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“Assessing the Value of Facebook Fan Pages and its Impact on Facebook Users’ Behaviors toward Movie Consumption”

“Assessing the Value of Facebook Fan Pages and its Impact on Facebook Users’ Behaviors toward Movie Consumption”

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Facebook and the Cinema_Full report Facebook and the Cinema_Full report Document Transcript

  • Facebook and the Cinema: Lille, France July 4, 2013 Assessing the Value of Facebook Fan Pages and its Impact on Facebook Users' Behaviors toward Movie Consumption ---------------------------------- Master Thesis By Florence Poirel Academic Advisors Dr. Carlos Rodriguez, Delaware State University, USA Dr. Constantinos Coursaris, Michigan State University, USA
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 2 Facebook and the Cinema: Lille, France July 4, 2013 "The characteristics of all successful communities: broadly shared, accessible set of opportunities, a shared sense of responsibility for the success of the common enterprise, and a genuine sense of belonging." Bill Clinton, 2007 Academic Advisors Dr. Carlos Rodriguez, Delaware State University, USA Dr. Constantinos Coursaris, Michigan State University, USA Assessing the Value of Facebook Fan Pages and its Impact on Facebook Users' Behaviors toward Movie Consumption --------------------------- Master Thesis By Florence Poirel
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 3 Acknowledgements First, I sincerely thank my thesis director, Dr. Carlos M. Rodriguez, for his time, great support, and guidance. Professor Rodriguez always pushed me to do my best and carry on with my work. I truly appreciated his supervision, and it was a real honor to work with him. I would also like to thank my co-director, Dr. Constantinos K. Coursaris, for inspiring me and leading me on the subject of Social Media. I am grateful for his time, assistance, and many advices. Then, I wish to express my greatest gratitude to David Schlosser, free-lance writer and friend, for his help, unlimited support, and great suggestions all along the project. I also thank Diane St John, communication strategic and friend, for her kind encouragements. I may not have been able to carry on without their back-up. I am highly thankful for my family and friends' patience and help. They may never look at a Facebook Fan page the same way anymore! And many thanks to my sister who supported me until the last minute. Finally, but not the least, I am more than grateful to the people who participated in the survey and collaborated in the elaboration of my paper. This research would not have been possible without them.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 4 Abstract Research Title: "Facebook and the Cinema" Research Purpose: "Assessing the Value of Facebook Fan Pages and its Impact on Facebook Users' Behaviors toward Movie Consumption" Research Question: What is the impact of Facebook Fan pages on Facebook users' attitudes and behaviors toward movies and their related consumption? And how can companies drive consumers to legally consume their movies? Research Methodology: Using an inductive approach, constructs were identified from a comprehensive literature review and data was collected from survey questionnaires administrated to students (N=200). A model was proposed from the combination of the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior. Research Findings_ Simple regressions showed that all the hypotheses are accepted: the perceived value of the Facebook fan page, the attitude toward behavior, perceived pressure, and perceived risk help explaining the formation of the behavioral intention. However, only the perceived value of the Facebook fan page and the perceived risk actually predict the formation of the users' intention to behave. Research Limitations_ The study evaluated self-reported behavioral intentions and could therefore have introduced inaccuracies. Moreover, the list of proposed solutions is not exhaustive, and further research can be needed. Practical Implications_ Findings will help movie marketers to address the key aspects which influence consumers' behavioral intentions toward movies and their related consumption. Solutions were proposed to increase the value of the Facebook page while reducing 'risk' messages. Originality_ This research is unique in the sense that the theory of Planned Behavior and the Technology Acceptance model have never been tested jointly in the context of Facebook Fan pages as the technology and the cinema industry as the market. Research Author_ Florence Poirel, MSc research student at IESEG, International Business School in Lille, France Research Advisors_ This Research Paper was written in collaboration with Professor Carlos Rodriguez (Associate Professor of Marketing at the Delaware State University, USA) and Doctor Constantinos Coursaris (Assistant Professor at the Michigan State University, USA)1 . Key Words_ Facebook Fan Page, Facebook users, Movie consumption, Cinema industry, behavioral intentions, attitudes toward movie consumption. Paper Type_ Research Paper: Master Thesis 1 Full description Appendices 1 and 2
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 5 Brief Contents Acknowledgements................................................................................................................... 3 Abstract..................................................................................................................................... 4 Brief Contents........................................................................................................................... 5 Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... 6 1. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 10 1. 1. Research Problem Statement.................................................................................................10 1. 2. Research Purpose ...................................................................................................................12 1. 3. Research Questions ................................................................................................................13 2. Literature Review ........................................................................................................... 14 2. 1. Conceptual Background.........................................................................................................14 2. 3. Theoretical Models ................................................................................................................46 3. Methodology .................................................................................................................... 52 3. 1. Research Design......................................................................................................................52 3. 2. Theoretical Framework .........................................................................................................56 3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis.................................................................................................63 3. 4. Limitations..............................................................................................................................70 4. Findings............................................................................................................................ 72 4. 1. Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................72 4. 2. Limitations..............................................................................................................................90 5. Discussion and Contribution............................................................................................. 91 5. 1. Discussion................................................................................................................................91 5. 2. Contribution ...........................................................................................................................93 6. Recommendations for further research ........................................................................... 98 7. Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 99 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 101 Table of Appendices............................................................................................................. 114 Table of Figures.................................................................................................................... 184 Table of Tables ..................................................................................................................... 185
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 6 Table of Contents Acknowledgements................................................................................................................... 3 Abstract..................................................................................................................................... 4 Brief Contents........................................................................................................................... 5 Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... 6 1. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 10 1. 1. Research Problem Statement ....................................................................................................10 1. 2. Research Purpose .....................................................................................................................12 1. 3. Research Questions ..................................................................................................................13 1. 3. 1. Research Question ............................................................................................................13 1. 3. 2. Sub-questions ...................................................................................................................13 2. Literature Review ........................................................................................................... 14 2. 1. Conceptual Background ...........................................................................................................14 2. 1. 1. The Cinema Industry and its Challenges ..........................................................................15 2. 1. 1. 1. Definitions ................................................................................................................15 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. The Movie Customer and Consumer ................................................................15 2. 1. 1. 1. 2. The Facebook User and Fan..............................................................................16 2. 1. 1. 1. 3. The Facebook Fan Page and News Feed...........................................................16 2. 1. 1. 2. New Substitutive Options .........................................................................................17 2. 1. 1. 2. 1. Market figures...................................................................................................17 2. 1. 1. 2. 2. Alternative Consumption Means.......................................................................18 2. 1. 1. 2. 3. A so-called 'Good Fight' ...................................................................................18 2. 1. 1. 2. 4. A Strong Industry..............................................................................................19 2. 1. 1. 3. New Consuming Behaviors ......................................................................................20 2. 1. 1. 3. 1. Piracy in Emerging Countries ...........................................................................20 2. 1. 1. 3. 2. Movie-Watcher Attitude ...................................................................................20 2. 1. 2. Social Media: a new marketing environment....................................................................21 2. 1. 2. 1. A Changing Marketing Environment........................................................................22 2. 1. 2. 1. 1. A new experience..............................................................................................22 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. What are Social Media? ....................................................................................22 2. 1. 2. 2. Power to the User .....................................................................................................23 2. 1. 2. 2. 1. From Media to Social Media.............................................................................24
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 7 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. A Complex Environment ..................................................................................24 2. 1. 2. 2. 3. User-Generated Content....................................................................................24 2. 1. 2. 2. 4. E-Socializing.....................................................................................................25 2. 1. 2. 2. 5. Community Building ........................................................................................25 2. 1. 2. 3. Opportunities for Brands ..........................................................................................26 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. A New 'Business' Definition .............................................................................26 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. Listening, Interacting and Engaging .................................................................27 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. Building strong relationships ............................................................................27 2. 1. 2. 3. 5. Impact on the Purchase Decision Process .........................................................28 2. 1. 2. 3. 6. Opportunities and Risks....................................................................................28 2. 1. 2. 3. 7. Reputational Risk..............................................................................................29 2. 1. 3. Facebook: a new marketing tool.......................................................................................30 2. 1. 3. 1. Facebook as a social vehicle .....................................................................................30 2. 1. 3. 1. 1. What is Facebook?............................................................................................30 2. 1. 3. 1. 2. Why is it pertinent for businesses?....................................................................31 2. 1. 3. 1. 3. Consumer attitude and behavior........................................................................33 2. 1. 3. 2. Facebook as a brand image carrier............................................................................34 2. 1. 3. 2. 1. Facebook Fan Pages..........................................................................................34 2. 1. 3. 2. 2. The Value of Likes ...........................................................................................36 2. 1. 3. 2. 3. Opportunities for Brands...................................................................................37 2. 1. 3. 2. 4. Values and Factors Recap .................................................................................39 2. 1. 4. From Visitors to Customers, a Problem of Conversion ....................................................40 2. 1. 4. 1. Once upon a time on a Facebook Fan Page...............................................................40 2. 1. 4. 2. Conversion Factors ...................................................................................................41 2. 1. 4. 3. New Initiatives..........................................................................................................41 2. 1. 4. 3. 1. Welcoming page and other fast applications.....................................................41 2. 1. 4. 3. 2. Integrated Tweets..............................................................................................42 2. 1. 4. 3. 3. Guest Books......................................................................................................43 2. 1. 4. 3. 4. Soundtrack........................................................................................................43 2. 1. 4. 3. 6. "Win Big" .........................................................................................................43 2. 1. 4. 3. 7. "Buy Now"........................................................................................................44 2. 1. 5. Limitations of the Conceptual Background ......................................................................45 2. 3. Theoretical Models...................................................................................................... 46 2. 3. 1. Technology Acceptance Model ........................................................................................46 2. 3. 1. 1. Perceived Ease of Use and Usefulness......................................................................46
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 8 2. 3. 1. 2. Implications with Social Media ................................................................................47 2. 3. 2. Theory of Planned Behavior.............................................................................................48 2. 3. 2. 1. Attitude Toward Behavior ........................................................................................49 2. 3. 2. 2. Subjective Norms .....................................................................................................49 2. 3. 2. 3. Perceived Behavioral Control ...................................................................................50 2. 3. 2. 4. Intention To Behave .................................................................................................50 2. 3. 2. 5. Behavior ...................................................................................................................50 2. 3. 2. 6. Implications with Social Media ................................................................................50 3. Methodology .................................................................................................................... 52 3. 1. Research Design.......................................................................................................................52 3. 1. 1. Vision...............................................................................................................................52 3. 1. 2. Qualitative Study..............................................................................................................54 3. 1. 2. 1. Nature of Data ..........................................................................................................54 3. 1. 2. 2. Population and Environment.....................................................................................54 3. 1. 2. 3. Initial Interviews.......................................................................................................54 3. 2. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................................56 3. 2. 1. Conceptual Model ............................................................................................................56 3. 2. 2. Theory of Planned Behavior in the context of Facebook ..................................................61 3. 2. 3. Hypotheses .......................................................................................................................61 3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis ...................................................................................................63 3. 3. 1. Tool..................................................................................................................................63 3. 3. 2. Population.........................................................................................................................63 3. 3. 3. Questions..........................................................................................................................64 3. 3. 4. Decision Rules..................................................................................................................64 3. 4. Limitations ...............................................................................................................................70 3. 4. 1. Time Horizons..................................................................................................................70 3. 4. 2. Reliability and Validity.....................................................................................................70 3. 4. 3. Assumptions .....................................................................................................................71 4. Findings............................................................................................................................ 72 4. 1. Data Analysis ...........................................................................................................................72 4. 1. 1. Descriptive Analysis.........................................................................................................72 4. 1. 2. Statistical Analysis ...........................................................................................................74 4. 2. Limitations ...............................................................................................................................90 5. Discussion and Contribution............................................................................................. 91
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 9 5. 1. Discussion ................................................................................................................................91 5. 2. Contribution .............................................................................................................................93 5. 2. 1. Managerial Implications ...................................................................................................93 5. 2. 1. 1. Back to the beginning ...............................................................................................93 5. 2. 1. 2. New Investments ......................................................................................................93 5. 2. 2. Practical Implications .......................................................................................................94 5. 2. 2. 1. Welcome visitors ......................................................................................................94 5. 2. 2. 2. Re-Create the movie universe...................................................................................95 5. 2. 2. 3. Engage in the conversation .......................................................................................95 5. 2. 2. 4. Get visitors involved.................................................................................................95 5. 2. 2. 5. Awake fans' senses ...................................................................................................95 5. 2. 2. 6. Entertain fans............................................................................................................96 5. 2. 2. 7. Offer fans coupons and discounts .............................................................................96 5. 2. 2. 8. Take advantage of Facebook credits .........................................................................96 5. 2. 2. 9. Be there where and when consumers want it ............................................................97 6. Recommendations for further research ........................................................................... 98 7. Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 99 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 101 Table of Appendices............................................................................................................. 114 Appendix 1: Presentation of the thesis director: Dr. Carlos M. Rodriguez ....................................................... 115 Appendix 2: Presentation of the thesis co-director: Dr. Constantinos K. Coursaris .......................................... 117 Appendix 3: Choice of Bill Clinton's quote ..................................................................................................... 119 Appendix 4: Analysis of Overall Model of Standardized Coefficients ............................................................. 120 Appendix 5a: In-depth interview 1: J., 35 year-old male engineer ................................................................... 121 Appendix 5b: In-depth interview 2: A.C., 23 year-old female business student................................................ 125 Appendix 5c: In-depth interview 3: C., 23 year-old nurse................................................................................ 130 Appendix 6a: Pilot questionnaire 1: C., 19 year-old female law student........................................................... 133 Appendix 6b: Pilot questionnaire 2: D., 42-year old male writer...................................................................... 140 Appendix 6c: Pilot questionnaire 3: P.Y., 24 year-old unemployed (new graduate). ........................................ 145 Appendix 6d: Pilot questionnaire 4: H., 19 year-old art student....................................................................... 151 Appendix 6e: Pilot questionnaire 5: T., 29 year-old technician........................................................................ 156 Appendix 7: Internet-based questionnaire: Facebook and Movie Research...................................................... 161 Table of Figures.................................................................................................................... 184 Table of Tables ..................................................................................................................... 185
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 10 1.Introduction (Bill Clinton, TED2007)2 1. 1. Research Problem Statement The Society of Digital Agencies reported in the 2010 Digital Marketing Outlook that "social network-related marketing" is the 2010-2012 first concern amidst senior marketing executives. It is even considered as more important than email and mobile marketing, search optimization and other digital marketing campaigns. Social Media is a very young phenomenon in terms of tools for marketing but it started back in the 80's with the apparition and proliferation of tchats, forums, and blogs3 . People were able to share files, links, but more importantly ideas. Back in the 80's, marketers were not really concerned with social media as generally only technology-oriented people (and accordingly early adopters) were using Social Media. They thought that this population did not represent a big enough target to be considered. Since the early 2000, several social media have emerged and gained popularity, and the traditional mass marketing model is highly challenged. Now that the main social networks (Facebook, Twitter and Linkedin) count more users than the population4 of most countries (Facebook: 800 million active users, Twitter: over 100 million, Linkedin: over 135 million5 ), social media is seen as an entire component of modern society. Not only early adopters utilize these networks but a wide range of the global population: men and women from 18 (legal minimum age for most of social networks) do. Buchwalter (2009) added that social media were flourishing among customer and professional communities and that online access was now a necessity. According to a study by Richard K. Miller & Associates (2011 p. 393), "social networking now accounts for 11% of all time spent online in the U.S". Social Networks are therefore platforms marketers cannot neglect anymore. As Marketing formerly wanted to create trends, they are now forced to follow one. 2 See Appendix 3 3 (Chapman, 2009) 4 Source: http://www.populationdata.net/ 5 Source: http://facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics/, (Kiser, 2010), http://press.linkedin.com/about/ "The characteristics of all successful communities: broadly shared, accessible set of opportunities, a shared sense of responsibility for the success of the common enterprise, and a genuine sense of belonging."
