo pat hy in chr oni c pye lon eph riti s (1) and hy per pyr etic influ enz at ( 1o 15 )A 2 c . 2? 0 I nr e i g h t c a s e s , t r e a t m e n t p r o IO d u c e d r e g r e s s i o n o f t h e s y m p S
  • 310. damit, dafi das akute Nierenve rsagen im Kindesal ter haufiger nicht diagnosti ziert wird. Da nur wenig Berichte iiber die Dialysebehandl ungen beim Kind vorliege n, soil im folgende n iiber 14 behandel te Falle mit akuter Nierenin suffizien z berichtet werden. KASUIS TIK Fall 1: Arantil*1 -Vergiflu ng. Der VI и Jahre alte, bewufitse insklare Junge hatte etwa zehn Tabletten Aran til (0,0 75g Ami nophen azon , 0,12 5g Ami noph enaz onAbk omm ling pro Tabl ette) eing eno mme n. Trot z Mag ensp ulun g und Infus ionst hera pie wurd e das Kind zune hme nd som nole nt. Zwo lf Stun den nach der Aufn ahm e trate n gene ralisi erte Kra mpf e auf. Glei chze itig entw ickel te sich eine Olig urie mit kom pens ierte r Acid ose. Da bei Pyra zolo nInto xikat ion fast regel maft ig mit eine m todli chen Aus gang zu rech nen ist, soba ld Kra mpf anfal le auftr eten (4, 2d 7 ) , e r f o l g t e n a c h A n l a g e e i n e s a r t e r i o v e n o s e n S h u n t s i i b e r e r
  • 311. nach Anlage eines arteriove nosen Shunts iiber die Femoralg efafle sofort eine sechsstiin dige Hamodial ysebehan dlung. Wahrend der Dialyse horten die Krampfanfalle auf, und das Bewufits ein wurde wieder klar. Zwei Tage nach der Behandlung liefien sich am Augenhin tergrund fleckform ige Blutunge n nach weis en, die sich nach einer Woc he vollk omm en zuru ckge bilde t hatte n. Im EEG fand en sich vier Tage nach dem erste n Kra mpfa nfall noch erhe blich e 8Dysr hyth mien , die im weit eren Verl auf eine gute Ruc kbil dung stend enz zeigt en. Das Kind konn te zwol f Tage nach der akut en Into xikat ion in gute m Allg emei nzus tand nach Hau se entla ssen werd en. 254
  • 312. 256 MET HODS DIALYSEBEHANDLUNG BEI AKUTEM NIERVERSAGAN 257 N T N A u ' h i n p 280 h S 281 y k 11.18- o 282 9 U 283 r U b 1 . d i h w ere I ass u me tha t ac ute re nal fai lur e is de fin ed in the br oa d an d als o in the nar ro w sen se of the ter m. If thi s ref ere nce wo rk (H. Sc hw eig k's Ha nd bu ch de r inn eri n Me diz in, Vol . 7, No s. 12) is ava ila ble ,
  • 313. yo ap u pea sho r to uld be rep ge rod ner uce all its y def use init d ion in in En the gli nar sh ro me w dic sen ine se, . If del the eti bo ng ok the is wo not rds ava 'in ila the ble nar , ro yo w u sen del se', ete sin the ce par thi ent s hes dis is tin alt cti og on eth is er, me as tali her ng e. ual 1 an 11.27- . d 8 1 do 11.28- . es 9 1 not 1.30 1 U 284 285 286 1 1 N o b e 1 . 1 1 3 9 1 . a K sui sti k: Sta nd ard ter m for 'ca se rep ort s'; cf. an am ne sie an d En gli sh 'an am nes is', wh ich is mo re co mp reh ens ive . ' 1.46 290 291 1.65 2 8 J 1 . 2 8 2 8 A u K r Aug enh inte rgr und : Stan dard ter m. Vari ant, 'fun dus of the eye' , 'eye gro und' , fun dus ocu li for the bac k of the eye. The reti na is its inne r lini ng.
