Elements of a short story

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Elements of a short story

  1. 1. OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of a short story  Define each element of a short story  Use knowledge of short story elements in completing story map/grammar 
  2. 2. What is a SHORT STORY?  A fictional work depicting one character’s inner conflict or conflict with others, usually having one thematic focus.  A short story tells only one story and is shorter than a novel.
  3. 3. The time and place in which the story happened .
  4. 4. Several aspects to consider: A.) PLACE – geographical location W here is the action of the story taking place. B.) TIME – W hen is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year etc) C.)W EATHER CONDITIONS – Is it rainy, sunny, stormy? D.)SOCIAL CONDITIONS – W is the daily hat life of the characters?
  5. 5. E.)MOOD or ATMOSPHERE- W hat feeling is created at the beginning of a story? Is it bright and cheerful? Is it dark and frightening?
  6. 6. Persons, animals or things involved in a short story Characteristics of a person 
  7. 7. KINDS OF CHARACTERS: 1.MAJOR CHARACTERS – main characters of a story PROTAGONIST – central character ANTAGONIST – opposer of the protagonist - “villain” 2. MINOR CHARACTERS – have little roles in the story
  8. 8. Snow W hite Little Mermaid
  9. 9. Characters can be ….    INDIVIDUAL/ ROUND – many sided and complex personalities DEVELOPING/ DYNAMIC – many sided personalities that change for better or for worse by the end of the story STATIC – have one or more characteristics that never change -stereotypes -cruel stepmother,supportive bestfriend
  10. 10. The author may reveal the characteristics of a person in several ways: His / physical her appearance  W hat he/ says, she thinks, feels and dreams  W hat he/ does or she does not do  W hat others say about him or her and how others react to him/ her 
  11. 11. PLOT How the author arranges events to develop his basic idea It is the sequence of events in a story A planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle and end. 
  12. 12. PLOT GRAPH
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION/ EXPOSITION – beginning of a story where the characters and the setting are revealed  RISING ACTION – This is where the events become complicated and the conflict is revealed (events between the introduction and climax)  CLIMAX – highest point of interest and turning point of a story 
  14. 14. FALLING ACTION – The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The reader knows what happened and if the conflict was resolved or not  RESOLUTION/ DENOUEMENT – This is the final outcome or untangling of events 
  15. 15. CONFLICT It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move Conflicts are not limited to open arguments rather it is any form of opposition to the main character 
  16. 16. TYPES OF CONFLICT EXTERNAL – A struggle with a force outside one’s self  INTERNAL – A struggle with one’s self A person must make some decision, overcome pain, control anger, resist an urge 
  17. 17. FOUR KINDS OF CONFLICT: MAN VS MAN – The leading character struggles with his physical strength against men (physical)  MAN VS CIRCUMSTANCES – the leading character struggles against fate or the circumstances of life facing her 
  18. 18. MAN VS SOCIETY – the leading character struggles against ideas, practices or customs of other people (social)  MAN VS HIMSELF/ HERSELF – the leading character struggles with himself/ herself; with his or her own soul,ideas of right or wrong,physical  limitations,choices,etc
  19. 19. THEME Is the story’s controlling idea or its central insight It is the author’s underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey The theme may be the author’s thoughts about a topic or view of human 
  20. 20. COMMON THEMES Believe in yourself.  Don’t judge a book by its cover.  Honesty is the best policy.  Don’t do unto what others you don’t want to do unto you. 
  21. 21. POINT OF VIEW The angle from which a story is told
  22. 22. TYPES OF POINT OF VIEW INNOCENT EYE – The story is told through the eyes of a child  STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS – the story is told so that the readers feel as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all her thoughts and actions 
  23. 23. FIRST PERSON – the story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist - Pronouns I, me,we are used  OMNISCIENT – the writer moves from character to character,event to event having a free access to the thoughts,feelings and motivation of the characters. 
  24. 24. Now that you know the elements of a short story,it would be easier for you to complete a story map.  W ith all the elements in your mind,you can already retell a story in your own words. 
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