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 11 Social networking is one of the largest actual trends and Facebook is one of its stages. 'Brands can take directions in social media today that would have been unlikely if not impossible five years ago' (Mignon, et al., 2011 p. 21). Before Facebook, consumers had an indirect relationship with brands: they bought products from retailers and saw advertisement on billboards or television. Earlier in Marketing via Facebook, companies did not have a big presence on the platform. Most of the time, firms' pages displayed basic information, but nothing more sophisticated. Today's Marketing is much more elaborated. Facebook is now a platform to promote the product (or service), connect with fans, and propose deeper interaction with the targeted audience. The relationship with consumers/fans is direct and more and more firms use Social Media specific messages to get their clients involved online: "Like us on Facebook", "Follow us on Twitter", "Subscribe on YouTube", or "Connect with us on LinkedIn". Companies interact with their audience on this interface and engage fans in the discussion. Interaction and Engagement are two very important dimensions but they are not sufficient to fulfill firms' sales objectives. People are more and more willing to support the brands they respect and like; Facebook users "like" firms and brands' pages, whether they consume it or not, whether they buy it or not. For instance, 4,889,2876 people like the Facebook page of Dior, but not all of these 4,889,287 individuals actually purchase Dior products. Some of them may like the page because they like the brand even though they cannot afford to consume it. Interested in the Cinema industry, I decided to link the two topics: Facebook as a social networking platform and marketing tool, and movies as the products. The first difference between movies and Dior products is that people can afford theater tickets or DVDs when they may never afford Dior bags or perfumes. But the Cinema industry suffers from a structural transformation into the so-called Video-on-Demand industry, or VOD market, with the increase of movie streaming and downloading. Some firms found the door to enter that market while providing charged services. Netflix, for instance, a movie rental service, is the largest legal online films provider in the world with more than 6.3 million subscribers and a compilation of over 75,000 movies (Chiu, et al., 2007). But Video Streaming is most often an illegal activity facilitated by the numerous new tools available online. Both Facebook and Video Streaming are online tools and activities. I am now interested in exploring how Facebook can help movie producers and marketers to survive within this growing fierce market. 6 Statistics on Dior's Facebook page, 6th September 2011.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 12 1. 2. Research Purpose Facebook is a platform 'to promote the product (or service), connect with fans, and propose deeper interaction with the targeted audience'7 . Getting fans is already part of the brands goals: they want ‘more’ fans now. Getting them engaged is already one of their realizations: customers comment, respond, ask questions, etc. Social networks are useful tools for brands to connect with customers, interact with them and engage them into discussions. Followers, fans and contacts can be great ambassadors of brands as long as the firms are willing to build relationships based on transparency and trust. Today's Marketing is much more elaborated. The literature lacks of information regarding Facebook users' attitudes and behaviors toward movies. This paper studies the behavior of Facebook users toward movies. The advantage of this product selection is that I consider movies as being “affordable” and “easily accessible” goods. Moreover, the Facebook Fan pages of movies are studied as the marketing tool as they are an interface between the Facebook user (and potential customer) and the movie. Therefore, the study concentrates on the Facebook Fan Page as the technology, the Facebook users as the population, the movies as the products, the movie consumption as the behavior, and the visit on the Fan page as the situation. The 'brands' refers to the Movie agencies, Movie studios and producers, and movie marketing companies or any firm that works on behalf of these movies. The ultimate purpose of my research is to assess the impact of the Facebook Movie Fan Page in influencing Facebook users' attitudes and behaviors toward movie consumption. It is also to understand the users' decision making process that takes place from the movie awareness on the Facebook page to the movie consumption, and how the behavior of the Facebook users toward a movie can be influenced by marketers via the related Facebook Movie Fan Page. The final goal, and contribution for marketers, is to determine how to drive Facebook users into legally consuming the movies by delivering a non-exhaustive list of solutions for firms to transform these "virtual consumers" into actually legal consumers and customers of the movies. This legal consumption includes going to the theater, buying or renting the DVD, and legally downloading or streaming the movie. 7 Source: http://www.Facebook.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 13 1. 3. Research Questions 1. 3. 1. Research Question As my goal is to assess the value of the Facebook Fan Page to change Facebook users' behaviors toward movies and their related consuming behavior, the main research question is: what is the impact of Facebook Fan Pages on Facebook users’ attitudes and behaviors toward movies and their related consumption? 1. 3. 2. Sub-questions The sub-questions are as follow: o Do Facebook users visit Facebook movie Fan Pages?  Do Facebook users find Facebook Fan Pages useful?  How do they engage with the movie on Facebook?  How this technology platform and its social richness impacts on their decision making process regarding the movie legal consumption? o How do they form their attitudes toward the movies?  Do Facebook users process information as other consumers?  What options do they consider when they intend to consume a movie? o How are their intentions [to consume the movie] influenced?  How are their intentions influenced by their Facebook personal networks?  How are their intentions influenced by the different types of content that the Facebook Fan Page provides? o How can companies drive Facebook users toward legal movie consumption?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 14 2.Literature Review The literature review is divided in two main sections. The first section is the conceptual background. It details key facts about the cinema industry and its challenges, the arousal of social media as a new marketing environment, the arousal of Facebook as a new marketing tool, and finally, the problem of conversion from fans to customers that firms are dealing with. Finally, I will highlight the limitations of the conceptual background, and how the literature does not provide any element regarding this conversion issue. The second part points out two models that were applied before to the context of social media. These models are the Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. It will finally explain the limitations of the theoretical background, and how the two models were never applied to the case of Facebook Fan pages with movies as products. 2. 1. Conceptual Background The literature background section is divided in four parts. First, the cinema industry- related part will provide key definitions of what movies customers and consumers are, what Facebook users and fans are, and what Facebook Fan pages and News Feed are. Then, I will detail the new substitutive ways of consuming movies and how it impacts the cinema industry. Finally, I will explain the new movie consuming behaviors, and movie-watchers' attitudes toward the new consumption means Then, the social media-related part will explain how the social networking sites are changing the marketing environment by explaining what social media are and how they are creating new consumer's experiences. Afterward, I will explain the power switch from marketers to users and how users are now content generators focusing on e-socializing and community building. I will also enlighten the new opportunities for brands to listen, interact and engage with their consumers, to build strong relationship, and impact on consumers' purchase decision process. I will also warn brands against the risks created by this open communication stage, and more precisely the risk for brands' reputation. After that, the Facebook-related part will reveal the power of Facebook as a new marketing tool and how Facebook is both a social vehicle impacting on consumers' attitudes and behaviors toward products, but also a brand image carrier and the opportunities it offers to brands. I will explicate what Facebook Fan pages are and the value of their 'likes'. Finally, the conversion problem-related part will highlight the difficulty for brands to transform page visitors, and potentially fans, into movie customers. I will clarify what happen
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 15 on the page, what the existing conversion metrics are, and what new initiatives can already be used by brands on their Facebook Movie Fan pages. 2. 1. 1. The Cinema Industry and its Challenges I will describe here the industry of the cinema nowadays with key market figures and the description of alternative movie consumption means. Then, I will explain how the behavior of movie-watchers changed this past decade. But first, here are some definitions that are necessary for a good understanding of the subject. Further details will be provided in the literature review. 2. 1. 1. 1. Definitions 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. The Movie Customer and Consumer The dictionary8 definition of a customer is "a person who purchases goods or services from another". The definition of customer implies the notion of monetary value. According to Chris Partridge (2002 p. 2), "it looks as if a customer is a person who transacts a transaction for an asset". The customer can be related to as a person (the individual purchaser), a role (the punctual purchasing action) or the relation. "The customer-supplier transactions are the basis for a customer relation – without the transaction there is no (actual) relation" (Partridge, 2002, p. 7). The customer will therefore be understood as an individual who purchases or acquires, from a direct seller or a distributor, a good or service within a customer-supplier transactions relationship. The movie customer will be defined as any individual who purchases or acquires the movie, from a direct seller or a distributor, within that customer- supplier transactions relationship, i.e. someone who acquires a DVD (buy or rent) or a Theater ticket from a store (B-to-C), another individual (C-to-C, such as on Amazon.com), or a theater facility in exchange of a pecuniary compensation. The movie customer, also referred as the Movie Purchaser, is someone who pays a theater ticket to watch the movie in a cinema, who buys the DVD from another entity (store or individual), who rents the movie from a renting firm such as Netflix, or who pays for streaming movies (i.e. Netflix9 ). Further possibilities will be detailed in this literature review. The dictionary10 definition of a consumer is "a person […] that consumes". From an economical point of view, a consumer is "a person or organization that uses a commodity or service". The definition of a consumer does not imply the notion of monetary value and 8 Source: http://www.dictionary.reference.com/ 9 Source: http://www.netflix.com/ 10 Source: http://www.dictionary.reference.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 16 pecuniary compensation. The consumer is not involved in the financial acquisition of the good or service, but only in the utilization, or consumption of that good or service. The movie consumer can therefore be simply referred to as the Movie Watcher: watching the movie in a cinema, or on a personal TV or computer (DVD or streaming). I will refer to the 'consumer' when the movie is consumed both legally and illegally. 2. 1. 1. 1. 2. The Facebook User and Fan The Facebook user can be defined as being any individual (physical person) who owns a personal account on the social vehicle called Facebook. The characteristics of a Facebook user, according to Lee Dong Hun (October 2010) are: - the willingness to be part of a network of people who are similar to him/her: to be part of a familiar audience made of family, relatives, and friends, the wish to be connected to other users, - the strengths of relationships with him/her network, the ability to share personal pictures, videos, and news, the capacity to stay in touch with friends' lives, habits, and tastes, - the enjoyment of rapidity of information collection thanks to Facebook News Feed and its instant status update, - the enjoyment of the low cost of viewing and sharing information with friends (and brands), Facebook is indeed a free-of-charge service, - the facility, or the possibility, to keep in touch with friends "from far away" thanks to that News Feed page. People don't have to send personal emails anymore, they can just check out their friends' personal pages, or "walls", "like" a picture or a comment from times to times. The Facebook Fan is the Facebook user who 'likes' the Facebook Fan page of the movie. 2. 1. 1. 1. 3. The Facebook Fan Page and News Feed The Facebook Fan Page is a page on Facebook, built up on the same model as an individual's profile page but which is related to a cause, a brand, or a product such as a movie. The properties of the page are the same. Both movie and profile pages have a wall tab where are displayed their own news, comments from fans or friends, etc. Both pages have an info tab where relevant personal or product information is revealed. Both pages have a photo tab where pictures are exposed. Finally, both pages can add applications to complement their capabilities.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 17 The Facebook News Feed is "the center column of the [Facebook] home page; it is a constantly updating list of stories from people and Pages that the user follows on Facebook.11 " These stories are in fact anything from posts from friends and fan pages the user follows to photos and photo tags, new friendships, events, videos… The News Feed page is constituted of two tabs: the Top News and the Most Recent streams. The content that is shared in the News Feed is selected by an algorithm "based on a few factors: how many friends are commenting on a certain piece of content, who posted the content, and what type of content it is (e.g. photo, video, or status update)"12 . 2. 1. 1. 2. New Substitutive Options IFTA President Jean Prewitt (Block, 2011, online) 2. 1. 1. 2. 1. Market figures According to Ty Ahmad-Taylor (2010, p. 41), "if you make […] films, your business is actually the audience business—the art of getting as many people as possible to watch the content provided". An article in the Advertising Age (Johnson, 2009), declared that the annual revenues in 2008, for the film and television productions reached $27B. In 2010, French theaters’ revenues reached 1.3 billion Euros13 and American overall gross reached $10.567 billion14 (compared to $10.619 billion in 2009, and $8.571 billion recorded for the period January-November 2011). An article from the White Hutchinson (2011, online) declared that the “average North American went to 3.92 movies at the cinema in 2010, a decrease from 2009. This was a 14% decrease from the average 4.28 movies seen in 2000 and almost one- quarter less (-22%) than the peak of 5.02 movies in 2002. During the same time, the average cinema ticket increased in cost by 15% to $7.85 in 2010 compared to $6.84 in 2000 (in 2010 dollars)”. These numbers pushed me to invest the alternative ways of consuming a movie. 11 Source: http://www.Facebook.com/ 12 Source: http://www.facebook.com/help?page=408 13 (Nord Eclair, 2011) 14 Source: http://boxofficemojo.com/studio/ “The illegal streaming of motion pictures and television programming is as financially devastating for our industry as is illegal downloading".