  • 314. 258 MET HODS 1 1.68 . 1.70 '-' the ele ctr oc ard iog ra ms , an d 'w av e ab no rm alit ies ' in ele ctr oe nc ep hal ogra ms . 1 . E X T R A C T 1 W A . H . H e m (p. 36 ) De r Sa nkt Go
  • 315. tth Zw ar ei d ma mi l t ube Ho rqu spi ert z e un Hu d mb Ka old pu t zin 17 95 er auf ka sei pel ner le Rei se Ko dur lor ch ier die te Sc Aq hw uat eiz int den a Sa vo nkt n Go Ch tth arl ard es M Paf elc i. hi Au or f De der sc Ro ou ute rti Ge s nua u m St. 17 Go 80 tth . ard 22 unt cm ers x uch 32 te ,5 er cm das , Str H eic S hen H. un d beg Fal riff len die der Ide ge e, olo gan gis ze ch La en nde Sc r hic dar hte zus n tell un en d wie ent ein wa Ber rf gw spa erk ter « ein sch Pr rie ofi b l, er in daz de u. m Mit er die ers ser tm Ar als bei die t ob wa ere ren n die Er Vor dsc aus hic set hte zun n gen in fur Fo sei rm ne ein spa es ter Qu en ers gro ch fie nitt n es Pro dar file ste Sp llte ani . ens »Ic un h d
  • 316. Me n xik un os d ges Ste ch rbe aff n en. Sc hill er E ans X pra ch. T Do R ch A sel tsa C me T rwe 2 ise (p auf p. iert e 38 er -9) sic h M abf an alli hat g te ub an er ne sie, h un me d n der mt ers iss t en, vo da n fi Al die ex se an tie der fgr so un ein di ge ge no Be m tra me cht ne un Di g cht ub er er ruc Le kt be nu n »Ic de h utl ich vo n ih m ab. Z we i Ja hr e sp ate r, im Au gu st 17 97, urt eil t er da nn in ein em Br ief an Ch ris tia n Go ttfri ed Ko rn er ve rni cht en d ub er ih n:
  • 317. E X T R A C T s p i c e a n d 1 t h e ( p . 3 6 ) C a p u c h i n T c h h e a p S e t l G oC t ol t ou h re a d r aq d ua ti P nt a by C s ha s rl es wM i el t ch h oi r t D h es e co ur h tis o, c. 1 7 8 0, 2 2 c m x 3 2. 5 c m , 5 H C H . D u r i n g h i s t o u r l d t t w i c e c r o s s e d t h e S t G o t t h a r d P a o s f s . S O w n i t t z h e e r l w a a n y d f H r u o m m b o G
  • 318. e n o a s t o t h e o f S t g e G o o l t o t g h i a c r a d l 10 h s e t r i a n t v a e , s a t n i d g l a a t t e e d r t d h e e s i s g t n r e i d k e a s t a o n p d o g d r i a p p h i c a l p r o f i l e , i n e e a r t h f o r t h e f i w r h s i t c t h i m h e e a s s h o a w e c d r o t s h s e s u e p c p t e i r o n l . a ' y I e r c s o n o c f e i t v h e
  • 319. d t h e i d e a o f r e p r e s e n t i n g , h e 15 w r o t e . T h i s w o r k a n t i c i p a w t h e o d l e h i c s o u l n a t t r e i r e s m a l j i o k r e p a r o m f i i n l e e ' s ve oass fu me Sd ptha at i thi ns pr aof nou dnd stu M dy eof xlif ie can od . de ath wo Eul Xd ha Tve Rap Ape ale Cd Tto Sc hil 2 ler. Od dl (y p en ou p gh, . he 3 ju dg 8 ed - it 20 9 un ) fa vo O ur ne abl mi y, gh an t d ha the
  • 320. wr ite r w ho ha d at fir st be en so ta ke n by Al ex an de r no w cl ea rly di ss oc iat ed hi m sel f fr o m hi m. T w o ye ar s lat er, in A ug us t 17 97 , he ma de a de va sta tin g ap pr ais al of hi m in a let ter to ♦ T r a n s l a t e d b y J o h n C u m m i n g ; e d i t e d b y r k a n P d a u t l h i e n e a u N t e h w o m r a . 259
  • 321. 260 MET HODS ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT: LEBEN UND WERK 261 k a T T T 1 . 'pa ss thr ou gh ', w hi ch jar s wi th th e 'pa ss' . 1 11.9- . 1 . 1 292 1 b e 2 11.16- 9 8 T
  • 322. 262 MET HODS ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT: LEBEN UND WERK 263 P T 1 2 9 295 D 296 o d u 2 298 9 r 11.25- i 7 1 . 1 . 2 300 9 a b 1 . ' 1.34 m 11.34, 1.35 3 1.36 301 302 303 304 305 ha ve tra nsl ate d it as 're as on' , wh ich is oft en us ed ne gat ive ly by the Ro ma nti cs. 1 1 e h a u 1 . i h O r u n 1 . s h
  • 323. L 'ADORA TION 265 Tr u EP e X T 1 0 U A d o r a t i o n J a c q u e s B o r e l C e t t e T J T Ю I 1s :o 5 .' w 5
  • 324. T a RT A NT S L T O Ap ( T u h I a a On T Nh ( C1 v RT I l T 3 3 I 0 0 3 C0 3 I 0 ' S s M S L t e x t a n a l y si s T h i s i s l lp y a n d r e f e r e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a
  • 325. at n d r e f e r e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a d r e f e r e n t i a l l y i m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r e
  • 326. f n e r e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i r eu n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d t
  • 327. i O a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e l lt y m i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g
  • 328. mt i s l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a s -c l e a d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c e
  • 329. aa d i n g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n i no g , s i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i ,
  • 330. s i i n c e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t n ci e i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i
  • 331. t i i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d a n d i t i s o u t s i t i s o u n
  • 332. ae p p r o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h p rt o p r i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e p
