Module 3   scope management
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Module 3 scope management

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  • Understanding and managing scope is the first and most important work to be done on a project. Defining and managing scope enables the project manager to ensure that only the required work will be done – no more, no less.It is important the project scope is agreed upon by the key stakeholders and approved by the project sponsor.
  • Defining scope starts in the Initiation (or concept) phase of the project and is built upon, reviewed and modified as the planning phase progresses. In the Initiation phase the concept paper will typically contain a high level scope statement which provides an outline of what is expected to be done in the project. The High level scope and high level cost and time estimates enable the project sponsor to make an informed decision as to whether to provide funding and approval for the project to move forward to the planning phase. Because the complexity of the project and delivery options are often not uncovered until the planning stage, the project sponsor will often give approval for ‘seed’ funding, which covers only the planning phase. At the end of the planning phase, the viability of the project will be re-evaluated, together with a more detailed scope and more accurate estimates of time and cost. At this approval point, often called a ‘stage gate’, funding for the rest of the project will be approved if the sponsor believes that it should still go ahead.
  • Defining scope starts in the Initiation (or concept) phase of the project and is built upon, reviewed and modified as the planning phase progresses. In the Initiation phase the concept paper will typically contain a high level scope statement which provides an outline of what is expected to be done in the project. The High level scope and high level cost and time estimates enable the project sponsor to make an informed decision as to whether to provide funding and approval for the project to move forward to the planning phase. Because the complexity of the project and delivery options are often not uncovered until the planning stage, the project sponsor will often give approval for ‘seed’ funding, which covers only the planning phase. At the end of the planning phase, the viability of the project will be re-evaluated, together with a more detailed scope and more accurate estimates of time and cost. At this approval point, often called a ‘stage gate’, funding for the rest of the project will be approved if the sponsor believes that it should still go ahead.
  • There are 5 key processes associated with scope management and we will examine each one in detail in this module. The first process is the scope management plan. This is a section of the PMP or Project Management Plan. The scope management plan describes how scope will be defined, controlled, reported and assessed during the project..The second process- requirements definition is the understanding and documentation of the customer’s requirements for the project.Once the requirements are known, then it is possible to define the project scope. That is, what needs to be done to deliver the product or service to satisfy the customer requirements. At this point, the customer must verify that the scope definition is really what he or she needs.Because we live in a changing world, we always find that there will be changes during the project. This is quite acceptable as long as there are not too many. However change must be controlled in order to avoid huge overruns in cost and time, as well as ensuring that we are still delivering what the customer really wants! It is important that we define a process to manage project change and report on progressFinally, at the end of the project we need to assess how successful we actually were. Did we deliver what the customer wanted? Did we manage change successfully?
  • There are 5 key processes associated with scope management and we will examine each one in detail in this module. The first process is the scope management plan. This is a section of the PMP or Project Management Plan. The scope management plan describes how scope will be defined, controlled, reported and assessed during the project..The second process- requirements definition is the understanding and documentation of the customer’s requirements for the project.Once the requirements are known, then it is possible to define the project scope. That is, what needs to be done to deliver the product or service to satisfy the customer requirements. At this point, the customer must verify that the scope definition is really what he or she needs.Because we live in a changing world, we always find that there will be changes during the project. This is quite acceptable as long as there are not too many. However change must be controlled in order to avoid huge overruns in cost and time, as well as ensuring that we are still delivering what the customer really wants! It is important that we define a process to manage project change and report on progressFinally, at the end of the project we need to assess how successful we actually were. Did we deliver what the customer wanted? Did we manage change successfully?
  • There are 5 key processes associated with scope management and we will examine each one in detail in this module. The first process is the scope management plan. This is a section of the PMP or Project Management Plan. The scope management plan describes how scope will be defined, controlled, reported and assessed during the project..The second process- requirements definition is the understanding and documentation of the customer’s requirements for the project.Once the requirements are known, then it is possible to define the project scope. That is, what needs to be done to deliver the product or service to satisfy the customer requirements. At this point, the customer must verify that the scope definition is really what he or she needs.Because we live in a changing world, we always find that there will be changes during the project. This is quite acceptable as long as there are not too many. However change must be controlled in order to avoid huge overruns in cost and time, as well as ensuring that we are still delivering what the customer really wants! It is important that we define a process to manage project change and report on progressFinally, at the end of the project we need to assess how successful we actually were. Did we deliver what the customer wanted? Did we manage change successfully?