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 18 2. 1. 1. 2. 2. Alternative Consumption Means Alternatives appeared since 2000 in the way movies are consumed: home entertainment centers, Blu-Ray DVDs, RedBox and Internet streaming15 on Netflix and other downloading and streaming Websites such as Amazon.com, Apple iTunes have highly diversified opportunities for movie watchers. The cinema and film industries have tried to win back their moviegoers by enhancing the loyalty link between consumers and their cinemas by enhancing their movie-going experience with digital projection, 3-D and Imax movies, upscale bars and lounges and in-theatre dining (mostly in the USA). Some chains of cinema are expanding their entertaining services by offering family attractions, bowling… The White Hutchinson added that “the 2010 data indicates that despite these nascent efforts, cinemas are still losing entertainment market share”. Indeed, electronic games, social networks and other digital media are seducing part of the same audience. But other electronic entertaining sources are not the only reasons for the decline. Verrier & Fritz (2011) agreed that the ‘low quality of recent movies’ was also partly responsible for a 20% decline between 2010 and 2011 in North America (USA and Canada). Ty, Ahmad-Taylor (2010) added that, for content creator such as movie producers, the customer experience starts with the content that they are watching, and not the way they access to that content. But "this year we just haven't had those kinds of movies that cut across all quadrants of age, race and income” declared Gerry Lopez16 , chief executive of AMC Entertainment Inc., the nation's second-largest theatre chain to the Los Angeles Times. We can then wonder how and what exactly movie studios have been confronted to then. 2. 1. 1. 2. 3. A so-called 'Good Fight' Film Companies have been fighting, in a so-called 'good' fight, to defend their copyrights, especially since the Napster scandal which revealed the new P2P (Peer-to-Peer) file sharing phenomenon (Cimpanu, 2009). Catalin Cimpanu affirmed that "for a couple of years now, studios are accusing piracy and file sharing of destroying the movie and music industry. They're stating that the increase in file sharing and P2P usage seen in the rising traffic toward torrent trackers, studio revenue is constantly going down" (online). However, some journalists and analysts affirm that Hollywood studios may simply be 'exaggerating'. Indeed, I discovered that the industry was known for its 'Hollywood accounting', or 'Hollywood bookkeeping'. It refers to methods of opaque accounting used by the film, video and television industry. Practices included inflating expenditures in order to reduce or eliminate the profits of a film by reducing the royalties that the firm should pay based on net profit (Picker, et al., 1995). Moreover, copyright holders commissioned a new report that defended that the industry was in fact doing pretty well and that these "consistently positive 15 "Streaming video is content sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer in real time" (Streaming Video_ Definition, 2000) 16 Source: http://articles.latimes.com/2011/mar/30/business/la-fi-ct-cinemacon-20110330
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 19 trends solidify the status of the copyright industries as a key engine of growth for the US economy as a whole" (Anderson, 2011, online). This report also revealed that the International Intellectual Property Alliance does not try to calculate losses to piracy anymore. They consider that these evaluations are not reliable and consistent with the whole distribution process. It advanced that record foreign revenue is still generated as a result of strong copyright protections and that this is enough to hold stable employment and pay within the industry. They concluded that the industry of the cinema is still a viable industry. 2. 1. 1. 2. 4. A Strong Industry The cinema industry is in fact far from bankruptcy because of alternatives consuming behaviors. The main impact of such behavior is more likely the decrease in number of movies to be produced. This could lead the industry to produce fewer but higher quality movies. Catalin Cimpanu wrote that "nothing can be gained from watching a cam-ripped movie at an infernally low quality with noisy sound […]. Movie fans will always be in a theater, still contributing to MPAA's (Motion Picture Association of America) record breaking years in gross income and attendances. Maybe the real big threat for Hollywood is the DVD sales sector, where pirates are not only ripping movies, but are making huge sums of money from it". With movies such as Avatar, Sherlock Holmes, or Twilight worldwide, the cinema industry still has long and happy days ahead. The cinema industry is doing well, but there are still major issues within the related market. Ernesto (2010) repeated that "at the box-office the major movie studios are raking in record profits, but their continuing refusal to widely adopt online business opportunities are hindering progress" (online). Paul Uniacke, head of the Video Ezy and Blockbuster video rental chains, insisted that the movie industry’s insatiability is responsible for holding back innovation (2010). The segment of the market that is the most engendered is video rental outlets, not because of piracy, but because studios refuse to adopt new technologies such as video-on-demand, "ignoring all market signals". Comparing the music and movie industries, the "only thing that’s protecting the movie studios (from more widespread illegal downloading) now is file size". Movie studios are, nevertheless, heading in the opposite direction, trying to keep their monopolies. For instance, some studios in the USA decided to not deliver their movies through Netflix for a few weeks after the DVD release in order to increase DVD sales during that period. Unfortunately, consumers who were willing to watch the movie, through Netflix for example, but who did not want to buy the DVD had to consume the movie illegally from P2P and torrent sources instead of renting it or streaming it legally through Netflix.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 20 2. 1. 1. 3. New Consuming Behaviors I will first explain the implications of country development in the consumption of movies, and then detail which parameters constitute the attitude of movie-watchers. 2. 1. 1. 3. 1. Piracy in Emerging Countries The consumption of movies through illegitimate sources cannot be solely explained on the argument that antipiracy education had failed (Doctorow, 2011). The Media Piracy in Emerging Economies report(2011) about the social attitudes toward copying, enforcement differences and predictors of a country copyright infringement advanced that poor countries are more susceptible to host piracy than richer countries because the cost of media is too high compared to people' revenue. It was implied that inflating piracy rates depend on whether the "IP address is in a rich or poor country"; what is called the "Consumer's Dilemma license". Doctorow explained that the main reasons for global media piracy were the elevated prices for media goods, low regional (or national) and available digital technologies. "Relative to local incomes in Brazil, Russia, or South Africa, the retail price of a CD, DVD, or copy of MS Office is five to ten times higher than in the US or Europe. Legal media markets are correspondingly tiny and underdeveloped". (Social Science Research Council, 2011, p. 9). 2. 1. 1. 3. 2. Movie-Watcher Attitude Movie-watchers behaviors and attitudes have quite changed these past twenty years. Whichever the industry, consumers claim for convenience, availability, fair prices and high quality(Ernesto, 2010). Consumers are not becoming greedier or less sensitive to theft. They are just more demanding regarding firm services and their own well-being. Movie-watchers seek for on-demand access and the "flexibility to choose the option they want for their video consumption". The Bureau of Labor Statistics (2008) stated that an increasing audience would move from tradition film consumption means to "media that don't offer the same opportunities". If they want to stay home to watch a movie, but do not own it on DVD, they want to be able to watch it online. If the movie is not available online legally, then they are going to turn toward other sources. Another article commented that the construction of DVDs also made them quite inconvenient and unpleasant to use. Indeed, when the movie starts automatically when the file was downloading or during streaming, DVDs contain several unskippable steps that can be highly time-consuming (Doctorow, 2011). The cinema industry does not have the control anymore; consumers have. The matter is that the cinema industry is globally not meeting its consumers' needs, which means providing the movie when consumers want it, where they want it, i.e. on their personal computers. Meeting consumers where they actually are is the new motto of Social Media
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 21 Marketers. The next section will detail how social media redesigned the marketing environment and now represent a full marketing tool. 2. 1. 2. Social Media: a new marketing environment People are exposed "to an astounding number of advertising messages every day" (Wright, Khanfar, Harrington, & Kizer, 2010, p. 73), making them more and more resistant to conventional forms of advertising. As a result of consumer behavior changes, the former aggressive selling method, which consisted into constantly pushing potential customers to buy products, is not applicable anymore. Advertisers evolved from selling their products to marketing them in a holistic vision. This new vision understands the need for consumer engagement. "Internet-based multimedia technologies enable firms to employ a variety of formats to present and promote their products" in a more innovative way (Jiang & Benbasat, 2007, p. 454). In 2008, a Forrester research projected the social media market to reach $3.9 billion”, by the end of 2011, with an estimated annual growth of about 43% (Petouhoff, 2008). However, a lot of executives still believed that social media are just ‘social’ and aimed at entertaining customers instead of creating real business opportunities. They even referred to social media as ‘recreational time waster’ (Technology Management, 2011, p. 64). These firms might have lost a real opportunity to reach out customers. Indeed, it was reported17 that $2.1 billion were spent on social media advertising in 2010 with a projected growth to nearly $8 billion in 2015 (Manjoo, 2011). I will first explain how social media are changing the marketing environment, then, how social media give the power to the users, and finally, I will describe the different opportunities that social media offer to organizations. 17 Report from BIA/Kelsey, a media consulting firm
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 22 2. 1. 2. 1. A Changing Marketing Environment 2. 1. 2. 1. 1. A new experience LEE Dong-Hun (October 2010, p. 115) affirmed that "social media is broadly used by 79% of the Fortune 100 Best Companies". It is indeed understood by modern organizations that Social Media is a major concern in nowadays economy. A very large part of the world population, from the older Boomers to Generation Y 18 , is now connecting on social networking websites, and marketers understand the importance of reaching these people where they gather: online. This new economy is driven by quality and pressure-free 'experiences'. Firms are no more pushing their brands into consumers' life, but are rather seeking for customers' contribution and engagement in order to develop interactive communication and agreeable brand experience. Firms no longer advertise their brands massively, but carefully establish audience differentiation. They now deliver more creative and valuable propositions and create a real interaction or exchange with its targeted and willing customers (Forrester, 2011). 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. What are Social Media? The internet is a wide community providing several very different areas. It is important to identify the social media and clearly understand their capabilities and options. Among them are websites, blogs, micro-blogs, social network sites, photography and video sharing websites. The first step, for the brand, is to assess the relevance of each tool for their marketing strategy, "to have a good idea of what is being said about these brands in social media, how frequently it is being said, and in what particular media it is being said" (Mignon, et al., 2011 p. 24). Social networking sites (SNS) are gatherings of social identities (people) connected to each other and communicating between one another. Social Media encounters social networking websites, blogs, micro-blogs, and any other kind of user-created content sharing platform. Among these platforms are the following:  Blogs_ (abbreviation for weblog) personal journal displaying personal (or professional) content online.  Corporate Blogs_ corporation-related blogs talking about products and services, companies' external activities and market-related updates.  Microblogs_ internet platforms that allow users to post short statements or sentences, usually limited to a specific amount of characters that can include links, pictures and videos on a central site. 18 Boomers: born between 1943 and 1964 (sometimes 1964 included)(Deloitte Consulting, 2007), Generation y: born between 1982 and 2000 (Deloitte Consulting, 2005)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 23  Twitter_ "social networking and microblogging service utilizing instant messaging"19 , limited to 140- character messages including links.  Facebook_ social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and videos, send messages and keep in touch with family, friends and colleagues.  YouTube_ video-sharing website on which users can upload and share personal videos and comments.  Linkedin_ professional networking website that displays career paths, education and professional expectations, and allows users to connect with colleagues and business partners. According to a study of the Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project (2010), the engagement in social networking is globally about the same between men and women. The exception is in the USA where women (52%) tend to use social networking more than men (41%) (Violin, 2011). And the diversity among these people is large: from the USA to India, from top managers to first-level employees, from grand-parents to teenagers. Nearly every part of the global population is represented on the net. It is critical for any brand to determine which tool is more appropriate to the overall corporate strategy. In comparison, Twitter is a micro-blogging website that only allows brands to publish 140-character messages into a large stream of information and news. No strong customization is possible. Engagement capabilities are restricted to the willingness of Twitterers to "re-tweet" or respond to the firms' tweets. Facebook enables numerous content sharing capabilities from brand description to video clips, from journal articles to polls. Linkedin is a professional networking website where only personal profiles can be created. Companies cannot create a "profile" but a "group", or community, people can join. Engagement capabilities are restricted to discussions. YouTube is a video-sharing platform allowing brands to publish videos with a rapid description. Engagement capabilities are restricted to viewers' comments and likes; engagement success is therefore depending on users. 2. 1. 2. 2. Power to the User (Qualman, 2010 p. 21) I will detail the growing phenomenon of social media, and how social networks are drawing a complex environment. Then, I will explain how social media are led by user- generated content, the willingness to socialize and to build communities. 19 Official definition from http://www.twitter.com/ "Revolution is driven by people and enabled by social media".
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 24 2. 1. 2. 2. 1. From Media to Social Media As Schneckenberg (2009, p. 512) said, it is a "reaction to the inherent human need to build and sustain relationships in disperse social communities, to create and extend networks, and to produce synergy effects through aggregated interaction”. In line with Schneckenberg's definition, social media can be seen as way to propagate information through "social interaction between individuals and other entities such as organizations" (Mignon, Leyland, & Berthon, 2010, p. 22). Instead of being broadcasted through monologues (one-to- many), it is now conveyed via dialogues (many- to- many). This is how we evolved from unilateral to multi-directional communication, from media to social media. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. A Complex Environment The main characteristics of social media can be compared to the main characteristics of other Internet services in the sense that they enable easy and rapid search, open and free participation, minimum publishing entrance, dialogue creation, community building, and networking activities (Eccless, et al., 2007). Additionally, they facilitate large and quick information spread, linkage and feedbacks. "The nature of social media is such that their content evolves continuously" (Mignon, et al., 2010 p. 31). It is a highly accessible, innovative and proactive environment. This user-generated content is gold to brands as it gives companies the opportunity to know what is thought and said about them. Sharing knowledge is the very first element in knowledge management (Alavi, et al., 2001). The action to create and broadcast knowledge at every minute of every day is the very expression of a social dynamic (Erickson, et al., 2003). According to Dickey, et al. (2010), this almost continuous connectivity is clearly where the opportunity lies for marketers. 2. 1. 2. 2. 3. User-Generated Content The case of Social Media has been widely studied over these past 5 years and multiple definitions were created. Lee Dong-Hun (p.112) claimed that "unlike the one-way production and transfer of news, information, and entertainment from main media outlets via the mass media, social media allows anybody to become a producer of such content, and deliver it through interactive communication in the form of a pyramid, based on relationships". As he said, social media is an “open media for interactive communication led by normal people” instead of mass media led by marketers only.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 25 According to Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila (2006), social media are a compilation of tools allowing people to share information, create, collaborate, and cultivate communities. Remarkable changes appeared in the share, creation and co-creation of knowledge. This definition was completed by Kaplan and Haenlein (2010 p. 61) who portrayed them as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user- generated content”. The content online is increasingly consumer driven (Smith, 2010). Habin, et al. (2009) reinforced the idea by saying that the role of the internet users evolved from content receivers to content creators, a role requiring pro-active user-behavior, and eluding general brand information web sites in front of user-created content (UCC) web sites such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc. Isuru Fernando (2010 p. 504) also defined social media as "a concept that encompasses the dissemination of information via highly accessible publishing systems by means of social interaction". The core nature of these new technologies is the "extension of the human faculty to exchange knowledge and to collaborate" (Isuru, 2010 p. 511). Participating in social media gives users a sense of meaning in the sense that they seek for or create information that is truly meaningful to them. 2. 1. 2. 2. 4. E-Socializing Virtual socialization is democratizing and networks of influence are growing. "Our networks are becoming more dominated by strangers in digital spaces such as Facebook and Twitter, exposing us constantly to a huge volume of consumer influence." (Smith, 2010 p. 559). Organizations need to understand that they are now dealing with E-people and that their socializing, interacting and consuming behaviors are therefore very different. 2. 1. 2. 2. 5. Community Building But not only: consistent with their definition of social media, Mignon, Leyland and Berthon defended that "it is much more to do with what people are doing with the technology than the technology itself" (p.23). Social Media platforms respond to an intrinsic human call for building and maintaining "relationships in disperse social communities, creating and extending networks, and producing synergy effects through aggregated interaction” (Schneckenberg, 2009 p. 511). Jenny Kidd (2011) added that an amplified use of the social networks aimed at building and sustaining communities of interest around an organization. This notion is very important as "the quality of the relationship between the firm and the consumer" is brand success (Booth, et al., 2010 p. 2).