  • 333. r t i a t e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n a tm e d u r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e d
  • 334. ug r i n g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n i nr g t h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c
  • 335. t u h e O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o e o O c c u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e c
  • 336. cT u p a t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . p ar t i o n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u i
  • 337. ot n a n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n ah n d i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T d
  • 338. i t i s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o t i s t o u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n s
  • 339. oe u t s i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n t so i d e t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c d
  • 340. ee t h e s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r h et s e m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n s
  • 341. ek m a n t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c a n: t i c r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e i
  • 342. cn r a n g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e a nd g e o f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e e
  • 343. os f n o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u ne o u r r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s u
  • 344. r e r i . T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n i .t T h e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s T
  • 345. hd e s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n s e n t e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d n
  • 346. t g e n c e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u n cI e c o m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , c
  • 347. oe m p o n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , p os n e n t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e e
  • 348. nu t s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f s a r e : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e r
  • 349. ee : p a c k e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d p a c k e d , a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r a n d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l c
  • 350. k1 e d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . d , d e n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . d
  • 351. eh n s e , s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T s e, s u s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 s
  • 352. up s t a i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a t ai i n e d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s n
  • 353. er d a n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h aa n d , I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p d
  • 354. , d I s u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A ss u g g e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a g
  • 355. ge e s t , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t s tm , e v e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d e
  • 356. vh e n t f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t n ty f u l h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l u
  • 357. l c h e r e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n e rr e . 1 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F .
  • 358. 1u 1 . 1 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o . 1c 6 8 T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( -
  • 359. 8. T h i s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . h it s i s a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n i
  • 360. s i a p a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) pо a r a p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т r
  • 361. ak p h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a h r a s e . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s s
  • 362. ev . A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e A d m i t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , m
  • 363. i h t t e d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t t ev d l y t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e l
  • 364. ym t h e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m t he e F r e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h F
  • 365. r l e n c h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a n ca h ( c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m
  • 366. ( r c o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u o u r a n t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a
  • 367. n. t . . . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . r . т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u .
