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Air presentation ncfl_2010 Air presentation ncfl_2010 Presentation Transcript

  • Supporting Language and LiteracyDevelopment forTwo Generations:Results from the Eight-Year Study ofthe First 5 LA Family Literacy InitiativeHeather Quick,Karen Manship,andShannon MadsenAmerican Institutes for Research (AIR)Bill GouldFirst 5 LANational Conference on Family LiteracyApril 11,2010
  • OVERVIEW OFTHEINITIATIVE 2
  • Who is First 5 LA and what do we do?
  • Distribution of First 5 LA Early ChildhoodEducation Services in LA County
  • First 5 LA Family Literacy Initiative Began in 2002 22 grantee agencies providing four family literacy components: ◦ Early Childhood Education (60 hours/month) ◦ Adult Education (48 hours/month) ◦ Parenting Education (10 hours/month) ◦ Parent-Child Interactive LiteracyActivities (PCILA) (10 hours/month) 5
  • Participants◦ Initiative served approximately 2700 families from 2003 – 2009 97% women 85% married/living with partner 77% unemployed 71% of families have incomes <$20,000/yr 97% Hispanic or Latino 87% use Spanish as primary language 30% lived in the U.S.fewer than 6 years 69% with less than a high school education;half of these had 8th grade or less 78% with no schooling in the U.S. Children are 0-5 years old 6
  • InitiativeTheory of Change Early Childhood Long-Term Education Results for Child Children Outcomes PCILA Initiative Evaluator Long-Term Parenting Adult Results for Education Outcomes Adults FamilyFirst 5 Literacy AdultLA Education Long-Term Grantees Family Results for Outcomes Families Family Family Support Literacy Support Program Long-Term Network Outcomes Results for Communities Training/ Technical Long-Term Assistance Results for Family Literacy Programs
  • THE EVALUATION 8
  • Contributors American Institutes for Research Eva Lyman-Munt Deborah Parrish Shannon Madsen Heather Quick Karen Manship Jamie Shkolnik Ana Paula Miranda LaRenaWoods Center for Improving Child Care Quality at UCLA Carollee Howes Youngok Jung 9
  • AIR’s Evaluation Eight-year comprehensive implementation and outcomes study (2002-2010) Focus of this presentation: Language and literacy development for parents and children 10
  • Focus of the Presentation Early Childhood Long-Term Education Results for Child Children Outcomes PCILA Initiative Evaluator Long-Term Parenting Adult Results for Education Outcomes Adults FamilyFirst 5 Literacy AdultLA Education Long-Term Grantees Family Results for Outcomes Families Family Family Support Literacy Support Program Long-Term Network Outcomes Results for Communities Training/ Technical Long-Term Assistance Results for Family Literacy Programs 11
  • Research Questions1. Parent language,literacy,and self-sufficiency outcomes: a) How have parents’ language/literacy skills developed over time? b) What progress have parents made toward continued education and self sufficiency after leaving the program? Shenandoah Family Literacy Program 12
  • Research Questions (cont.)2. Parents’ support for children’s language and literacy development: a) How have parents’ practices to support their children’s language and literacy development changed over time? b) To what extent have parents maintained these practices after leaving the program? 13
  • Research Questions (cont.)3. Children’s language,literacy,and learning outcomes: a) How have children’s language,literacy,and math skills changed over time? b) What are children’s literacy outcomes after leaving the program? Shenandoah Family Literacy Program 14
  • QUESTION 1A:How have parents’ language/literacyskills developed over time? 15
  • Measures and Methods ComprehensiveAdult StudentAssessment System (CASAS) Reading assessment ◦ Assessment of reading level in English ◦ Administered by program staff at least twice annually ◦ 1,556 ESL andABE students completed at least 2 CASAS assessments since 2003 16
  • CASAS Score Growth for 2008-09 Mean CASAS Score 250 240 230 223.5 226.5 220.4 220 215.5 209.9 210 201.8 200 190 180 All parents*** Beginning basic Low intermediate to (n=321) skills*** advanced*** (n=118) (n=203) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 100 hours of ESL and/orABE. 17
  • CASAS Score Growth OverTime Mean CASAS score growth for parents attending for 1 year only,2 years only,and 3 or more years 230 Mean CASAS score 225 220 215 1 yr only (N=1074) 2 yrs only (N=312) 210 3 or more yrs (N=133) 205 200 Time 1 Time 2 Time 1 Time 2 Time 1 Time 2 1st year 2nd year 3rd year + 18
  • CharacteristicsAssociated withGreater CASAS Score Growth Controlling for total hours of participation and year of participation,we find the following groups show greater growth: ◦ Parents in higher income households ◦ Parents with at least some high school experience ◦ Parents who have completed at least some of their schooling in the U.S. 19
  • QUESTION 1B:What progress have parents madetoward continued education and selfsufficiency after leaving the program? 20