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 26 2. 1. 2. 3. Opportunities for Brands Mignon, Leyland and Berthon stated that social media is not only a new way to interact between people, between customers and firms; it is also a new way to do business and why companies use social media in the first place. "Brands are attempting to utilize social media to reach existing customers, gain new ones, and build or maintain credibility and reputation" (p.23). First, I will give the new definition of 'business'. Then, I will resume with the multiple implications of social media for brands such as interacting, engaging with consumers, and building strong relationships. Finally, I will describe the impact of social media on the purchase decision making process before presenting some of the risks of communicating through social media. 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. A New 'Business' Definition The new definition of 'Business Marketing' (Razorfish, Vice-President Shiv Singh) clearly includes social media as a key to leading a Business to success. "The purpose of a Business is to create a customer…who creates customers" (Singh, 2010, online). And this is exactly what social networks are all about. It creates independent marketers spreading out the word to their friends, their contacts or their future contacts. This is what is called "Viral Online Marketing", or the creation of a "Buzz" that enhances brand awareness: spark off an explosion. Melissa Landau Steinman and Mikhia Hawkins (2010 p. 1) added that "the viral quality of social media makes it an appealing way for businesses to market products and services, and marketers have recognized and tapped the potential of social media outlets". They also said that consumers creating content related to a marketing campaign may commence "a strong connection with the promoted brand" (p.3). (Williamson, 2010, online) 2. 1. 2. 3. 2. Brand Visibility and Credibility According to Tom Smith (2010 p. 560), "social media is reorientating the economy". When feedbacks and comments were nearly impossible to communicate before, they are now the core of company-customer relationships. Tom Smith declared that "every consumer online is a commentator, reviewer and publisher; all organizations have to stop talking and start listening to how they are perceived" (p.560). He also implied that this new "online engagement" is essential to building long-term spokespersons for the brand buying the “Those who still think that social network users are too busy engaging with friends to notice marketers must change their viewpoint.”
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 27 products but also endorsing them online and offline. Kyle Hensel and Michael H. Deis (2010 p. 2 online) reiterated that "the purpose of social media should be to enhance a business’ branding and permit their biggest fans (i.e., super fans) to just talk about them". Having people talking about the brand on social media has two impacts. First, it means that the content creator is aware of the brand and already appreciative of it (if the message is positive, of course). Then, it increases brand visibility and awareness to this individual's personal and professional networks (depending on the social vehicle used). The advantage of this promotion type is that it relies on friend/family recommendation instead of impersonal advertisement. Therefore, the message comes with a higher level of credibility to the eyes of potential customers. Lee Dong-Hun (October 2010) affirmed that "the world is entering a new era of World of Mouth (global) from Word of Mouth (local)". According to Kyle Hensel and Michael H. Deis, "social media also appears to be a driving force in the Attention Age, which appears to have gained steam after the Information Age (also known as the Computer Age or Information Era). The Attention Age, which began in the first years of the 21st century, is relevant because it has given individuals the ability to create and consume information immediately and distribute it on the Internet" (p. 1 online). 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. Listening, Interacting and Engaging A lot of companies enter the Social Media world to listen to what is say about their firm and their brands in order to monitor their online, and general, reputation. They remain in a passive behavior. But listening is not enough. Only some of them adopt a pro-active behavior. Matt Ramsay (2010 p. 257) insisted that "if companies don’t take control or engage with their audiences to discuss how their brand is perceived and talked about, the conversations will continue to go on without them and they will be powerless to try and change opinion or resolve customer service issues". Companies have to determine specific strategies. Listening is the first step. Engaging and interacting are the following ones. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. Building strong relationships Kent Bottles, M.D. and Tom Sherlock (2011 p. 70) defined Social Media Strategy as "simply social. It is about establishing and nurturing authentic relationships in ways that will build loyalty to your institution". Passive listening does not help building relationships, but engaging does. However, online engagement does not only refer to written messages on Facebook or Twitter. It can also refer to posting videos on YouTube for instance. Jose Castillo (2011 p. 109) suggested that "the most important tools in the marketing kit are the people who are viewing, responding to, and interacting with your videos. People have become jaded after years of being advertised and marketed to death. Great responses and interaction with even a handful of viewers can generate wonderful results". Tom Smith remarked that new multimedia platforms are developing such as video sharing "with 83% watching video
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 28 clips online, up from 32% in 2006, making it the quickest growing platform in history"(p. 559). Whichever the platform used, the most important is and will stay to share meaningful content to customers in order to complete the 'information seeking' phase of their potential purchase decision making process. 2. 1. 2. 3. 5. Impact on the Purchase Decision Process According to DEI World Wide (2008 p. 6), “companies who integrate elements of social media into their marketing mix will have a greater opportunity to influence consumers’ buying choices”. Their study showed that 70% of consumers visited social media websites such as “message boards, social networking sites, and blogs” to gather information on products, services and brands in 2008. Two-third affirmed that they valued other people’s recommendations and that it could impact their perceptions of the brand and their purchase decision. And from the 70 initial percent, nearly 49% actually formed a purchase decision. 2. 1. 2. 3. 6. Opportunities and Risks In 2009, Andrew Weissman, founder and COO of New York technology incubator Betaworks, wrote that even though he does not consider that content should be free, he believes that distribution should be ‘friction-free’, meaning that information should be available where people really spend time and not where brands want people to consume it. “Doing otherwise is to court irrelevance and long-term business failure”(Ahmad-Taylor, 2010 p. 45). The bright side for companies is that technologies are getting cheaper; storage, processing power and bandwidth are more accessible, and more can be distributed electronically. The idea of Weissman still applies: “make the material available where customers are” and make it “easy to deliver and easy to monetize” (Ahmad-Taylor, 2010 p. 45). However, social media adoption has more to do with the strategies than with the tools because people’s attitudes and community are driving it, not computers. Fernando Isuru proposed four steps to safely adopt social media. First, firms need to ‘understand the end goals’ of their usage and decide which community they want to nurture. Then, executives needs to ‘formulate a strategy’, and develop action steps and lifecycle projects. Organizations should also ‘calibrate appropriate tools to match the strategy’ (p. 509) and achieve several functions. Finally, they have to ‘assemble a team for involvement and knowledge contribution’ (p. 510). This team has to be aware of social media codes and committed (both time and vision) to the overall mission. Maria Azua added that firms should focus on the social factor and deliver innovative content that catch up attention and stand out of the social cloud.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 29 2. 1. 2. 3. 7. Reputational Risk Unfortunately, even the best strategy cannot delete risks. Pekka Aula (2010 p. 45) advocated that "social media expands the spectrum of reputation risks and boosts risk dynamics". This open and viral communication can represent great risks for any organization that does not know how to control its online presence and that does not hire the right communicator. One of the main risks is reputational. She added that ‘‘reputation risk can result from an organization’s own communication activities, including their reaction to claims presented in the social media" (p. 45). She explained that "conventional reputation management" is challenged in three ways. First, "social media is an arena for participation in which organizations interact with the public". Firms should not underestimate the social factor and the strength of social media networks; any piece of information can spread out worldwide within an hour. Second, "strategic reputation management should concentrate on ethics rather than pursuing short-term interests". A firm cannot hide unethical activities behind a curtain of nice words because nothing stays secret online. Internet users have a lot of resources in order to get information and anything becomes easily verifiable. Third, "social media has the effect of presenting a collective truth" (p. 46). Internet-users can be the ones building up (or destroying) an organization's reputation. They now have that power in the sense that once they have published information about a firm, it cannot be removed. It can just be corrected. The subjective picture built will be shared with others and "turned into a collective truth" and will be very difficult to adjust. Aula (p. 48) concluded that "because of social media, everything an organization does is now profoundly public" and this can affect both company’s reputation and business. In this wide open communication area, moderation is the key (Buddy Media, 2011). It is advised to react and respond to complaints judiciously, spread positivity, answer request, give guidance and advice, temper and manage threads of conversation, "keep profanity and negativity at bay" (Buddy Media, 2011 p. 13).
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 30 2. 1. 3. Facebook: a new marketing tool “Brands can take directions in social media today that would have been unlikely if not impossible five years ago” (Mignon, et al., 2010 p. 21). An A.C. Nielson research showed that, in February 2010, 154 million people used Google in an hour when 118 million people were on Facebook for 6.5 hours each. Facebook is described as a much “stickier”20 website than Google. This shows the influence of social media against ‘conventional media’. The use of Facebook constantly increased within businesses from 77% of firms using Facebook in 2009, 87% in 2010 (against 88% for Twitter) and 92% in 2011 (against 84% with Twitter) (Stelzner, 2011). (Daniasa, Tomita, Stuparu, & Stanciu, 2010, p. 279) This third section is dedicated to Facebook, first, Facebook as a social vehicle, and second, Facebook as a brand image carrier. 2. 1. 3. 1. Facebook as a social vehicle First, we will see what Facebook is and why it can be consider as a social vehicle. Then, we will see how it can be pertinent for businesses within the cinema industry. Finally, we will see which parameters can compose the consumer's attitude and behavior. 2. 1. 3. 1. 1. What is Facebook? (Neff, 2010, online) Facebook is a "communication platform designed to help people (and brands) to connect and share" (Buddy Media, 2010 p. 2). Its mission is "to give people the power to share and make the world more open and connected"21 , as stated its founder. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, a Harvard student, in February 2004. It is a social networking 20 Where people spend the more time 21 Source: http://www.facebook.com/ "Facebook is defining an age of non-intrusive marketing". “For many marketers, their Facebook fan bases have become their largest web presence, outstripping brand sites or email programs either because a brand’s traditional web-based owned media is atrophying or because more consumers are migrating to social media.”
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 31 community originally created for college students and available to everyone in the world since September 2006 (Naslund, 2010). Facebook is now the first social networking website with more than 800 million active users. If Facebook was a nation, it would be the third most populated after China and India. A report confirmed that users post “over 55 million updates a day and share more than 3.5 billion pieces of content” in a week (The Economist, 2010). It is interesting to note that Facebook is now considered as a day-to-day life object, such as Google is since a few years. It is now common to refer to Facebook such as the obvious place to connect online. Actors visit their Facebook page in movies, and you can tell people 'Facebook me', if you want them to connect with you on the website. (Mark Zuckerberg, 2004)22 Facebook provides a lot of content sharing opportunities both for individual users and brand marketers. It is important to understand that I do not refer to Facebook ads when I talk about brand’s presence on Facebook. The platform offers a lot more communicating opportunities that just ads. And brands are now more willing to focus on communicating than marketing (Hardey, 2010). Brands can share company and products’ information, photos, videos, and web links toward journal articles or researches. Facebook pages can also be linked to Twitter accounts, for instance, and display the Twitter spread within the Facebook page. Moreover, a lot of applications are available to brands to customize their pages and deliver the right content to their specific audience. One great example of what is possible to do on Facebook page for films are the pages of the Twilight Movies23 : "the Twilight Saga", and "Batman24 : The Dark Knight". Mary J. Culnan, Patrick J. McHugh and Jesus I. Zubillaga (2010 p. 1) added that "social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook enable the creation of virtual customer environments (VCEs) where online communities of interest form around specific firms, brands, or products." This is why Facebook can be considered as a social vehicle. 2. 1. 3. 1. 2. Why is it pertinent for businesses? Most specialists affirm that “the greater the site’s ability to nurture desired relationships among participants, the greater the potential is to build a strong and significant community" (Dickey, et al. p. 141).The strength of Facebook is that it proposes numerous applications to display users’ preferences, tastes, favorite brands and purchases. Burson- Marsteller stated that only 18 % of traditional TV campaigns actually generated positive return on investment in 2010 when some 1.5 million pieces of content (news stories, blog 22 Source: http://facebook.com/about/ 23 Source: http://www.facebook.com/twilight/ 24 Source: http://www.facebook.com/darkknight/ "Giving the people the power to share and make the world more open and connected".