  • 368. т о й ) i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e й ). i s w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . i
  • 369. s n w e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g e a k , b u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e ,
  • 370. bI u t e v e n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . t e v e n o t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n v
  • 371. ed n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l tI h e g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . e
  • 372. go r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l d s e e n a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l d a
  • 373. t i c a l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l d s e e n o n e e d c ao l f e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l d s e e n f
  • 374. e a t u r e n e . . . q u e i s i g n o r e d . I w o u l d s e e n o n e e d t o 264
  • 375. 266 MET HODS w i T T h T T E X T 1 1 P a l e A n n a * H e i n r i c h B o ll I t w a s n ' t Ш 1 25 20 5 B u 3 0 M 3y ? •
  • 376. 267
  • 377. 268 MET HODS DIE BLASSE ANNA 269 l a c h e n d e r b l o n d e r J u n g e g e w e s e n , u n d a u f d e m B u n t p h o t o « E s « E « D J e E n d s t a t i o n d e r 9 z e i g t e , u n d i c h d a c h t e a n v i e l e s : a n
  • 378. s d« aV s M a d c h e n u n d a n d i e S e i f e n f a b r i k , i n d e r i c h d a m a l ae nw I d w a s a g a i n a t h e g i r l . ' P e r h a p s ' , m y l a n d l a d y s a i d , ' y o u k n g l o s s y p h o t o a n d s t i l l l o o k e d n e w , t h o u g h i t w a s e . i 'I g h t y e a r s o l d . ' N o , n o ,' I s a i d , ' K a l i n o v k a t o o , r e a l l y I d i d n ' t a ll d a y I w a s t h i n k i n g o f w h a t I w a n t e d t o f o r g e t: t h e w a r a n d I fl i c k e db u S m o y c i g a r e t t e a s h f o o t s t e p s i n t h e o f f n e x t b e h i n d r o o m , t h e b e d , s t u b b e d o u t t h e o r I h e a r d t h e J u g o s l a v w h
  • 379. on g I lt i v e d i n t h e r o o m b e s i d e t h e k i t c h e n , h e a r d h i m c u r s i
  • 380. по MET HODS DIE BLASSE ANNA 271 T S T T h T r T 1 1 . 1 . 3 1 3 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 C 1 f e h ahre t e wee ks' ('It was n't unti l I'd bee n ther e thre e wee ks') . 1 t h as w n't rig ht for him '. Not e the Ger ma n is an idio m, ther efo re a dev iati
  • 381. on f r re p sen t, ofte n neg lect ed by tran slat ors) . A A
  • 382. LA SOCIETE FRANCAISE 273 Tx EU X T 1 2 L a S o c i e t e F r a n q a i s e G . D u p e u c o L e N o
  • 383. Tw a E X T 1 2 F r e n c h S o c i e t y * G . D u p e u x S o m e y ea rs a g o it l h i s t o r y o f F r a n c e i n t h e ca h lot ao rT 1t h 2e5 2d0 5 T th 3e 3r 0 r5 i t o r y . N o b o d y n i n e t e e n t h c o u l d c e n t u r y 5 w a s s t i l l u n m a k e s u c h a d r a s t i c s t m o t o r e r e d 'o n t a e t p o T T T T
  • 384. m ( ai nl y pr es er ve d, bu t pa ssi ve s an d ac tiv es int er ch an ge in th e m ai n cl au se s of th e fir st an d se co nd se nt en ce s i n l y p r e s e r v e d , b u t p a s s i v e s a n d a c t i v e s i n t e r c h a n gt e i n t h e m a i n c l a u s e s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s e n i n
  • 385. th e 272
  • 386. 274 MET HODS 275 LA SOCIETE FRANCAISE 3 1 3 1 . 11.42-3 p 318 r e 319 s e T 11.3-4 3 1 3 1 1 1 . 3 1 1 1 3 1 . n . o ' 1 t pp . 1 a . lied 1 ). . 1 . 1 . 11.48-9 1 . 1 . 1 T T . 1 . 1 . S D e 11.27-8
  • 387. 276 MET HODS t e D T E X T 1 3 T o t h e b e n e f i t o f a l l A r e t h e G e r m a n s