  • Measures and Methods Alumni parent survey ◦ Phone survey with 208 alumni parents in 2009, 1-5 years after leaving the program (mean of 2.5 years) ◦ Parent reports of long-term outcomes Wilsona Family Literacy Program participants receiving their GED 21
  • Parent Reports of Improved English Skills Parent ratings of their English skills at program entry and after the program (includes only those in ESL) Fluent in English 4In-depth discussion in 3 English 2.3 Simple conversation 2 in English 1.3 Few phrases in 1 English No English 0 Rating of English skills*** * p<.05 ** p < .01 (N=191) *** p <.001 At program entry After leaving program 22
  • Parent Reflections on LearningEnglish“It was helpful for me because I am now ableto help [my children] with their homework…When I watch the news,I tell my kids whatwere the events of the day.When I run intosomeone who doesnt speak English,I translatefor them. When I go to thesupermarket,I tell themwhat I need in English, andand they are able tounderstand.” 23
  • Continuing Education 72% enrolled in some form of educational classes after leaving the program ◦ 25% (51) enrolled in GED classes ◦ 66% (138) enrolled in other adult ed classes ◦ 6% (12) enrolled in college classes 21% (43) received a degree or certificate after leaving the program,including 10 receiving their GED 24
  • Parent Reflections onContinuing their Education “I learned English.I learned more [about] how to use computers.It motivated me to continue to learn.” “They motivated me to continue with my education so that I can attend college…. [Before,] I didn’t tend to take [my children] to the library,and now we are very involved in everything thats related to education.” 25
  • Employment Outcomes 16% were employed at program entry 26% were employed after exit 100% % of parents 80% 60% 40% 33% 37% 26% 20% 4% 0% Currently Looking for Not working to Not working employed work care for for otherN=208 children reasons 26
  • QUESTION 2A:How have parents’ practices tosupport their children’s language andliteracy development changed overtime? 27
  • Measures and MethodsFamily LiteracyInitiative ParentSurvey (FLIPS)◦ Administered by program staff at enrollment and at the end of the year (2008-09)◦ 539 parents completed at least 2 parent surveys; 520 of these participated in at least 50 hours of parenting education + PCILA 28
  • Measures and Methods (cont.) Family Literacy Initiative Parent Survey (FLIPS) ◦ Content covered: Parent knowledge and attitudes Home literacy resources Reading practices Activities with children Parenting practices (e.g.,TV viewing,discipline) Parent involvement in school 29
  • Library Use 100% 80% 80%% of parents 63% 60% 40% 20% 0% Visit the library at least once/month*** (N=511) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. *** p <.001 30
  • Frequency of Reading to Child 100% 80% % of parents 71% 60% 57% 55% 42% 40% 20% 0% Read to their children at least Read to their children at least daily*** 3x/week*** (N=517) (N=517) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. ** p < .01 *** p <.001 31
  • Interactive Reading Strategies 100% 80%% of parents 80% 68% 70% 60% 55% 40% 20% 0% Ask child to say what is in a picture Ask child what s/he thinks will while reading at least 3x/week*** happen next while reading together (N=480) at least 3x/week*** (N=480) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. *** p <.001 32
  • Reading Routines 100% 80%% of parents 66% 59% 60% 51% 46% 40% 20% 0% Bring books for children to look at Follow a regular routine for reading, during everyday activities, often or often or very often*** very often*** (N=505) (N=505) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. 33
  • Storytelling 100% 80%% of parents 62% 59% 60% 41% 40% 36% 20% 0% Tell stories to their children at least Have their child tell stories at least 3x/week*** 3x/week*** (N=491) (N=491) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. ** p < .01 *** p <.001 34
  • Talking with Children 100% 80% 75% 78%% of parents 67% 64% 60% 40% 20% 0% Talk to their children about what is Talk to their children about letters of going on around them, often or very the alphabet, often or very often*** often*** (N=504) (N=504) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 Analysis limited to parents receiving at least 50 hours of parenting ed plus PCILA. *** p <.001 35
  • QUESTION 2B:To what extent have parentsmaintained their practices to supporttheir children’s language and literacydevelopment after leaving theprogram? 36
  • Measures and Methods Alumni parent survey ◦ Phone survey with 208 alumni parents ◦ Includes many of the same items as on the FLIPS ◦ Perceived impacts of program participation 37
  • Alumni Parent Households Many had more than one child in the household ◦ 47% had at least one preschool-aged or younger child in the household ◦ 87% had at least one elementary-school-aged child in the household ◦ 43% had at least one middle or high-school- aged child in the household Questions ask parents about their children generally (not a specific child)