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 32 posts, web links, comments, pictures…) were shared on Facebook every day. It is a growing challenge to keep pace with both traditional marketing methods and new technologies powered by Internet. The real challenge comes from the nature of the content creator, from marketers to consumers. The key is to be effective at writing the messages so that it does not look like advertising to the potential customer, but instead like building a relationship with the consumer. The goal is to establish trust within the community (Wright, et al., 2010). Building a community does not only refer to gathering members in a Facebook group or fans on a Facebook page. Building community means “providing constant surveys and message boards”, constantly listening to what is being said and shared in the group, on the page, and elsewhere on Facebook, and keep a multi-directional communication by “sharing results back with them” (Smith, 2010 p. 561). Facebook is an inclusive platform. Lee Dong-Hun identified four key values of social media as a marketing tool: time, audience, cost and relations that clearly apply to the case of Facebook:  A wide audience according to the size of users' networks (number of friends) and the diversity (peers, family, vacations' friends…). Everybody is connected to everybody. Reaching one Facebook user means potentially reaching hundreds of other users.  The strengths of the relationships, the trust they give to their family and friends. People are willing to trust friends' recommendations. If someone "likes" a brand on Facebook, its friends will be more likely to look at it and to consider it for future purchases.  The speed of information transmission thanks to Facebook News Feed25 . Friends and friends of friends can have access to activities and likes of one another on a constant base thanks to a thread of instant users' news. If a user "likes" a brand, its friends will know it nearly instantly as they check their News Feed page.  The low cost of being on Facebook. Any firm or organization can create a Facebook page to respond to its need for free. It can be a local firm, a brand or an event page. Any brand can therefore share its description, location, website address, products (or services) descriptions and pictures, videos and articles. Any user can then "like" the page, share consumption experiences, consuming advices… "Time is Money" and Social Media Marketing strategies benefit from speed of information circulation and durability as online files have not expiration limits. Any piece of content shared by any Facebook user, and brand, is automatically displayed on the Home Page of its own account. The audience showcases plurality and diversity as information can be transmitted to very different and numerous networks. The piece of content will be displayed among the network of the user but also within the networks of its friends according to the privacy set up that was installed. Social Media strategies are cost-saving and most often 25 The News Feed is "the center column of the home page, which is a constantly updating list of stories from people and Pages that the user follows on Facebook." Source: http://www.Facebook.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 33 profitable as thousands of people can be reached without huge monetary investment (compared to paper promotion, for instance). Finally, companies can build stronger relations with customers based on friendliness and credibility. The true value of Facebook for the film industry is not that information can be distributed fast and allow for a speedy distribution; it is that the content can be highly customized and may ultimately push users to consume the movie. 2. 1. 3. 1. 3. Consumer attitude and behavior DEI Worldwide (2008) studied the impact of social media on customer behavior and reported that 60% of the interviewed individuals affirmed they were likely to use social networking sites to forward information to other people online when only 36% sought for information out from company or news websites. 45% of users who utilized social media were engaged in word of mouth. According to Kevin Ertell study (2010 p. 1), Facebook is, by far, “the best place to reach shoppers” because it is where they like to spend their time and where they are willing to hear from brands. “56% of shoppers to top e-retail websites who interact with social media websites have elected to ‘friend’, ‘follow’, or ‘subscribe’ to a retailer on a social media site like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube”. And of the 69% of online shoppers who used social networking sites, 56% actively interacted with the brands. “The relative ‘openness’ of Web 2.0 encourages transparency, social participation and interoperability”. This is this ‘wisdom of crowds’, or ‘collective intelligence’ that seduce nowadays’ consumers. We are evolving toward a ‘participatory culture’ (Hardey, 2010 p. 563). Samuel Greengard (2011, online) added that Facebook is an environment that supports a "recognition system including rewards for participation and feedbacks". Seeking for participation is not enough; Facebook users are 'social actors' looking for acknowledgement and gratification (Blumler J.G. & Katz, 1974). Ertell highlighted the ‘chicken-egg phenomenon’. Even though the users are seeking for information themselves, it does not mean marketers should not get involved. Consumers are likely to reach out for brands on Facebook, but this is the way firms interact with them on the page that will create loyalty and likelihood to purchase. Indeed, 49% of Ertell’s survey respondents answered that they visited and ‘liked’ the brand pages in order to learn about special deals or discounts. 45% responded that they were looking for brand information and only 5% for customer support. It is interesting to look at what motivates users in their use of Facebook. Blumler and Katz’s uses and gratification theory (1974) proposes that social media users are pro-active in their choice and usage of their social networking platform. It states that users are active in the communication process and keep in mind their final goal while selecting which medium to use. The user looks out for the medium that will best fulfill its
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 34 needs, whether the need is to ask for support, collect brand information or purchase the product. Some marketers declare that the only source of information and purchasing opportunities should come from their official websites. It may have been true twenty years ago but the consumers’ attitude toward content has changed. Consumers now tend to be more trustful with other user-generated content, such as other consumers’ messages, reviews or recommendations (Chung, et al., 2010). Facebook is a great source of consumers-created content and may even host large negative or positive brand buzz, from which users are very sensitive to. Chung and Austria’s study showed a significant correlation between the entertainment, interaction and information gratifications on the social media use. This is the mission of the marketers to each all these gratifications as the interaction and information gratifications affect the attitude of the user toward the social marketing messages, and ultimately significantly influence online shopping values. The study (Chung, et al., 2010 p. 581) affirmed that “active interaction and useful information on social media create positive perceptions toward social media marketing messages”, and “positive social media marketing messages increase online shoppers’ hedonic value”26 . When marketers were focusing on the consumer and customer experiences, they now have to create a unique and enjoyable user experience. In the case of the Film industry, the film is already an experience, the way the film is presented (in theater or on DVD, for instance) is very important and is already considered by marketers and providers: cinemas are well equipped; DVDs present more bonuses, games, etc. Film marketers now need to create the same kind of experience on their Facebook Fan Page. 2. 1. 3. 2. Facebook as a brand image carrier I will explain what the Facebook Fan pages are and why they are relevant in the case of movie marketing. I will also try to explain the value of 'likes' of the Facebook pages and show which opportunities firms can find in these pages. 2. 1. 3. 2. 1. Facebook Fan Pages Facebook pages "allow entities such as public figures and organizations to broadcast information to their fans" (O'Neill, 2010, online). There are more than three million active pages on Facebook. Some brands have so many pages that it becomes difficult to know which one is official, or brand-created, and which one is unofficial, or fan-create(Phan, 2011). It is very important for companies to be the first one to create their brand page and to display the ‘official’ word somewhere on the page. Phan added that Film producers that create a page for 26 Appendix 4: AMOS Graph_ Analysis of the Overall Model of Standardized coefficients. Source: (Chung, et al., 2010)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 35 each new product and that link product page to their official company profile, or page add credibility to their pages. For example, The Twilight Saga page displays the following message: "Welcome to the OFFICIAL Twilight Saga Fan Page here on Facebook! Stay tuned for the latest book, movie and merchandise news". Moreover, the 'Batman: the Dark Knight' page is directly linked to the 'Warner Bros.' Facebook page. Compared to other social networking platforms, several tools were developed by Facebook in order to deliver richer content. Companies can therefore ‘widgetise’ their page, like they could widgetise their official website or blog. “Widgets, or mini applications, allow you to place content in an external web environment, such as a social network page. These offer a new way of building and maintaining research communities” as declared Tom Smith (2010 p. 561). Moreover, it is important to decide upfront how interactive the page should and will be. Pages' administrators can set up whether visitors are allowed to post on the page's wall or not. According to Burson-Marsteller, around 74% of pages allow for these posts. American firms are among the most interactive on Facebook with "89% of pages allowing posts from fans, and 72% of pages responding to likers’ wall posts" (p. 26). The advantage of Facebook over other social networking websites is that it provides so many different ways to display information, communicate, and interact. Facebook Fan Pages are among the best options to promote a brand, product or service, such as movies. The level of potential interactivity with visitors is one of the highest among networks. The other great advantage of Facebook pages is that they are indexed by search engines, and are viewable to non-Facebook users or even when the user is not connected to its Facebook account. Pages' owner can also decide who posts are aimed to with the 'targeted stream posts'. Each post can be customized and aim at a specific audience (i.e. 'fans from France', or 'fans speaking English', or even 'fans from the USA speaking Spanish'). It considerably increases the potential of marketing in the sense that local promotions can be displayed on the Facebook page to local fans only; no need to create a specific page for local communities (i.e. 'Batman France'). Then, pages support a lot more applications than Facebook groups for instance enabling pages' administrators for great page customization. Moreover, there is a feature called 'page insight' that provide the administrators with demographic break down of their fan base, as well as user interactions and engagement data. The final feature allowed to Facebook pages is the 'vanity URLs' or the ability to customize the page URL and create a unique, official URL that will redirect the user toward the page (O'Neill, 2010).
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 36 2. 1. 3. 2. 2. The Value of Likes The difference between a Facebook profile and a Facebook page is not in what can be shared but in how users and brands can be connected. In order to be connected to a Facebook profile, and therefore to access some information of the profile, you have two solutions. You can either send a ‘friend request’ to the profile user, or more recently ‘subscribe’ to the profile. These two actions will give you access to different information according to the privacy settings the user chose. In order to be connected to a Facebook page, you just have to ‘like’ the page. Liking the page will add you to the fan database of the firm, brand, or here movie. But there is no obligation of ‘liking’ the page to access the information unless the page is closed. If the page is closed, it means that the page creator requires a ‘like’ to give access to the page information. It is more common among pages for restricted networks. If the page is open, you can access the information without becoming a fan of the page. You can then get all the information you need without interacting with the page. The advantage of ‘liking’ the page is that the page news will appear in your News Feed and therefore keep you updated on the brand, or movie actuality. It improves the ‘connected experience’. The Facebook News Feed is the aggregation, in the homepage, of updates on the friends' activities of the user. EdgeRank is the Facebook algorithm that determines which content is posted on any user News Feed at any given time. It is linked to the level of interactivity of users with the page within the different users' networks. The more the activity and interactions on the page, the more likely the apparition on users' News Feed, as explained Vahl. It is interesting to know that even if the user has to 'like the page' to access its information, pages are always public as there is no way to restrict their access and make them private. Moreover, the Facebook Like button is becoming “a requirement for all Web sites” (Ente, et al., 2011 p. 3). “Likes are gaining momentum on traditional link-back algorithms as a search ranking currency. Still, the business value of a Like usually comes out ahead when compared to a Tweet. Facebook users who utilize a Like button visit 5.3x more Web urls to engage with content and on average have 2.4x more Friends; providing the Like button on a website gives content creators access to these more socially engaged consumers and their networks” (p. 4). According to Vahl (2011), 56% of users who become 'fan' of a Facebook Fan page are likely to recommend the page to their friends and 51% of users are more likely to purchase the good if they 'like' it on Facebook. Investing in Facebook is primarily investing in people and time (Ente, et al., 2011). Indeed, maintaining a proactive and entertaining page requires a large time involvement and the formation of a multi-task team with social media communicators and technicians to take care of both the nature of messages and the design of the platform, maintenance, etc. Marketing directors like to see numbers and like to evaluate the return on their investment.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 37 Facebook provides some key metrics thanks to its AllFacebookStats27 application, but firms can also invest in external evaluation applications. The most popular metrics are fan total, fan change, fan distribution development, fan growth rate, interaction rate, interactions average per post, post type distribution and interaction distribution, likes average per post, comments average per post, fan base development, KPIs, response time, etc. The matter is that these metrics, and most of the ones developed by social media agencies, only provide performances of the page; it does not give any information about how many these interactions on the page deliver in terms of actual sales. Farhad Manjoo (2011, online) declared that marketers had in fact no way to actually "predict or measure the impact of their campaigns". Brad Shaw, Home Depot's Vice-President for Corporate Communications and External Affairs, said: "We're trying different ways to help us better understand the 'value' of a Facebook like. But at this point, revenue is not the intent." The intent is first to understand what could seduce and please the consumer and would ultimately bring revenue. Olivier Blanchard (2011) announced 'five basic rules to calculate the value of a Facebook fan'. First, the value of a Facebook fan does not equal the cost of acquiring this fan. Then, he postulated that this value is unique, likely to be elastic and relative to the Facebook Fan purchasing habits ("and/or influence on others’ purchasing habits"). Finally, he added that the value depends on the type of brand and the type of products. The conclusion could be that evaluating the value of a Facebook fan is highly dependent on the industry and market and cannot be generalized. 2. 1. 3. 2. 3. Opportunities for Brands "The on-line brand and the off-line brand are subject to the same set of rules governed as they are by the behavior of the consumer" as suggested by WoonBong and Roger (2005 p. 56). The job of the marketers is to understand how the information is processed in the consumer's mind in terms of brand equity_ attributes of the brand, attitudes to the brand and feelings about the brand. There are three kinds of experiences. The consumer experience is related to the experience during the consumption of the product, which would here be the experience of watching the movie. The customer experience is related to the action of purchasing the product or service, which would be the actions of going to the cinema, buying the DVD, downloading the DVD. Finally, the user experience is related to the Facebook users experience through the Fan Page of the movie. WoonBong and Roger defended that the brand message should focus more on the user on-line experience than the customer/buyer experience. They considered that the user experience engender more 'brand power' than goal- oriented messages. "What you (the brand owner) say and what I experience are not always the same. In addition, I will often take into consideration other people’s experience rather than believe what you have to say" (p. 56). The firm need to examine what the consumer is expecting from the Fan Page, and how other fans may influence its attitude and behavior toward the movie. It is essential to consider the convenience, availability and interaction 27 Source: http://allfacebookstats.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 38 factor, and deliver comprehensive and rich information. Facebook developed, and is constantly developing, a great number of applications that allow any user to create any kind of activity and interaction on a page (Dickey, et al., 2010). Eric Tsai claimed that the goal of marketers is "to stimulate an engaging conversation that allows us to change perception, diagnose expectations and bring clarity to the dialogue. That’s the essence of developing a brand strategy – the foundation of your communication that builds authentic relationships between you and your audience"28 . Burson-Marsteller revealed, in its annual global social media check-up, that a great part of Fortune Global 100 Companies utilize at least one social media platform in their marketing strategy, and nearly one-quarter of them are active on all networks. An increase of 13% was observed between 2010 and 2011 in the percentage of organizations on Facebook with 61% of them with Facebook pages. "The average number of Facebook pages per company doubled since last year". Asian corporations have 5.8 Facebook pages on average; 2.8 pages for European firms. The number of Facebook pages for American organizations increased of 179%, compared to only 18% for Asian organizations. This huge augmentation is mostly due to the outliers Hewlett-Packard (51 pages) and Ford (23 pages). Moreover, the study confirmed that pages gained in pages' likes. The global number of 'likes' increased by 115%. Such an increase can be explained by the fact that firms have been more active in their Facebook pages' maintenance. "Eighty-four percent of Facebook pages had posts made by the companies, demonstrating that the majority of pages are actively updated" (Burson- Marsteller, 2011 p. 25). Companies are also progressively more interacting with their stakeholders via Facebook and use Facebook to connect with consumers in innovative ways. Strata, a media buying firm, explained that 79% of digital advertising agencies were interested in exploiting Facebook as the main marketing tool for their clients' campaigns. Put apart the marketing strategy, Facebook is an incredible tool, from buzz to sales, to launch a new product, comment a corporate strategic decision, or just communicate on a regular basis with consumers (Buddy Media, 2010). It is important for brands to understand that as Facebook is a daily common tool for consumers, it has to be a daily marketing tool for brands. Brands should show activity on their page at least once a day between a News post, a video, a picture or comments on fans' posts, no page should stay inactive for more than two or three days (Vahl, 2011). Competition is fierce, so should be firm engagement. The goal is not to be seen pushy by consumers to be pro-active. Andrea Vahl added that brands should focus on engagement have clear Calls to Action. Call to Action is a direction to 'do something': to like the page, to watch a video, to enter a contest, to play a game, or ultimately to purchase a product. There is no need to oversell or undersell. In the case of movies, the first reason that users will want to consume the movie is that the movie meet their tastes and preferences in the first place. It is pretty unlikely that a Facebook user will want to watch a movie that he/she first had no interest in watching because of the Facebook Fan page applications. It is obvious 28 Source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55958458/Brand-Strategy/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 39 that potential movie customers are people who have primarily somewhat curious and interested by the movie. "Make it fun" repeated Andrea Vahl. 2. 1. 3. 2. 4. Values and Factors Recap The literature review explained until now the values individuals and brands can see in Facebook, and the factors they consider regarding movies and their related consumption. A recap of these values and factors was included, see Table 1. Consumers Brands Facebook Be part of a community Networking Quality and pressure-free experiences Wider audience Consumer engagement Unique online experience Interactivity User-generated content Participating in the discussion Easy and rapid share/access to information Consumers' insight Multi-directional communication Fast and pro-active environment Authentic relationships Transparency and trust Brand awareness Social factor Support brands they like Credibility and reputation Brand visibility Human factor Be endorsed by influential fans  Create ambassadors Inclusive platform Cinema Convenience Availability  On-demand Fair prices High quality Meet the customers where they are Be there when they are Ease the acquisition/purchase process Deliver high quality products Table 1: Values and Factors Consumers and Brands see in Facebook and Movie Consumption Means