  • 388. m 5o 1R 10 25 0 L 2o 3? J 0 5 Sour 2 ( 1 9 8 0 S C A L A , E n g li s h E d it i o n , N o . 2 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 277
  • 389. 278 MET HODS ZUMWOHL EALLER 279 T S T S C T A n T h T G 1 r e t a i n e d i n t h e E n g li s h , a lt h o u g h t h is d e v i c e is n o t s o c o m m o n i n E n g li s h a s i n u n n e c e s s a ri l y i n c r e a s e s
  • 390. t h e f o r m a li t y a n d d e c r e a s e s t h e e m p h a si s o f t h is it e m . A lt e r n a ti v e : ' w h e n t h e y h a v e t o w o r k' . 1.3 1.5 320 321 w W o u n 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 1 M 1 j u c o n t e x t; it d a n g e r o u sl y o v e r st r e s s e s t h e p o i n t. It w o u l d h a v e b e e n w is e r t o k e r e n d e ri n g o f t h e G e r m a n d e a d m e t a p hor, 'are kept in boun ds', gets the s e old, b rathe r free but succ essfu l mod ulati on, since it is less mute d and form al than the origi nal. 1.6 1.10 1 d 1 . s e 'mist ake' respe ctive ly. 'Take an appr oach' is acce ptabl e'path' woul d be too refin ed. 1 whic h seem sa pity, but the versi on is norm alise d.
  • 391. 280 MET HODS 281 ZUM WOHLE ALLER 1.22 1.38 1.40 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 . 1 . A 1 . 1 1 . G o 1 1.14 1 . 1 1.11 d ea d m et a p h or , is m or e id io m at ic a n d th er ef or e st ro n g er th a n th e G er m a n.
  • 392. W h et h er it is p ut at th e e n d or th e b e gi n ni n g of th e se nt e n ce is a m at te r of ta st e. 11.37T A T h S
  • 393. 283 Glossary In some cases, I give terms a special sense which is I think appropriate, transparent and operational for translation. These terms are indicated with an asterisk. *ACRONYM: A word formed from the first letters or first syllables of its component words (e.g. UNO, BTT (q.v.), Komsomol). ACTUAL: The sense used in the particular context, as opposed to 'potential'. ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE (or RELATIVE CLAUSE): Subordinate clause qualifying or describing a noun or pronoun (e.g. 'the man who came in'; 'the house (that) I saw'; 'the man (who/whom) I saw'). ♦ADJECTIVAL NOUN: Noun formed from an adjective, (e.g. 'kindness', 'redness'). ♦'ANONYMOUS' TEXT: (Delisle's (1981) term). A text where the name and status of the author is not important. Usually a run-ofthe-mill 'informative' text. ♦AUTHORITATIVE TEXT (or STATEMENT); An official text, or a text where the status of the author carries authority. BACK-TRANSLATION TEST (втт): Translating a stretch or lexical unit of TL text back into the SL, for purposes of comparison and correction. A useful test for assessing the semantic range of the SL passage. If the retranslation doesn't correspond with the SL text, a translator can justify his version: (a) if it shows up a SL lexical gap; (b) the wider context supports a non-corresponding version. However, if the SL lexical unit has a clear one-to-one TL equivalent, a different version is usually hard to justify. BLEND (or 'PORTMANTEAU' WORD): The fusion of two words into one (e.g. 'motel', 'brunch' and common technical language). CASE-GAP: Where a 'CASE-PARTNER' (q.v.) is missing. CASE-PARTNER: A noun GROUP (q.v.) or pronoun dependent on a verb, adjective or noun; it may be the subject, object, indirect object, etc., of a verb; in the possessive or genitive case (e.g. 'a row of books', 'a student group') or dependent on a VERB ADJECTIVE (q.v.) (e.g. 'responsible to me'). In translation, case-partners are sometimes added to fill SL 'case-gaps'. CLASSIFIER: A generic or general or superordinate term sometimes supplied by the translator to qualify a specific term (e.g. 