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  • Arab’s don’t make a distinction between Psychologists

  • Leading into how political and social changes affect the topic...

  • AnthroFinalProject

    1. 1. MENTAL HEALTH AND CULTURE Disparity between Arab Perception and Western Treatment
    2. 2. OVERVIEW • Mental Health - What is it? • Comparisonof Perception and Treatment between Western and Arab Culture of Mental Health Illnesses • Cross Effects of Religion/Gender/Language • Effects of Temporality • Evaluation • Conclusion
    3. 3. KEY TERMS • Islam- Pertaining to the religious teachings found in the Qur’an or historical records of Muhammad's life. • Muslim- Pertaining to Islamic culture but not always rooted in Islamic practice. (Ex. Arabesque architecture of Synagogue) • Arab Descent (Geographic)- Genealogical origins are linked to Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco) and Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Iran, U.A.E.) • Idioms- Expressions rooted in one’s culture whose meaning doesn’t come from the words themselves (Ex. Raining cats and dogs) • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- The idea that a person’s linguistic background affects their perception of the world. • Dilemma of Assimilation- Series of conflicts arising when one’s past culture is different form their new location, resulting in a choice between maintenance and abandonment of cultural attitudes.
    4. 4. WHAT IS MENTAL HEALTH? • Mental Illness- Psychiatric or behavioral patterns not expected within developmental or cultural norms. (Ex. Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia) • Neurotransmitters- Chemicals in the brain that relay messages within the nervous system. (Ex. Serotonin, Nor-Epinephrine) • Psychotherapy- Use of psychological practices to modify or eliminate a mental illness without drugs/surgery. (Ex. Talk, music, or art therapy) • Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist- Psychologists do not prescribe drugs and often use psychotherapy to assist patients. • Problems with agreement and classification- DSM vs. International Statistical Classification
    5. 5. PERCEPTION DIFFERENCES (DIAGNOSTIC) • Western Perceptions of Mental Health • Biological/Technology • Psychosocial • Stress • Catastrophe • Acceptance?
    6. 6. PERCEPTION DIFFERENCES (DIAGNOSTIC) • Arab Perceptions of Mental Health • Religion • Gender • Familial/Marital Obligations • Acceptance?
    7. 7. PERCEPTION DIFFERENCES (TREATMENT) • Western Expectations? • Western Methods? • Drugs • Therapy • Time
    8. 8. PERCEPTION DIFFERENCES (TREATMENT) • Arab Expectation • Cure • Arab Methods • Religion • Fulfilling Roles • Conflict with Western Treatment
    9. 9. ANALYSIS WITHIN SCOPE OF RELIGION/GENDER/LANGUAGE • How do they interact? • Religion and Gender • Gender and Language • Religion and Language • Proximity of Therapist
    10. 10. ANALYSIS REGARDING TEMPORALITY • Passage of Time • Effect on Beliefs • Age • Perception of Time • Western vs. Arab • Distance and Time
    11. 11. EVALUATION • Questions left- • What happens when Arab treatment fails? • What current research has been done? • What education methods are put in place? • How will the war affect their perception of mental health?
    12. 12. EVALUATION CONTINUED • Suggestions • Cultural education • Establishing guidelines for open-minded therapists • Consensus on Illness and what is normal
    13. 13. CONCLUSION • Effect of stigmas outside of mental health • Cultural education offers treatment help, but don’t expect a change in perception • The need to break the cycle • Personal mental health views
    14. 14. WORKS CITED Alansari, Bader M. 2005. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN EIGHTEEN ARAB COUNTRIES: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY." Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 33, no. 5: 503-512. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Al-Krenawi, Alean, and John R. Graham. 2000. "Culturally Sensitive Social Work Practice With Arab Clients in Mental Health Settings." Health & Social Work 25, no. 1: 9-22. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Canino, Glorisa, and Margarita Alegría. 2008. "Psychiatric diagnosis – is it universal or relative to culture?." Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 49, no. 3: 237-250. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 30, 2010). Dwairy, Marwan. 2009. "Culture analysis and metaphor psychotherapy with Arab-Muslim clients." Journal of Clinical Psychology 65, no. 2: 199-209. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Gaebel, W., H. Z. and Anja E. Baumann. 2006. "The relationship between mental illness severity and stigma." Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 113, 41-45. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Hall, Ronald, and Jonathan Livingston. 2006. "Mental Health Practice with Arab Families: The Implications of Spirituality vis-à-vis Islam." American Journal of Family Therapy 34, no. 2: 139-150. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Hays, Danica G., Elizabeth A. Prosek, and Amy L. McLeod. 2010. "A Mixed Methodological Analysis of the Role of Culture in the Clinical Decision-Making Process." Journal of Counseling & Development 88, no. 1: 114-121. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Karam, Elie G, Zeina N Mneimneh, Aimee N Karam, John A Fayyad, Soumana C Nasser, Somnath Chatterji, and Ronald C Kessler. 2006. "Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in Lebanon: a national epidemiological survey." Lancet 367, no. 9515: 1000-1006. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Okasha, A. 2003. "MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN THE ARAB WORLD." Arab Studies Quarterly 25, no. 4: 39-52. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Sayed, Mohamed A. 2003. "CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MENTAL ILLNESS WITHIN ARAB CULTURES: MEETING CHALLENGES IN CROSS-CULTURAL SETTINGS." Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 31, no. 4: 333. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010). Sayed, Mohamed A. 2003. "Psychotherapy of Arab Patients in the West: Uniqueness, Empathy, and "Otherness." American Journal of Psychotherapy 57, no. 4: 445-459. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 2, 2010).
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