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 40 2. 1. 4. From Visitors to Customers, a Problem of Conversion This final section will explain the problem of conversion. First, I will explain what happen on Facebook Fan pages, then, I will list some conversion factors, and finally, I will present new initiatives taken by some movie studios. 2. 1. 4. 1. Once upon a time on a Facebook Fan Page "Today’s marketers now have a broad set of tools to impact and optimize customer experiences and ultimately drive revenue for their company" as explained the Adobe Inc. White Paper (2011 p. 1). Corporations leverage their skills in next-generation web content management (WCM) platforms in order to hit a balance between two opposite missions: "to spread branding and messaging as widely as possible, and to maintain control over their content as they deliver branding and experiences appropriate to each unique channel" (p. 1). Firms use Facebook as a marketing integrated platform that allow adding marketing applications into a well-thought-out architecture, and opting for sources easy to integrate. Next-generation platforms combine web content management with "integration services for digital asset management and social collaboration" (p. 4). Such page capabilities help delivering media-rich, community-oriented customer experiences, and consequently help enhancing brand awareness, customer engagement, customer loyalty, and ultimately campaign success. The matter is to determine which page capabilities will allow such outcomes. A Social Media strategy cannot only focus on getting "likes" and "comments" on content. The real value of Facebook as a social vehicle should be to bring financial results and not only to create a virtual buzz around the movie. Creating a fan page does not mean people will find it, will like it, will stay on it and will follow up with the brand, will consume and ultimately purchase the product or service. Brands are writing marketing messages in order to drive consumers to their social media platforms, and particularly to Facebook with message such as 'like us on Facebook'. These messages aim at helping consumers find the page, and hopefully like the page. The growing concern is to keep Facebook visitors on the page and transform these visitors and new fans into actual customers. Some people may have already consumed the product, or have already seen the movie in our case and have decided to visit the page, and maybe also to like the page (and thus, become a fan) to show their taste to their network or support to the brand. Some other people may have decided to visit the page by curiosity. The challenge for firms is to transform, or convert, these visitors into real consumer and customer of the movie.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 41 2. 1. 4. 2. Conversion Factors "Converting clicks into bucks means confronting a tangle of strategic and tactical considerations" (Greengard, 2011, online). According to him, an effective utilization of the social networking medium implies connecting with the audience and offering incentives that bond the customer with the brand. "Brands and marketers should use social media websites and word-of-mouth techniques to activate purchase intent" (DEI Worldwide, 2008 p. 2). Consumers seem to trust content shared on social media websites more than information gathered on companies' websites. Firms consequently engaged on social media in order to increase their likelihood of a purchase. Some applications already deliver analytics such as "Weekly Facebook Page Update" which gives the number of users, of visits, of clicks and clicks through, of impressions and percentage of feedback. Other metrics can be available, such as linkages potential (showing popularity of the content), media citation score (showing volume and level of media that quotes the brand name), the industry score, the social aggregator rate (level of participation within the different networks), the engagement index (reader response and quality of comments), the index score (identification and rank of influencer in the social Web based on above variables), and other metrics (Booth, et al., 2010). These factors reveal what is happening on the page, on the Facebook platform, and somehow on the Internet. However, it does not reveal what is happening outside of the computers and technologies, in the feasible world. 2. 1. 4. 3. New Initiatives I selected multiple initiatives that I found particularly interesting from different Facebook Movie Fan pages. First, I will present the advantages of several different applications. Then, I will describe some ideas developed within Facebook Fan pages such as integrated tweets, guest-books, soundtrack, winning, purchasing, and finally watching opportunities. 2. 1. 4. 3. 1. Welcoming page and other fast applications As Ente, et al. said, movie studios should remember to "be creative, strive for simplicity, go multi-channel, and be timely" (p. 17). I zoomed on the Twilight Saga Fan Page29 in order to show what is possible to do on Facebook, from a movie producer point of view. I chose the Twilight for different reasons. First, the page has over 25,800,000 fans in November 2011 (compared to 8,600,000 on the Batman: The Dark Knight page). Then, the page allows a lot of different interactive applications (polls, gifts, coupons, and many more) that create a huge sense of community and considerably enhance users' engagement. The main page allows user to watch the trailer of the movie directly on the Facebook page (no need to 29 Source: http://facebook.com/twilight/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 42 be re-directed toward a video-hosting website such as YouTube, for instance; option available all around the world) and to connect with each Twilight independent movie page. Page content is kind and brand should leverage their assets at every stage of the Facebook user visiting experience (Buddy Media, 2010). Some movie fan pages display a custom 'Welcome tab', or 'Welcome page' that may encourage the user to watch the trailer, or more likely to 'like' the page is order to get further within the page. Andrea Vahl defined it as the 'Fan-only reveal tab', also called 'fan gate'. This is a great way to gain fans, but it can also prevent users from entering the page (and driving them away). She also reported that adding a custom welcome tab can increase like conversion30 by 50%. These pages can be created via iFrame applications. Here are some convenient applications easily accessible. Wildfire iFrame is a free and detains 'fan-only content' capability. TabSite enables the creation of several tabs within the custom that in order to get a mini-website type of page. Payvement allows the creation of a storefront so fans can get special discounts available only to them. It is an interesting application when we remember that 61% of consumers interact with brands on social networks in order to receive discounts, when 55% seek for general brand information (Vahl, 2011). Other engagement applications are Booshaka and Fan of the Week. Booshaka displays a list of top fans (according to the amount of interactions), and Fan of the Week automatically select a fan based on its interaction with the page and post a message update each week. Movie studios may consider using the Open Graph in order to optimize content sharing and creating increasingly engaging interfaces (Ente, et al., 2011). Open Graph is a protocol that enables any web page to become a rich content within any social graph31 . Firms can use third party applications, create their own applications, or a Facebook preferred developer consultant. 2. 1. 4. 3. 2. Integrated Tweets The Twilight Saga Fan page hosts several applications such as an integrated tweets thread communicating real time updates from the official twilight franchise owner, from fans or the cast. It also allows you to join the conversation at any time by including specific hashtags32 (i.e. #breakingdawn, #eclipse, and #twilight). The user also has the possibility to connect with the brand on the other social networks such as Twitter, MySpace and YouTube, from the Facebook Fan page (options powered by involver33 and available globally). 30 Transformation of visitors into fans 31 Source: http://ogp.me/ 32 The # symbol, called hashtag, is used to mark keywords or topics in a Tweet, on Twitter, but also on other social networks. Source: http://support.twitter.com/articles/49309-what-are-hashtags-symbols/ 33 Source: http://www.Involver.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 43 2. 1. 4. 3. 3. Guest Books A great way to engage Facebook users into the discussion is the 'Wedding Guest Book' applications that give the opportunity to fans to invite their friends to join, sign the guest book, and give their blessings to the movie main characters' couple for their wedding, but also for the birth of their daughter. People are answering from all over the world, considering that we can see messages written in many different languages (options available globally). 2. 1. 4. 3. 4. Soundtrack The Soundtrack tab allows users to stream the track list of the upcoming movie on Spotify34 and to discover exclusive content. The tab also displays YouTube clip videos within the Facebook page: no need to switch to YouTube to view the videos. If the user clicks on the YouTube button, from the Facebook Fan page, he/she will be forwarded to the YouTube official Twilight page. Users can buy the track from iTunes by clicking on the 'Download from iTunes' button on the Facebook page or directly from the official movie soundtrack website35 by clicking on 'Buy now' button on the Facebook page (options powered by Spotify36 and available globally). 2. 1. 4. 3. 5. "Get tickets" The 'Twilight Saga' fan page offers the opportunity to "buy advance tickets and invite friends without leaving Facebook"37 . When the user clicks on it, he/she is asked to select a theater, date and time, invite friends and finally purchase the tickets. This option is offered only in the USA as the user is required to select 'a USA Based Location' only. 2. 1. 4. 3. 6. "Win Big" The main tab of the 'Batman: the Dark Knight' Facebook Fan page offers the opportunity to "win big with Blu-ray: 1 winner each week will get 50 of Hollywood's hottest Blu-Ray films and a new Blu-Ray player "38 . The contest does not require to like or to engage on the page, but it is said that 'liking' the page will give the user 25 additional points to get a chance to win; 'watching the videos' will give 15 additional points and 'sharing your opinion with us' 10 more points. These messages are great incentives to get visitors to like the page and to get them involved within the page. 34 French music records host platform (quite similar to iTunes, or former Napster) 35 Source: http://breakingdawnsoundtrack.com/ordernow/ 36 Source: http://Spotify.com/ 37 Source: http://www.facebook.com/twilight?sk=app_276539469034978/ 38 Source: http://facebook.con/darkknight/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 44 2. 1. 4. 3. 7. "Buy Now" Other applications are available such as "Buy Now". The "Buy Now" tab on the Batman: the Dark Knight's page, for instance, put the user through the official online store of Warner Bros. Studios39 , outside the Facebook website, where the user can purchase the DVD of the film and get it shipped directly to its address (ships to U.S. destinations only). Another example is the FoxConnect official fan page. The FoxConnect page owner created a photo album called "$10 Blu-ray 0bin at FoxConnect.com". This album contains pictures of movie posters. When the user clicks on the image, it can see the picture with the link to put it through the FoxConnect store page, on their official website (outside of the Facebook platform). Facebook users can then purchase the movie from the website. These applications are great tools to drive fans toward purchasing the movies. Applications are numerous and possibilities are large. All of them are clear Calls-To- Action and aim at creating a unique social user-shopper-consumer experience. Some of the above solutions are still 'Facebook Location Based Marketing". In my opinion, the true Film Distribution Revolution will happen when all these great local/regional/national opportunities will be developed within all movie fan pages and expanded globally. 39 Source: http://www.wbshop.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 45 2. 1. 5. Limitations of the Conceptual Background I understood, from the readings, companies are facing a conversion problem. The challenge for firms is to convert Facebook visitors (or fans) into actual into purchasers of the movie. I gathered some questions, unanswered: what happen when the Facebook user arrives on the Facebook Fan Page? Whether the user has already seen the movie or not, will he/she be willing to buy the DVD after his/her visit on the page? Moreover, because the subject of Facebook linked to the cinema industry is quite unique, the literature is limited in terms of Facebook users' attitudes and behaviors toward movies and their related behaviors. From a business point of view, we can wonder what the best variables to shape a target strategy are. How can brands change (or try to) consumers' attitudes toward the movies and push fans to become tangible customers. Movie studios need to create clear and efficient Calls To Action. No reports give solutions about how to effectively convert Facebook movie fans into actual movie customers, and how to control and measure it. It does not provide data related to how Facebook users and Facebook movie fans information processes. Do Facebook users process information as other consumers? How do they form their attitudes toward movies? How are their perceptions influenced by their social networks and the different types of content that Facebook provides? How do this technology platform and its social richness impact their decision making process regarding purchase? These interrogations led me to the construction of my main research question: what is the impact of Facebook Fan Pages on Facebook users’ attitudes and behaviors toward movies and their related consumption?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 46 2. 3. Theoretical Models I scanned the literature in order to find existing models that could help me answer the questions raised by the first part of my discoveries40 . Among several different models, I decided to present two models that could help me understand and assess the impact of Facebook Fan Pages on Facebook users’ attitudes and behaviors toward Movies and their related consumption. The first model refers to the technology acceptance; the second talks about the notion of planned behavior. 2. 3. 1. Technology Acceptance Model The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was first developed by Fred Davis in 1986 around two main constructs: the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of the technology (see Figure 1). The model stated that these two constructs determine the "intention" of the individual to utilize a technological system and assumes that this intention will lead to the action of technology use. In reality, the model agrees that limitations such as time, environment, limited ability, and behavioral elements such as unconscious habits, etc. will restrain the liberty to act. 2. 3. 1. 1. Perceived Ease of Use and Usefulness The perceived ease of use is the individual's perception of the facility of using the technology, or as described by Davis, "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort". The perceived usefulness is the individual's perception of the utility of the technology, or "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his/her performance" (Davis, 1986). Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model, Davis (1989) 40 Explained in 2. 1. 5. Limitations of the Conceptual Background
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 47 The graph shows that the perceived ease of use of the technology directly impacts the perceived usefulness of this technology. The model assumes that if a technology is perceived as easy to use, it will also be perceived as useful; the individual may intend to use that technology and will ultimately use it without limitation. 2. 3. 1. 2. Implications with Social Media This model is interesting in the case of Facebook as Facebook is a very unique social medium, and a technology on its own. The characteristics of Facebook are very different from the characteristics of any other social networks, as explained earlier in the first part of the review. It seems relevant to test how the perceived ease of use of Facebook and therefore the perceived usefulness of Facebook influence the Facebook user, and ultimately the Facebook Movie fan. However, as the direct relationship between these two constructs has already been tested and recognized, and as time for this research is limited, I will not test the impact of one construct on the other. I will accept that the perceived ease of use of Facebook has a direct and positive impact on the perceived usefulness of Facebook. Therefore, I will only question if the perceived usefulness of the Facebook Fan Page is an influential factor in the intention to behave and in the behavior itself. Willis (2008 p. 58) explained that the model of Technology Acceptance is relevant in order to test the acceptance of "technologies that are relationship-focused" such as Facebook social network. Existing research focused on the social network Facebook. Chiu, et al. (2008) used the Technology Acceptance Model in order to study the factors influencing people in their use of online social networks such as Facebook. They modelized the use of online social networks as the "intentional social action", and concluded that the collective intention to use the online social networks was strongly influenced by the perceived social interactivity and connectivity resulting from using such platforms. Lane and Coleman (2011 p. 1) studied the concepts of the TAM and their intensity for social networking media such as Facebook and MySpace to business students. They concluded that "the higher perceived ease of use led to higher perceived usefulness and ultimately greater intensity of use of the social networking media". Other studies referred to the use of Facebook as usage or user interface experiences and posited that the perceived value of this experience influenced the adoption of the platform (Jia, 2009). Venkatesh, et al.(2000) stated that cognitive instrumental processes such as output quality and result demonstrability considerably determine "user acceptance".