'the city of Brno'). CLAUSE: A complete stretch of words including a subject and a verb. A main clause can be used on its own in a sentence; a subordinate clause can only be used with a main clause and is often introduced by a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun. COLLOCATION: Two or more words ('collocates') that go 'happily' or naturally with each other (see pp. 212-3). COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION: Translation at the readership's level. COMPENSATION: Compensating for any semantic loss (e.g. undertranslation, metaphor, pun, sound effect) in one place at another place in the text. ♦CONFLATE or ♦COLLAPSE: To bring two or more SL words together and translate by one TL word. CONNECTIVES: Words used to connect two sentences to secure cohesion: conjunctions, pronouns, adverbs, such as 'further, 'yet', etc. Also called 'link(ing) words' or 'connectors'. CORRESPONDENT: Corresponding stretch of text in SL and TL text. CULTURAL EQUIVALENT: A cultural word translated by a cultural word, e.g. bac by '"A" level'. Always approximate. CULTURE: Objects, processes, institutions, customs, ideas peculiar to one group of people. ♦CURRENCY: The status of a word, idiom or syntactic structure at the period of writing (SL 282
  • 394. GLOSSARY or TL), either within or outside the context, as exemplified first in its frequency of use, and also in its degree of novelty, validity and obsolescence. (A more comprehensive account is offered by STATUS (q.v.).) DEICTIC WORD: A word indicating time or space like a pronoun: e.g. 'the', 'this', 'my', 'your', 'here', 'there'. ♦DELETE, ♦DELETION: Means 'omit, don't translate'. ♦DICTIONARY WORD: A word only found in (usually bilingual) dictionaries and therefore to be avoided by translators. ♦EMPTY VERB: (a) A verb such as 'do', 'give' (an order), 'deliver' (a speech), 'take' (action), collocated with a verb-noun, to which it gives greater force; (b) any verb that can be deleted in translation (see 'HOUSE-ON-HILL' CONSTRUCTION), ♦EPONYM: Any word derived from a proper name. EQUAL FREQUENCY RULE: Any corresponding features of the SL and TL text should be approximately equally frequent in the appropriate language register. Features include words, metaphors, collocations, grammatical structure, word order, proverbs, institutional terms. EQUATIVE or EQUATIONAL VERB or COPULA: A verb that expresses equivalence or change, such as 'be', 'seem', 'become', 'grow', 'turn', 'get', which has adjective or noun complements. FALSE FRIEND or FAUX AMI: An SL word that has the same or similar form but another meaning in the TL; therefore a deceptive cognate. FREAK EXAMPLE: An exceptional example, often inadequately offered as evidence. ♦FUNCTIONAL TRANSLATION: A simple natural translation that clarifies the purpose and meaning of the SL passage (in the best sense, a 'paraphrase'). GENERAL WORD: A noun, verb, or adjective with a wide referential range, e.g., 'thing', 'do', 'good', 'development', 'affair', 'business', pnenomene, element. Also called 'hold-all words'. GRAECO-LATINISM: A modern word derived from a combination of Latin and/or ancient Greek words. GRAMMATICAL (or FUNCTIONAL) WORD: A word indicating relations, e.g. a preposition, pronoun, connective, a PRE-NOUN (q.v.), a DEICTIC WORD (q.v.). A component of a limited or 'closed' language system, that includes or excludes 'grey area' words such as 'in respect of, dans le cadre de, 'to the point that', etc. GROUP, also called PHRASE: A constituent part of a clause or a sentence; there are noun groups ('a (nice) lad'), verb groups ('went to see', 'would have done'), adverbial groups ('extremely well', 'in the morning'). Groups