  • Home Literacy Practices Percent of alumni parents with elementary school age children who report that they… 100% 85% % of parents 80% 69% 61% 60% 40% 36% 20% 0% Visit the library at Read to their Ask child to say Ask child what s/he least once/month children at least what is in a picture thinks will happen 3x/wk while reading at next while reading least 3x/wk together at least 3x/wk N=180 39
  • Home Literacy Practices Percent of alumni parents with elementary school age children who report that they… 100% % of parents 80% 62% 60% 47% 39% 40% 20% 6% 0% Tell stories to Have their child Talk to their Limit their their children at tell stories at children about childrens least 3x/wk least 3x/week letters of the television alphabet often or viewing to 1 very often hr/day N=180 40
  • Parent Reflections on Reading“Before I started this program I did not know the importancof reading … and also having books at home where the kidscan reach them… [The program] gave us their card so thatwe could go to the library – there is a bigger selection thereIn one field trip,I opened a library account so I got a card…They gave us the opportunity to read more to our kids.” Mothers’ Club Family Literacy Program 41
  • Parent Involvement in School Percent of alumni parents who report that they… 100% 80% 68%% of parents 60% 54% 40% 20% 0% Volunteer in their childs classroom Participate in the PTA or other committees N=208 42
  • Parent Reflections on SchoolInvolvementRegarding ways that the program has helped:“… being more interested in what [mychildren] are doing at school. I am now moreinvolved. When I feel that one of my kids is notdoing so well in school,I do whatever it takes tspeak to their teachers.” 43
  • Remaining Challenges forAlumni withElementary School-Aged Children 100% % of parents 80% 60% 39% 39% 40% 30% 26% 24% 20% 0% Unsure how Unable to Trouble Difficulty Trouble to get help with getting managing finding quality involved in homework children childrens time to spend childrens interested in behavior with child school books N=180 44
  • Parent Reflections on Challenges“Dealing with the education system [is a challengbecause you have to understand how it works,andthe registration requirements. Sometimes youinterpret them,and people help you,but they donttranslate it right and the channels of communicatiare not complete.” 45
  • Parent Reflections on Challenges “In school,with gangs and violence,my husband and I are always wary of who our son’s friends are,where they come from,who their parents are. Thats a big challenge for us.” “Id like to study more,but I have to take care of my kids,and Id have to pay for day care and thats not possible for me right now. In Family Literacy they took care of my kids. It’s hard now [not having that].” 46
  • QUESTION 3A:How have children’s language,literacy,and math skills changed over time? 47
  • Measures and MethodsDirect child assessments(3-5 years)◦ Administered by trained assessors in fall and spring (mean number of months between assessments:5.5)◦ Sample of 316 3-5 year olds◦ Measures English language screener (Pre-LAS) Receptive vocabulary (PPVT/TVIP) Emergent literacy measures (e.g., naming letters,colors) Story and print concepts Woodcock-JohnsonApplied Problems Early numeracy measures (e.g.,naming numbers,counting) 48
  • Measures and Methods (Cont.)Early language measure (8-30 months)◦ MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI),administered by programs◦ Parent survey documenting children’s vocabulary◦ Given at two points in time (mean number of months between administrations:4.5)◦ 159 children (8-30 mos.) have 2 completed surveys Mothers’ Club Family Literacy Program 49
  • English Language Level:Pre-LAS 40 35 30 Mean Score 25 20.7 20 15 12.8 10 5 0 Pre-LAS*** (N=160) * p<.05 Time 1 Time 2 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 50
  • ReceptiveVocabulary:PPVT/TVIP 100 93.9 89.0 89.7 86.2 At-Risk Cutoff 80 Mean Score 60 40 20 0 English – PPVT** Spanish – TVIP (N=31) (N=111) Receptive Vocabulary * p<.05 Time 1 Time 2 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 51
  • Emergent Literacy Skills:Naming Letters and Colors 14 12 Mean Score 11.6 10 8 7.3 6.8 5.9 6 4 2 0 Letters*** Colors** (N=175) (N=174) Naming Letters & Colors Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 52
  • Story and Print Concepts 11 10 9 Mean Score 8 7 6 5.2 5 4 3.9 3 2 1 0 Story & Print Concepts*** (N=171) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 53
  • Early Numeracy:NamingNumbers and Counting Objects 16 15.2 14 Mean Score 12 11.2 10 8 6 4.9 4 3.4 2 0 Naming Numbers*** Counting Objects*** (N=95) (N=161) Early Numeracy * p<.05 ** p < .01 Time 1 Time 2 *** p <.001 54
  • Problem Solving:Woodcock-JohnsonApplied Problems 100 90.9 86.8 At-Risk Cutoff 80 Mean Score 60 40 20 0 Applied Problems** (N=126) Time 1 Time 2 * p<.05 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 55