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 48 2. 3. 2. Theory of Planned Behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was developed by Ajzen in 1985 and stated that the actual act, or behavior, is determined by the intention to act, or behave, which is driven by three constructs: the attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norms that surround the individual and the perceived ease of action (perceived risk), also known as the perceived behavioral control (see Figure 2). This theory helps to appreciate how people's behavior is affected and can be influenced (Ajzen, 2002). Figure 2: Theory of Planned Behavior, Ajzen (1985) The comprehensive model is constituted of three initial considerations called beliefs: - behavioral, or the beliefs about the consequences of the act, - normative, or the beliefs about the social expectations, - control, or the beliefs about ease of difficulty to execute the act. I consider that these beliefs can be entirely integrated in the three main constructs (attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) as they impact each of them directly (Chang, et al., 2011). First, the behavioral beliefs include considering the likely consequences of the behavior and can therefore be studied along with the factors of attitude formation. Then, the normative beliefs incorporate the social expectations and pressure from the others and can be incorporated in the subjective norm construct. Finally, the control beliefs refer to considering the factors that may help or not the execution of the behavior; it is integrated in the perceived behavioral control construct.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 49 The following simplified model is obtained (see Figure 3): Figure 3: Theory of Planned Behavior, Ajzen (1991) The graph shows that when the attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norm and the perceived behavioral control are inter-related, they all affect the intention to behave and ultimately the behavior itself. As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude toward the behavior and the subjective norm, and the higher the perceived behavioral control, the greater should be the individual's intention to behave (Ajzen, 1991). 2. 3. 2. 1. Attitude Toward Behavior The attitude toward the behavior is understood as being the individual's feelings regarding the final behavior. These feelings can be either positive or negative and come from the beliefs engaging in the behavior, the evaluation of the consequences resulting from such a behavior, and the attractiveness of such consequences. It is the "degree to which performance of the behavior is positively or negatively valued" (Ajzen, 1985). 2. 3. 2. 2. Subjective Norms The subjective norms are the social influence or the "individual's perception of whether people important to the individual think the behavior should be performed"(Eagly, et al., 1993). The impact of such a social influence, or 'perceived social pressure' (Ajzen, 1985), will depend on the weight that the individual attributes to the opinion of the social referent.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 50 2. 3. 2. 3. Perceived Behavioral Control The perceived behavioral control is explained as being the "individual's perception of the ease or difficulty of performing the behavior of interest"(Ajzen, 2002 p. 183). This perceived behavioral control is a function of the perceived personal limitations or perceived ability to execute the action. 2. 3. 2. 4. Intention To Behave The intention to behave is the individual willingness and readiness to execute an action. It is a direct antecedent of the act, or the behavior. This intention is a function of attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. 2. 3. 2. 5. Behavior The behavior is the actual feasible response resulting from the intention to behave. The behavior is a direct result of the intention to behave but can be impacted by many factors, such as time, money, environment, etc. Moreover, testing the impact of the intention to behave on the behavior itself would imply interrogating the same population, at a later time, on whether or not they performed the behavior. Because my research period is limited to only six months, I decided to ignore this last construct and to end my model with the intention to behave. 2. 3. 2. 6. Implications with Social Media In the context of social media, Rebecca Cameron announced that the factor analysis showed a high correlation between the intention and behavior factors, but no significant separation between these factors. She concluded that intention to behave and behavior could be merged into the behavioral intention factor. Jiang and Benbasat (2007 p. 454) studied the implications of the TPB with the online presentation of products within social networking platforms. Their study showed that the "vividness and interactivity of product presentations are the primary design features that influence the efficacy of the presentation". It also confirmed that consumer's perceptions of the online shopping experience both impact the attitude toward shopping on the platform and the attitude toward the product itself. It concluded that the consumer's attitude toward shopping online influence their purchasing intention. Habin, et al. (2009 p. 2) studied the
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 51 determinants of the intention to generate user-created content41 online. Their study revealed that "playfulness, self-expressiveness, innovativeness, and reward have a positive impact on the intention to produce UCCs". The most influential factor appeared to be innovativeness, while social participation did not seem to be so significant. (Cameron, 2010) A recent research (Friederici, et al., 2011) revised the different concepts of the theory of planned behavior in the case of the use of Facebook as a social networking web site. It confirmed that past behaviors, attitudes, perceived risk and social influence were all positively correlated to the intention to get information on Facebook. The research demonstrated that, on Facebook, a user would highly be seeking to get information about a product on Facebook if he/she assessed the suggestive behavior as positive, and considered that their Facebook friends would approve the behavior performance. Smith, Johnston and Howard (2011) studied the implications of the TPB with online stores and concluded that received clear information about the product had a strong influence on the consumer attitude toward the store. They declared that business success depended on answering "the specific functional and image- related information needs of customers rather than simply providing more interactivity or technical functionality". Finally, Pelling and White (2009) applied the theory of planned behavior to the engagement of college students in online social networking. This research posits that the attitude and subjective norms have a significant impact on the intention to highly engage in social networking. They concluded that self-identity and past behaviors are significant predicators of the behavioral intention. 2. 3. 2. 6. Limitations of the Theoretical Background Both the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior are recognized effective theoretical frameworks, even in the context of social media. However, none of them has been separately and specifically tested with Facebook or within the cinema industry and in the case of movie adoption. Nor have them been tested conjointly with Facebook in the context of the cinema industry. This research will cover the gap between the lacks of the conceptual background and the lacks of experimentation of these two models in the case of Facebook and movies. 41 Also referred to as UCCs
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 52 3.Methodology A. Einstein This section aims at determining a design and a structured set of steps, actions, and techniques to build up the research. The methodology is the map that guides the researcher and the reader to go through the research with clear directions. I will first explain the research design, then, the theoretical framework, and finally, the data collection and analysis techniques and procedures. 3. 1. Research Design 3. 1. 1. Vision Guba and Lincoln (1994, p. 106) described the paradigm as “the basic belief system or world view that guides the investigation, not only in choices of method but in ontologically and epistemologically fundamental ways”. It is a way of exploring a situation from a particular view and of building justifications according to this vision. As the purpose of this research is to understand the why and how of Facebook users' behavior toward movies, and as the final goal is to propose practical solutions that answer concrete issues and to offer recommendations to companies, I decided to follow two linked paradigms: the Functionalism and the Interpretivism. The Functionalist paradigm seeks to deliver rational justifications for human behaviors. It is problem-oriented and intends to deliver clear and tangible solutions. As Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) said, researchers should exploit their results in order to make a positive contribution within their environment. The Interpretive paradigm seeks to explicate the consistency of individual behaviors from a human sensitive viewpoint. The interpretive paradigm is used to study “on-going processes”. People are playing a role on the stage of social life and their interaction with other individuals determines their behavior. The choice of these concepts was reinforced by ontology, epistemology and axiology considerations. In this case, I assume that the world is defined in terms of both tangible and intangible aspects, and both fixed and flexible dimensions. I will therefore accept that my research is exposed to using Subjectivism, in the sense that I will study individuals’ behaviors and attitudes. Social entities, such as the Facebook users, behave and interact “Whether or not you can observe a thing depends upon the theory you use. It is the theory which decides what can be observed.”
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 53 according to their perceptions and interpretations of other users’ actions in a ‘constant state of revision’. The social actors “own actions may be seen by others as being meaningful in the context of these socially constructed interpretations and meanings” (Saunders, et al., 2009 p. 111). The choice of the research approach determines the presentation of the findings and conclusions. The first stage was completed by a comprehensive literature review of the cinema industry and social media, a focus on Facebook as a social vehicle and new marketing tool, and an introduction to existing Facebook pages' solutions. I then decided to follow an exploratory approach, also known as the inductive study, to investigate and understand the Facebook users' value scheme and their decision making process. This design is useful to draw attention to "what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light" (Robson, 2002). However, this approach required the elaboration of a new model. The first concern was to define a scheme, or a model, around the diverse constructs that were identified. This approach was held by the grounded theory, or a research strategy "in which theory is developed from data generated by observations or interviews" (Saunders, et al., 2009 p. 149). The grounded theory allowed the proposal of a new model, based on specific constructs, and highlighting new relationships. First, I carried out a qualitative study. Three in-depth interviews42 were conducted in order to define the different constructs and relationships within this new model. Then, once the model was drawn, I needed to prepare questionnaires to gather the necessary information. But before I could send out the real questionnaire, I created a pilot questionnaire in order to test the different constructs and relationships and in order to get more insight on the potential questions and answers to be integrated in the final questionnaire. Five pilot questionnaires43 were conducted in order to complete the final questionnaires. Finally, I needed to test the new model, and to accept (or reject) it thanks to a confirmatory approach. This approach is helpful to determine if the model works in the specific context of Facebook or not. This research is distinctive in the sense that the theory of Planned Behavior and the Technology Acceptance model have never been tested jointly in the context of social media and the cinema, and more precisely Facebook and the cinema. Data were collected through questionnaires44 . 42 Reported in the Appendices 5a., 5b., and 5c. 43 Reported in the Appendices 6a., 6b., 6c., 6d., and 6e. 44 Please refer to the 3. 2. ‘Theoretical Framework’ for more details
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 54 3. 1. 2. Qualitative Study The research design is the overall map of how I intend to answer the research questions. As I wish to follow the Inductive approach, I had to first follow a qualitative study to get a large picture of the situation: the involved people, the behavior of those people on Facebook and in relation to movies. I also needed to define more precisely the constructs and relationships within the proposed model. These actions were allowed through in-depths interviews and pilot questionnaires. 3. 1. 2. 1. Nature of Data My concern is to understand the behaviors of human-beings (FB users) in order to identify schemes (relationships), and finally determine ways to adapt these behaviors to new consumption means. The nature of the data I need to collect is consequently qualitative more than quantitative. This is the quality of the actions that I wish to study. However, numerical data were collected in order to quantify and measure the extent, or strength, of the relationships and actions. My final data are therefore both “numerical and textual” (Tashakkori, et al., 2007). 3. 1. 2. 2. Population and Environment The in-depth interviews helped me identify the targeted population and situation. The population is considered as being the Facebook users: people who have a Facebook account, and more precisely, Facebook Fan Page visitors, or Facebook users in the situation of visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie. This population includes any Facebook user without demographic selection, both fan and non-fan of the page, and who visits the movie fan page at any given time. 3. 1. 2. 3. Initial Interviews The goal of these in-depth interviews was to identify which constructs were involved and which factors would influence the final behavior, or at least the behavioral intention. These in-depth interviews were conducted for around 30 to 45 minutes to three different individuals from very different backgrounds. The qualitative data analysis allowed me to investigate the qualitative data I collected through these interviews, identify the principal dimensions, and in the end interpret and understand the nature of the relationships between the proposed model's constructs. The in-depth interviewees were composed of general, open questions regarding Facebook as a social networking site, movies as products, and movie watching as an activity. Results help me identify the different constructs within the model, as well as the potential relationships between these constructs.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 55 I then followed pilot questionnaires. The content analysis of responses to these pilot questionnaires provided me with direct items and enabled me to isolate a list of prominent outcomes, referents and control factors. It allowed the construction of the proposed model. I was able to identify, isolate and classify items according to their related constructs. I was also able to define a list of questions and potential related answers to build the final questionnaire. This final questionnaire was also pretested before made available online. Pre-tests allowed me to adjust the responses and capabilities of the questionnaire. I was able to force some answers, and create bridge between questions (if someone responds ‘no’ to one question, then he/she is skipped to a further question instead of the next following). Answers were both positively and negatively phrased, and rated according to a seven-point Likert scale from 1=strongly disagree, or never, to 7= strongly agree, or always.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 56 3. 2. Theoretical Framework My objective is to understand how the behavior of Facebook users toward a movie can be influenced, or changed, by marketers via the related Facebook Movie Fan Page. My goal is not to study what has been made outside of the Fan Page in order to bring visitors to the Fan Page. My concern is to study what influences people's interactions with the Fan Page, and ultimately what will impact their intention to legally adopt the movie from the moment they arrive on the Fan Page. The whole process of bringing the Facebook users on the Fan Page is already part of marketers plan thanks to "Like us on Facebook" or "Join us on Facebook" messages in their marketing strategies. The proposed model is studied in the context of the visit, of a Facebook user, on the Facebook Fan Page of a movie; therefore, each construct will be studied within the context of Facebook. 3. 2. 1. Conceptual Model The construction of the model resulted from findings made in the literature review and initial in-depth interviews 45 administrated in order to get qualitative insight from some members of the targeted population about the constructs implicated in the model. These interviews helped identifying influential factors and refute some predictors. Indeed, some interviewees considered that some factors did not have sufficient impact to influence their behavior, and consequently advised me to disregard them. The different constructs and relationships will be explained below. The three initial constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (attitude toward behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) were kept as the literature review, and interviews, provided enough elements to show that the intention to behave of a Facebook user is a function of personal, social, and control aspects. The interest of this research will be to confirm (or reject) such a dependency and assess which factors are dominant in the intention to perform the behavior of legally adopting the movie. This assessment will finally help me determine actions that companies could follow in order to influence Facebook users to take the action. 45 More explanation in section 3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 57 3. 2. 1. 1. Behavior In order to build my model, I had to define the constructs that would intervene in the model. The first step was to define the action, or behavior, as the final construct for the model. The interest for cinema firms is to get people to legally consume their movies, but there is a growing tendency to download and stream films from other sources. It is therefore important to understand in which measure and why people adopt a movie in such or such a way. The behavior that will be tested is the Legal Consumption of the movie, such as: - Going to the cinema, - Buying a DVD, - Renting a DVD, - Paying to download a movie, - Paying to stream a movie, And, in opposition to these actions, will be understated the following events: - Download the movie for free, - Stream the movie for free46 . I agree on the fact that the same individual may consume the movie in many different ways (among the above) at different times, and cumulate several actions, from authorized to unauthorized ones. The research design, explained in the next section, will encompass the study of both behaviors; but, as the legal consumption is the final objective for firms, only the legal behaviors will be integrated into the proposed model. 3. 2. 1. 2. Intention to Behave The behavior would be carried out given "a sufficient degree of control over the behavior" and given the opportunity. I finally decided not to test the impact on these acts or behavioral achievements as this behavior might be short-cut by external events such as DVD stock-out, too many people at the theater, bad internet connection for streaming… Limitations such as environmental factors may restrain the liberty to behave and prevent the opportunity from arising. I therefore focus on the 'intention to behave' or 'behavioral intention' as being the intention to legally consume the film: 'go to the cinema, buy or rent a DVD, or pay to download or to stream a movie'. I consequently decided to disregard these external limitations. 46 'For free' meaning here 'illegally' or from 'illegal sources'