initiated with a preposition, like the last example, are often called 'prepositional groups'. ♦'HOUSE-ON- HILL' CONSTRUCTION: An SL structure that uses an EMPTY VERB (q.v.), usually a participle or an adjectival clause, or a preposition to qualify a noun, usually translated into English by 'noun plus preposition plus noun' (examples on p. 87). ♦HOUSE-STYLE or FORMAT: The conventions of format peculiar to a publication or a publisher, including titling or sub-titling, punctuation, capitalisation, spelling, footnotes, length of paragraphs, dates, illustrations, arrangement. ♦'ICEBERG': All the work involved in translating, of which only the 'tip' shows. ♦INTENSIFIERS: Adverbs or adjectives used, usually in cliched collocations, to intensify or stress meaning: e.g. 'totally', 'highly', 'incredible', 'deeply', 'immensely', 'profoundly'. Often deleted in natural usage. INTERFERENCE: Literal translation from SL or a third language that does not give the right or required sense (see TRANSLATIONESE). INTERNATIONALISM: Strictly a word that keeps the same meaning and the same form in many languages, therefore normally a technical term. (Conceptwords such as 'liberalism' could be described as 'pseudo-internationalisms'.)
  • 395. 284 GLOS SARY GLOS SARY 285 J A G r v e u n i t l i t e r a l l y d e n o t e , i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e i t m o r e a c c u r a t e l y o r v i v i d l y a d e g r e e o f r e v i c e v e r s a , q u a l i f
  • 396. y i n g a v e r b , a d j e c t i v e o r a d v e r b ( e . g . ' n o t u n m i n d f u l ' — * ' m i n d f u l ' ) . T h e p r o c e d u r e i s a v a i l a b l e a s a n o p t i o n f o r a n y c l a u s e , t h o u g h ' i n p r i n c i p l e ' ( i . e . o u t o f c o s u p r ' s e q u i v a l e n t O f t e n i n h a s t h e T L , t h a t s h o w s u p a l e x i c a l g a p i n t h e T L . n o c o g n a t e i n t h r e O P O f e l ' p c o p p o s e d t o t h e r e f e r e n t i a l , i n f o r m a t i v e e l e m e n t ( c f . t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n ' m i n d ' a n d ' r e a l i t y ' l a n g u a g e , b u t 1 ) . i n T h e v a r y i n g t w o e l e m e n t s a r e a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n d e g r e e . ( N a r D i
  • 397. o f f o r m a l i t y , e m o t i o n a l t o n e , d i f f i c u l t y , c i a l c l a s s ; o c c a s i o n a l l y b y o t h e r f a c t o r s d i a l e c t s u c h a n d a g e s o a n a s d s e x . RO *'S M A S C S ♦SE E T S ♦ST L SUB A - T L T TR O TRAA ♦TR N A T ♦U R UN N 'UN D UNI F VERT VE B R
  • 398. Abbreviations ALP Am. AT BBC BSI BTT CA CAT CD CM CO COI Cz. E EB EEC ESI F FL FRG FSP G GD ISO It. IT LSP MA MT О OEC OE R SI SL Sp. svo T TL TM UK UN UT WP Automatic Language Processing Advisory American automatic translation British Broadcasting Corporation British Standards Institution back-translation test (or of text) componential analysis computer-aided translation communicative dynamism Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Concise Oxford Dictionary Central Office of Information Czech English Encyclopaedia Britannica European Economic Community Ecole Superieure d'Interpretation et de French foreign language Federal Republic of Germany functional sentence perspective German German Democratic Republic International Standards Organisation Italian information technology language for special (or specific) purposes machine-aided translation machine translation original Organisation for Economic Co-operation Oxford English Dictionary Russian Systeme International (d'Unites) source language Spanish subject-verb-object translation target language temporal and modal exponent United Kingdom United Nations unit of translation word-processor 286 Author's Published Papers 1971 'Teaching Italian translation', Incorporated Linguist, April 1971. 