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  1. 1. Mr. PalmerGrade 8Design Arts
  2. 2. Pronounced cal·lig·ra·phyNoun• Decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering.• The art of producing decorative handwriting or lettering with a pen or brush
  3. 3. • Calligraphy is a finer branch of paleography, or ancient writing. In some countries, such as China, people considered calligraphy an art, or even more important than art.• Calligraphy is the art of fine writing or script. It is derived from the Greek word kalla meaning "beautiful", and graphia meaning "writing." Calligraphy is essentially defined as "written letters, dependent upon the flow and rhythm of the pen or brush" (pg. 8-9, Johnston, Edward).
  4. 4. • The ancient art of calligraphy has withstood the tests of time and is still flourishing today, despite significant changes in its status over the centuries. The style of modern letterforms may be derived from any number of influences, past or present.• There is a wide range of tools and materials available to the calligrapher, more varied and imaginative than ever before, enabling lettering artists to create innovative, interpretive works.
  5. 5. • Calligraphys different styles• There are many styles of Calligraphy. The three main ones are Gothic, Roman, and Text which includes Old English. "Every student should learn the old English alphabet, it helps develop a clean, careful technique." (pg. 20, George, Ross F.)• Roman is a columnar style of writing with curves. Gothic is similar to modern print, but more rounded.• Text is a very fancy, angular medieval style of writing.
  6. 6. •Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890
  7. 7. •Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz•1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
  8. 8. •Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890
  9. 9. • Vellum• Vellum is a velvety surface which is a little springy.• It is usually calf skin, but occasionally made of goat skin.• skins are soaked in a lime solution for 10 to 15 days. This washes away salt, and breaks down the fibers.
  10. 10. • Parchment• Parchment is sheepskin processed like vellum. It is then pounced and shaved.• Pounce is a fine powder that prevents ink from flooding.• Parchment is oilier and rougher than vellum.• It is thinner than vellum and was for books by scribes.
  11. 11. • Paper• Paper comes from the root word papyrus.• High quality papers are made from vegetable fiber pulp.• Cheaper papers are made from wood pulp.• Paper comes different sizes, assortments, and colors.• It can be dyed to a warm brown shade that mimics parchment.
  12. 12. • Ink• The most common ink recipes were for carbon inks.• The recipe itself is of lamp-black or other pigments, gum, and water.• In 1857, aniline dyes for paints and inks were developed because pen companies were having problems finding ink colors and pigments for their own pens.• People liked them better because they were less corrosive than carbon inks.• A good calligraphy ink should flow freely with no spread, dry quickly, and be stable when it dries.• Stick ink is a favorite calligraphy ink that comes in a solid form. It is mixed with distilled water or boiled with tap water to become usable.
  13. 13. • Colors• Colors are useful for multi- colored letters, decorations, and borders.• Water colors are pigments in gum arabic.Pens• Quills were preferred for writing on vellum.• A quill is a goose, swan, or turkey feather totally stripped of its barbs. It wears down easily which is why reed pens are more convenient.• Reed pens go back to the Egyptians and are larger than quills, being 8 inches long.
  14. 14. Pencils• Pencils are used for ruling writing sheets. They must be fine with hard points. For paper ruling, which keeps your lines straight, use H and HB.• Carpenter pencils are wide and flat.• For ruling, use a two foot wooden ruler with a metal edge.
  15. 15. • Brushes• Brushes have three main purposes.• The first is to put ink into the pens. It usually looks better if you take the brush and load the ink rather than simply dipping the pen. For this job, use medium sized, round hair sable brushes. Brushes can also be used for sizing and color.• For coloring use one brush for each color. If you have a shortage of brushes, clean each brush thoroughly before using another color. Brushes can also be used as a writing tool.• A common brush is the Chinese bamboo brush with hair tips. Then there is the flat tipped sable brush, which is almost the equivalent of the edged pen. Round hairs are used for lettering.
  16. 16. • Visual Art for Secondary schools• Page 43• Using the first, third and forth FONTS to write the first stanza of a short poem. The poem must be written three times, using each FONT style once.