  • There are 5 key processes associated with scope management and we will examine each one in detail in this module. The first process is the scope management plan. This is a section of the PMP or Project Management Plan. The scope management plan describes how scope will be defined, controlled, reported and assessed during the project..The second process- requirements definition is the understanding and documentation of the customer’s requirements for the project.Once the requirements are known, then it is possible to define the project scope. That is, what needs to be done to deliver the product or service to satisfy the customer requirements. At this point, the customer must verify that the scope definition is really what he or she needs.Because we live in a changing world, we always find that there will be changes during the project. This is quite acceptable as long as there are not too many. However change must be controlled in order to avoid huge overruns in cost and time, as well as ensuring that we are still delivering what the customer really wants! It is important that we define a process to manage project change and report on progressFinally, at the end of the project we need to assess how successful we actually were. Did we deliver what the customer wanted? Did we manage change successfully?
  • There are 5 key processes associated with scope management and we will examine each one in detail in this module. The first process is the scope management plan. This is a section of the PMP or Project Management Plan. The scope management plan describes how scope will be defined, controlled, reported and assessed during the project..The second process- requirements definition is the understanding and documentation of the customer’s requirements for the project.Once the requirements are known, then it is possible to define the project scope. That is, what needs to be done to deliver the product or service to satisfy the customer requirements. At this point, the customer must verify that the scope definition is really what he or she needs.Because we live in a changing world, we always find that there will be changes during the project. This is quite acceptable as long as there are not too many. However change must be controlled in order to avoid huge overruns in cost and time, as well as ensuring that we are still delivering what the customer really wants! It is important that we define a process to manage project change and report on progressFinally, at the end of the project we need to assess how successful we actually were. Did we deliver what the customer wanted? Did we manage change successfully?
  • Let us now look at the 5 scope processes in more detail. The scope management plan will be a section in your PMP. The two most important topics it should contain are:-How requirements be gathered and documented. This will depend very much on the type of project your are working on. However common methods of requirements gathering can include user interviews, business process analysis and user workshops. Requirements may be documented in various ways, depending on your industry but are commonly a list of the required functionality and attributes of the required product or service.The second important component of the scope management plan is a description of the procedures you will use to document and obtain approval for any changes to scope. This is call the Change Control process. We will discuss this in more a little later.Finally, you should plan how review of the success of the scope management for the project should be incorporated into the Post Implementation Review
  • The scope statement is also usually included in the PMP but may also be in other documents such as the business case or documents assocuated with tendering or quotations.The scope statement defines project goal which is a high level statement of the project purpose e.g. To build a swimming pool in the back yard.It must also itemise the key objectives. These are specific statements about what the project is aiming to achieve. Objectives are the benchmarks against which project success will be measured.The project deliverables must also be defined. These are the products or services which will be produced as a result of undertaking the project.The scope statement then goes on to describe what work will be done in order to achieve the objectives and deliverables.
  • A clear project objective should be simple and concise statements of what the project aims to achieve, together with measurement criteria. Types of measurement criteria may be:-Specific due dates, both for the ultimate completion of the project and for intermediate milestonesSpecific quality criteria that the deliverables must meet. Cost limits that the project must not exceed. For objectives to be effective, all project stakeholders must officially agree to them. Whether or not these objectives are achieved will contribute to evaluating the ultimate success of the project.For example, when building a swimming pool, one objective may be to complete the pool by a specific date and within a specified budget.Another objective may be to have no more than a pre-agreed maximum number of defects at handover. These objectives could in turn result in penalty clauses being built into the contract.So, in summary, an objective must be SMARTASpecific – clear and concise`Measureable – able to be measured at the end of the project to determine successAchievable – must be realisticRelevant – must support the strategic objectives of the organisationTimely – there should be no doubt about when it will be achievedAgreed – that is, approved by the key stakeholders
  • A deliverable is the product or service or result that will be produced by the project.A deliverable is tangible as well as verifiable. To be verifiable, the deliverable must meet predetermined standards for its completion, such as design specifications for a product (like a the new pool) or it may be a document like a user guide with pre-defined content.Deliverables may also be documents produced as a result of doing the project. For example the PMP is also a project deliverable. It is important to differentiate between the two different type of deliverables in your documentation. For the purpose of this course, we will consider only the final project deliverables, i.e. the products or services which will be handed over to the customer.Examples of deliverables for a project to build a new swimming pool:-Swimming pool (built to specification)Pool coverWarranty documentsMaintenance manuals of deliverables
  • The scope statement defines the project boundaries clearly and unambiguously. Listing what is out of scope gives you the opportunity to ensure that there is a very clear understanding between you and your stakeholders about what is included in the project and what isn’t. For example in your swimming pool project, you may wish to list a pool heater as being out of scope in order to ensure that your customer clearly understands that this is an optional extra.