1975 'European languages: some perspectives' Curriculum Development (10) 8-33, University of Sussex, Winter 1975. 1976 'A Layman's approach to medical translation, part Г, Incorporated Linguist 15(2) 41-43. 1976 'A Layman's approach to medical translation, part 11", Incorporated Linguist 15(3) 63-68. 1976 'A tentative preface to translation' AVLA Journal 14(3), Winter 1976. 1978 'Some problems of translation theory and methodology', Fremdsprachen (Leipzig) 1978. 325 'Componential analysis and translation theory', Papers in Traductology, University of Ottawa. 326 'A layman's view of medical translation' (1405-8) British Medical Journal No. 6202. 1st Dec. 1982 'The Translation of authoritative statements' pp. 283-303 in JC. Gemar. The Language of the Law and Translation, Linguatech, Quebec. (Meta Vol. 27/4). 'Translation and the Vocative function of Language' pp. 29-37 Incorporated Linguist, Vol. 21/1 London. 'A further Note on Communicative and Semantic translation' 1821 Babel Vol. XXVIII. 327 'Introductory Survey' (1-21) ined. С Picken, The Translator's Handbook. (Aslib). 'Criteria for evaluating the translation of informative texts' Fremdsprachen Leipzig. 328 'General Aspects of Italian - English Translation pp. 381-404 in La Traduzione nell' insegnamento delle hngue stramere La Scuola. Brescia. 329 'The translation of Metaphor' (295-327) in The Ubiquity of Metaphor ed. R. Dirven and W. Paprotte. John Benjamin, Amsterdam. 330 'Criteria for evaluating the translation of informative texts' Fremdsprachen. 1986 'Translation studies: eight tentative directions for research, and some dead ducks'. (37-50) in ed. L. Wollen and H. Lindquist Translation Studies in Scandinavia. Lund. 'Translation in language teaching and for professional purposes' in German in the United Kingdom (129-131) (UK Conference on German) CILT. 'The Translation of political language' (43-65) in Dimensioni linguistiche e distanze culturali. Trieste. 331 'How you Translate' in Translation in the modern language degree ed. H. Keith and J. Mason Heriot Watt, CILT. 332 'Translation today' in Translation Studies: Stale of the Art Vol. 1 ed. Anderman and Rogers. University of Surrey Press. 1988 'Systemic Grammar and Translation' (M.A.K. Halliday. Festschrift) Language Topics, ed. Steele and Threadgold. Benjamins. Amsterdam. 'Translation and Mistranslation' (.forthcoming) AILA. Hildesheim. 'Teaching Translation' Stockholm University in Teaching Translation ed. Magnusson and Wahlen.
  • 399. 'Modern Translation Theory' (forthcoming) Lebende Sprachen. 'The use and abuse of a text-bound approach to translation' FIT transactions (forthcoming). 'Translation and interpretation: retrospect and prospect' in Applied Linguistics in Society ed. P. Grunwell for BAAL. CILT. London. 'Pragmatic Translation and Literalism'. Canadian Association for Translation Studies. Windsor, Ontario. 'The Word and its degree of context in translation', (forthcoming) University of Surrey Prews. 'Word and Text: narrowing the gap between the two approaches to Translation'. B'-AL Conference, Exeter. 'Translation as literary and linguistic criticism'. Belgian Association of Anglicists in Higher Education. Namur, Belgium. 'Teaching Translation Theory'. International Journal of Translation. University of Delhi. (forthcoming). 'The Virtues and Vices of Translationese' Festschrift for Albrecht Neubert, Leipzig. (forthcoming). 287

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