  • Early Language Development:MacArthur-Bates CDI Raw Scores (8- to 18-month-old children) Number of Words 30 25 21 20 15 10 10 5 5 3 0 English* Spanish* (N=12) (N=33) Words Child Understands and Says * p<.05 Time 1 Time 2 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 56
  • Early Language Development:MacArthur-Bates CDI ◦ Raw Scores (16- to 30-month-old children) Number of Words 300 242 250 250 200 150 140 109 100 50 0 English*** Spanish*** (N=24) (N=90) Words Child Understands and Says * p<.05 Time 1 Time 2 ** p < .01 *** p <.001 57
  • Early Language Development:MacArthur-Bates CDI ◦ Percentiles (16- to 30-month-old children) 100 80 Percentile 60 37 39 40 23 24 20 0 English Spanish (N=24) (N=90) Words Child Understands and Says * p<.05 ** p < .01 Time 1 Time 2 *** p <.001 58
  • QUESTION 3B:What are children’s literacyoutcomes after leaving the program? 59
  • Measures and MethodsAlumni parent survey◦ Phone survey with 208 alumni parents◦ Parent reports of children’s literacy development◦ Parents were asked about a“target child” – the Mothers’ Club Family Literacy Program oldest child who participated in the family literacy program 60
  • Learning to Read According to parents,children began reading,on average,at age 5 ½ Percent of children who began to read at different ages 50% 40% 30% 25% 19% 21% 19% 20% 16% 10% 0% Under 5 5 to almost 5.5 to 6 to almost 6.5 or older 5.5 almost 6 6.5 (N=166) 61
  • Parent Reflections “I can tell you that when both of my kids were in preschool,I could tell the difference right away.One was part of the program,and he knew the alphabet;he knew the different sounds of letters. The other one knew the letters but not the sounds.With my oldest son, I didnt instill in him the importance of reading when he was small.He doesnt like to read.But my other son who attended the program,he does like to read.” Mothers’ Club Family Literacy Program 62
  • Parent Reflections “[The program] benefited me because I learned there.My kids and I learned names and colors.[My daughter] learned how to read [in the program]. I also learned how to read because I didn’t know how to read before.We really like to read.We played and read together there.” 63
  • Parent Reflections “When my kids started kindergarten,they knew all the kindergarten level material.I think its because they started their education really early.” Shenandoah Family Literacy Program 64
  • SUMMARYAND NEXTSTEPS 65
  • Summary:Parents’ Language/Literacy & Education Outcomes Language/literacy outcomes ◦ Parents show significant growth on the CASAS reading assessment (in English) ◦ Greatest growth occurs in the first year ◦ Greatest growth observed among those with fewer risk factors Continued education/self sufficiency ◦ 72% enroll in further education courses ◦ Parents highlight the value of education 66
  • Summary:Parent Practices toSupport Language/Literacy By the end of the program year,more parents reported: ◦ Using the library regularly ◦ Daily reading to their children ◦ Using interactive reading strategies ◦ Engaging in storytelling ◦ Talking with their children to support language development 67
  • Summary:Parent Practices toSupport Language/LiteracyAfter leaving the program:◦ It appears that parents maintained or increased some parenting behaviors: Use of the library Having their children tell them stories◦ Other parenting behaviors seem to have decreased in prevalence: Interactive reading strategies Telling children stories◦ Parents reported challenges related to supporting their children’s continued development 68
  • Summary:Children’s Language,Literacy,and Math Outcomes Significant growth on general measures of children’s: ◦ English language skills (Pre-LAS) ◦ Naming letters,colors, numbers ◦ Story and print concepts ◦ CountingShenandoah Family Literacy Program 69
  • Summary:Children’s Language,Literacy,and Math Outcomes (cont.) On standardized measures: ◦ Growth on English receptive vocabulary (PPVT) ◦ Growth on problem solving (Woodcock) ◦ No growth on productive vocabulary (CDI) Children began reading at age 5 ½ on average 70
  • Next Steps forAnalysis Examine relationships between level of participation (# of hours) and outcomes for parents and children across time Examine relationships between program quality features and outcomes for parents and children across time 71
  • Next Steps forAnalysis (cont.)Examine relationships betweenparent and child outcomesLong-term follow-upof children inelementaryschool 72
  • More Information on First 5 LAResearch & EvaluationFamily Literacy Evaluation www.First5LA.org/Family-Lit-EvalPreschool Research www.First5LA.org/research/ preschool-researchSchool Readiness Evaluation www.First5LA.org/community- Impact/WWL/School-Readiness 73
  • Family Literacy Research andEvaluationQuestions & Answers 74
  • For More Information Prior years’ evaluation reports are available at: www.First5LA.org/Family-Lit-Eval Or contact:Heather Quick Karen Manship Bill Gould650-843-8130 650-843-8198 213-482-7550hquick@air.org kmanship@air.org bgould@first5la.org 75