  • The benefit of a well defined scope statement are:-Provides a basis for defining work to be done and resources needed Improved accuracy of project estimates because there is less likelihood that something has been forgottenEnables review and verification and approval of scope by stakeholdersCreates a baseline against which later changes to be defined and controlled
  • This slide shows an example of a simple scope statement. You will find other examples in your text book on page 9 of module 3.Being clear about what is in and out of scope can avoid later conflict with the customer and also additional costs in cases where the customer has a good case for assuming that certain items would be in scope. This is particularly important for a vendor who is delivering a product with a fixed price contract. In this case the vendor will end up wearing the cost and possibly make a loss on the project.
  • A constraint is something that will happen whether you like it or not. It will have a 100% chance of occuring unless something is done to change the situation. Examples of constraints may be a fixed budget or the number of resources available to you. For the swimming pool project, one constraint may be a two week shut down period over Christmas when no work will be done.Many project plans have failed due to constraints not being taken into account during the planning process.
  • As you define the scope of work, you will encounter unknowns for which you don’t have answers. For example you may assume that rock won’t be encountered when the ground is excavated for the pool. This won’t be known until excavation starts, but could add extra time and cost into the project. You may plan on the assumption that there will be no rock, but this must be documented. All assumptions require risk strategies to be associated with them. If rock is found, special equipment and additional time may be needed. Adding to the cost of the project. Again, this may need to be built into the contract as an ‘extra’.
  • Related projects are those that will either have an impact on your project or will be impacted by it. This impact may have the potential to interfere with what you are doing, such as resource availability . On the other hand, it may be a matter of ensuring that there are no conflicting outcomes between multiple projects. You will also need to consider whether any related projects will impose risks on your project.The important thing is to ensure that you are seeing the whole picture!
  • In summary, in order to develop a Scope statement you must go through the following steps:-Know who your stakeholders areDefine the project objectives and deliverablesDefine what is in and out of scopeList all the constraints, assumptions and related projectsAsk the stakeholders to review, verify and approve the scope
  • Uncontrolled scope creep must be avoided at all costs. It can occur when there is no change control process, or the change control procedures are not strictly adhered to. Scope creep will inevitably result in increased cost and time. In most projects, some changes to scope are inevitable and often necessary. Uncontrolled changes or too many changes can result in a project getting out of control and never finishing.They can cause havoc with project finances, resource planning, scheduling and quality of the deliverables.
  • Controlled changes to projects can be positive. Sometimes change is forced upon a project due to external events such as changes to legislation or company changes to products or operating procedures. Changes can also be internal to the project, due to inaccurate specifications or technology issues.The important thing is that these types of changes must be controlled through the application of pre-defined and approved change control procedures which are applied against the originally defined scope and specifications (or baseline).
  • Our little Dilbert cartoon illustrates the effect that too many scope changes can also have on team member morale. It can also result in lower productivity.

Module 3   scope management Module 3 scope management Presentation Transcript

  • Australian Academy of Project Management Certificate IV of Project Management BSB41507Presented by Madeleine Pathe
  • Module 3: Scope Management
  • Project Initiation and Planning Initiating Planning Planning Controlling Executing Closing
  • Project Initiation and Planning Initiating Planning Planning Controlling Executing Closing
  • Scope Management Processes 1. . 3. Scope Requirements Scope DefinitionManagement Plan Definition and Verification 5. 4. Project closeout Scope Control and scope and Reporting assessment
  • Scope Management Processes 1. 2. 3. Scope Requirements Scope DefinitionManagement Plan Definition and Verification 5. 4. Project closeout Scope Control and scope and Reporting assessment
  • Scope Management Processes 1. 2. 3. Scope Requirements Scope DefinitionManagement Plan Definition and Verification 5. 4. Project closeout Scope Control and scope and Reporting assessment
  • Scope Management Processes 1. 2. 3. Scope Requirements Scope DefinitionManagement Plan Definition and Verification 5. 4. Project closeout Scope Control and scope and Reporting assessment
  • Scope Management Processes 1. 2. 3. Scope Requirements Scope DefinitionManagement Plan Definition and Verification 5. 4. Project closeout Scope Control and scope and Reporting assessment
  • 1. Scope Management Plan How will requirements be gathered and documented? How will changes to scope be controlled? How will scope management processes be reviewed?
  • 2. COLLECTING REQUIREMENTS Is defining and documenting stakeholders needs in order to meet the objectives of the project – Requires documenting the needs and expectations of the sponsor and other key stakeholders – Enables stakeholder expectations to be clarified
  • 3. Scope DefinitionThe scope statement must initially contain clear descriptions of :-Project Goal: the overall purpose of the projectProject Objectives: what the project is aiming to achieveProject Deliverables: what products or services be produced toachieve the objectivesThe scope statement then defines what work will be done to achievethe objectives and deliverables
  • Project Objectives Concise statements of what the project is to achieve – Specific – Measurable – Achievable – Relevant – Timely – Agreed Define Measure and Evaluate
  • DeliverablesA deliverable is a product or service that the project will produce.Project deliverables must be agreed before the project begins.Examples of deliverables for a project to build a new swimming pool:- Swimming pool (built to specification) Pool cover Warranty documents Maintenance manual
  • 3. Scope StatementThe scope statement defines what work will be done to achieve the objectives and deliverables and what work will not be included in the project (but could be assumed by the customer to be included)
  • 3. Scope StatementOUTCOMES Provides a basis for defining work to be done and resources needed Improved accuracy of project estimates Enables review, verification and approval of scope by stakeholders Enables any later changes to be defined and controlled
  • Scope Statement Example Swimming Pool ConstructionIn Scope Out of ScopePool (built according to specification) Landscaping around poolPool cover Pool heaterWarranty (2 years)Maintenance manual
  • Other sections to include in yourscope statementPROJECT CONSTRAINTS A constraint is something that will put a restriction on your project e.g. Two week closedown over Christmas
  • Other sections to include in yourscope statement (cont)PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS An assumption is what you assume to be true but there is a risk that it may not be e.g. You may assume that there will be no rock to excavate when you dig the hole for the pool. Risk: you may need special equipment and more time if you strike rock.
  • Other sections to include in yourscope statement (cont)RELATED PROJECTS These are projects that will have an impact on your project or will be impacted by it. It is important to see the whole picture
  • Develop a Scope Statement Needs Identify stakeholders & their needs DeterminationWHAT?WHEN? Establish project objectives and deliverablesHOW?HOW? Define scope, constraints, assumptions (risks) Project appraisal Define what is not in scopeHOW? (but stakeholders may assume is in scope) ( Approval and confirmation Verification and Approval Scope Statement
  • SCOPE CREEPSmall changes to projects are often difficult to detect butmay build to large changes that cause project problems– Scope creep is common early in projects– Can be caused by client requirements for additional features, new technology, poorly defined requirements/design, unidentified assumptions/risks– Can alter:  The organisation’s cash flow requirements  Project resource requirements  Time to deliver  Quality– May have a flow-on impact on other projects
  • CHANGE TO SCOPE Scope changes can be positive and even necessary e.g. – Legislative changes – Company policy changes – Correction of specification errors Requires that: – The original baseline is well defined and agreed with the client – Clear procedures are in place for authorising, documenting and communicating the change – Affected project areas are adjusted quickly, e.g. time and cost
  • CHANGE TO SCOPE Consider the human impact Frequent changes to scope can be demoralising for the team and can result in the project goals being altered. This impacts team cohesion, affects project rhythm and lowers productivity
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS1. Log the change Complexity Change CR# STATUS Title Description Proposer Date Logged Impact Description Comment (H,M,L) Cat-egory
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS 2. Define the change and the solutionProject / System / Process Affected: Change Title:Description & Reason for Change:Other options considered:Impact of Not Implementing Change:
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS3. Assess the impact – time, cost , quality, resources, riskImpactsCustomer: Business: Technical:Select CommentsCost Variance $ ±Benefits Variance $ ±RiskScopeMilestonesResourcesQualityOther [specify]
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS 4. Accept or reject the changeChange Request FormChange Request Approval:Project Sponsor Signature: ……………………………………. Date:
  • CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS5. Update documentation6. Communicate the changeControl Document Affected:Project Brief Budgets / BenefitsBusiness Case Milestone PlanConcept Paper Business RequirementsProject Management Plan Technical DocumentsScope Project Schedule
  • ASSESSING SCOPEMANAGEMENT Review the scope management processes and determine performance – Did you achieve your objective? – Did you deliver everything you committed to? – Did you have scope creep? – What lessons can be learned about scope management? – Which tools and techniques have you used? Were they useful and what did you learn? – How will you transfer your lessons learned to others?
  • End of Module 3 (ScopeManagement)You now need to complete the following Scope assignments for your case study project and submit them to your tutor.1. Scope Statement2. Change control