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 58 As said before, the opposite actions (download or stream free copies) will be evaluate as additional potential actions, but will not be part of the main intended behavior. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the intention to behave is a function of three precedent constructs: the attitude toward the action, the subjective norm and the perceived behavioral control. I developed these constructs to fit my research purpose. 3. 2. 1. 3. Attitude toward the behavior The first construct is the attitude toward the behavior, defined as the Facebook user's positive or negative mind-set regarding the final behavior. The attitude formation is constructed from the cognitive (what the user knows), emotional (what the user feels) and behavioral (how the user usually acts) components. This attitude formation encompasses the value scheme of the Facebook users, their feelings, past experiences, and expectations toward the behavior of consuming movies. The attitude includes the desirability of the consequences of the behavior and can be assessed as the sum of the expected outcomes of the behavior (o) multiplied by the desirability of the outcomes (d), such as: Att Σ oi di * *Att: Attitude toward the behavior : is proportional to Σ: the sum of 3. 2. 1. 4. Perceived Pressure The second construct is the subjective norm, or social influence, that comes from influencers' opinion and behavior, or from the social buzz47 . This construct is called the Perceived Social Pressure. This perceived social pressure is the pressure delivered by the Facebook user's network and environment toward the performance of the action. The idea is to assess both the social and environmental (Facebook) perceived pressure on the user and potential movie consumer. This Perceived Pressure can be assessed as the sum of the social norms (n) multiplied by the motivation to comply with these norms (m), such as: PP Σ ni mi * *PP: Perceived Pressure ni: social norm mi: motivation to comply with the norm 47 The buzz is the situation when an event or an object is talked about (online and/or offline) on and on and on. oi: expected outcome di: desirability of the expected outcome
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 59 3. 2. 1. 5. Perceived risk The third construct is the perceived behavioral control which I decided to call the Perceived Risk, or the perception of the ease or difficulty, the safety or risk, to execute the final behavior and the foreseen opportunities to do so. The Perceived risk could here be divided into two sections according to the main and the opposite final behaviors: the perceived risk to legally consume movies and the perceived risk to illegally consume movies. I will focus on the perceived risk to legally consume movies, even though I suppose that the perceived risk to illegally consume movies can intervene in the first risk perception. This Perceived risk can be assessed as the sum of perceived risk factors (r) multiplied by the strength allocated to the factors (s), such as: PR Σ ri si * * PR: Perceived Risk ri: perceived risk factor si: strength allocated to the perceived risk factor These constructs build a second level in the new model (see Figure 4): Figure 4: Theory of Planned Behavior Toward Movies The population that is targeted is the Facebook users and the environment their behavior is studied in is their visit on the Facebook Movie Fan Page. This information implies to study the technology itself as being the Facebook Movie Page, also called the Facebook Fan Page (FB Fan Page, for future reference). This is where I decided to integrate the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1986) in the proposed model. I assumed that the perceptions toward the FB Fan page may have an influence on the attitude toward the behavior. Intention to Behave Legal Movie Consumption Attitude toward the behavior Perceived Pressure Perceived Risk
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 60 When the Technology Acceptance Model introduces two constructs known as the Perceived Usefulness and the Perceived Ease of Use of the technology, I only introduced the Perceived Usefulness construct. Indeed, interviewees explained that, as a Facebook user, they already consider Facebook user-friendly enough to be a user, and because the FB Fan Page is build up on the same characteristics as the personal profile page, they agreed that the FB Fan Page is also user-friendly. According to them, as long as the Facebook user knows how to use his/her own profile, he/she will be able to visit any FB Fan Page. Moreover, the ease of access to the FB Fan Page is determined by one attribute, whether the page is open or closed. As I hope to study the attitude of the Facebook user in a limit-free environment, such as Mark Zuckerberg first created it48 , I will not test the option of closed pages. If the page is wide open, users may not have to share any private information and if they do not interact with the page, there could be no feasible trace of your activity on the Fan Page. I will therefore only keep the Perceived Value of the Facebook Fan Page as the additional construct. Another concern was the integration of the "like the Fan Page" in the proposed model: Do people need to "like" the FB movie Fan Page to intend an action toward that movie? In practice, people do not need to "like" the page to intend to consume the movie, as Facebook is a not a platform to watch movies. Besides, the real question is not how to get more fans but how to transform visitors of the Fan Page into legal performers toward the movie. 3. 2. 1. 6. Perceived Value Consequently, the fourth and last construct, now known as the Perceived Value of the FB Fan Page, refers to the perceived utility or usefulness of the FB Fan Page through the information, navigation capabilities and applications available on the page. This perceived value is composed of the expectations, or expected benefits, that the FB user sees in the use of the FB Fan Page. "I behave because I find it useful and because I value the benefits of the use of such a tool". These expected benefits could be an expected gain, expected entertainment or expected involvement on the page. Testing this construct will start with the identification of these benefits that will be the attributes of the value as they influence the value that people perceive in the use of the page. This perceived value can be assessed as the sum of the expected benefits (b) multiplied by the willingness to enjoy these benefits (w), such as: PV Σ bi wi * *PV: perceived value of the FB Fan Page bi: expected benefits wi: willingness to enjoy these expected benefits 48 Source: http://www.facebook.com/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 61 3. 2. 2. Theory of Planned Behavior in the context of Facebook These additional constructs make up the third component of the new model (see Figure 5): Figure 5: Proposed Model in the context of Facebook The model posits that the intention to rightfully consume a movie is a function of the individual's attitude toward the behavior, the perceived social pressure toward the behavior, the perceived risk to perform the behavior, and the perceived value of the Facebook Fan Page. It also assumes that the perceived Facebook Fan Value not only impacts the intention to behave, but also the attitude toward the movie, the perceived social pressure, and the perceived risk. 3. 2. 3. Hypotheses Based on the several constructs and relationships displayed above, I stated seven main hypotheses. H1: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more favorable the attitude toward the behavior. The first hypothesis describes the relationship between the perceived value of the FB page and the attitude toward the behavior. It presumes that, if Facebook users see a very high value in the FB page, their attitude, or feeling, toward legally adopting the movie will be very favorable.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 62 H2: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the higher the perceived pressure. The second hypothesis illustrates the relationship between the perceived value of the FB page and the perceived pressure. It supposes that, if Facebook users see a very high value in the FB page, they will recognize a bigger pressure from their social and Facebook environments. H3: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the lower the perceived risk. The third hypothesis explains the relationship between the perceived value of the FB page and the perceived risk. It states that, if Facebook users highly value the FB Fan page, they will see a lower risk in legally consuming the movie, and additionally, a higher risk in illegally consuming the movie49 . H4: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more likely the intention to behave. The fourth hypothesis shows the relationship between the perceived value of the FB page and the intention to perform the behavior. It presumes that, if Facebook users recognize a strong worth in the FB page, they will be more likely to intend to legally adopt the movie. H5: The more favorable the attitude toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. The fifth hypothesis describes the relationship between the attitude toward the legal movie consumption and the intention to perform such a legal behavior. It assumes that, if the users, and consumers, have a positive attitude toward the legal consumption, they will be more willing to perform such a behavior. H6: The higher the perceived pressure, the more likely the intention to behave. The sixth hypothesis illustrates the relationship between the perceived pressure and the intention to behave. It supposes that, if users perceived a high pressure from their environment, they will be more likely to legally consume the movie. H7: The lower the perceived risk toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. The seventh hypothesis highlights the relationship between the perceived risk of performing (or not) the behavior and the intention to perform such a behavior. It shows that, if the users perceive that the risk to act upon the final behavior is small, they will be more likely to do it. 49 Extended suppositions
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 63 3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis Given the inductive nature of the research, clear items for direct measures needed to be formulated and tested via the questionnaire. Thanks to the in-depth interviews, sub- constructs were identified to explain the main constructs. However, these sub-constructs needed to be tested and reformulated in order to deliver measurable information. The constructs were declined according to several aspects. The attitude toward the behavior is based on instrumental and experimental aspects; the perceived social pressure is derived from injunctive and descriptive aspects; the perceived risk is a combination of capacity and autonomy aspects. These different aspects were pre-tested thanks to pilot questionnaires to five different individuals. 3. 3. 1. Tool I created an Internet-mediated questionnaire on Qualtrics50 based on the results gathered from the content analysis of the pilot questionnaires51 , and made it available to a large population. I also carried out a pre-testing to five individuals prior to the real test to make sure that the questionnaire design was satisfactory. The advantage of the survey strategy is that the data gathered has been standardized and thus allowed simple comparison. I understand a questionnaire as being “the same set of questions in a predetermined order”. This questionnaire was conducted only indirectly via email or online, and was therefore ‘self- administered’ by the participants. 3. 3. 2. Population I decided to survey people of different ages, origins and backgrounds. However, the largest part of the questioned population is students from IESEG52 in France. I also reached professional contacts through my own network (Linkedin). Even though these contacts are not linked to me on Facebook, I assumed that some of them might have a Facebook account and they represent a very different type of population. 200 53 individuals answered the questionnaire. No demographic selection was made. However, two questions, from the questionnaire54 , helped narrow down this population. 50 Online Survey Software_ Source: http://www.ieseg.qualtrics.com/ 51 See Appendices 6a., 6b., 6c., 6d., and 6e. 52 IESEG, International Business School (Lille-Paris, France) 53 N=200 54 Questionnaire available in Appendix 7
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 64  The first question (Q1): "Do you have a Facebook Account?" is a selection question. It allowed the selection of the targeted population. The questionnaire was sent to a lot of different people, but only Facebook users are of interest for this research. This question is a dichotomy that eliminated all the people who are not Facebook users, and who are therefore answering “No”. Only responses from people who answered ‘Yes’ were kept.  The second question (Q3): "Do you ever visit Facebook Movie Fan Pages?" is also a selection question. It aims at selecting the sub-section of the targeted population: the Facebook users who visit Facebook Movie Pages. As my goal is to assess how Facebook Fan Pages can be used to lead Facebook users to adopt the movies, it is required to select the right population. Therefore, only responses from people who answered ‘Yes’ were kept. 3. 3. 3. Questions The questions were elaborated in order to provide relevant information for each construct and each relationship. The questionnaire is composed of a combination of positively and negatively phrased items, including closed-ended and multiple choice questions. Most questions allow the interviewees to give their insights through 'other, please specify' possible answers. Some questions are a dichotomy allowing only 'yes' or 'no' for an answer. Some other questions are based on a seven-point Likert-type scale from 1='strongly disagree' to 7='strongly agree', or from 1='never' to 7='always. Respondents have to "specify their level of agreement (or disagreement) on a symmetric scale for a series of statements"55 . I chose the seven-point Likert scale as it allows a larger range of answers, and ultimately a more precise analysis. 3. 3. 4. Decision Rules Decision rules are essential to collect and analyze data. The decision rules are the guidelines through which every relation, or hypothesis, is interpreted. It also determines the relevant information that should be kept for the study and the less relevant one. - Population: Facebook users and FB Page visitors The sample that was interviewed is composed of different types of users and page visitors. 55 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/likert_scale/
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 65 Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule How often do they use Facebook? Frequency of utilization 2 Time dedicated to FB use: Regular and Frequent users How often do they visit FB Fan pages? Frequency of visits 4 Time dedicated to Page visit: Regular and Frequent visitors - Constructs Construct 1: Perceived Value of the FB Fan Page The perceived value of the Facebook page is evaluated through the whys of the use of the page by Facebook users and the benefits, or characteristics, that the pages are expected to provide. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Why do they visit the FB page? What are they hoping for? Usefulness, Expected benefits (gain, entertainment, involvement) 5, 7 If they agree with the propositions: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' How do they feel about the FB page? Feelings 6 If they agree with the propositions: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' What do they do on the page? Interactions 8 Regular to frequent interactions Answers: 'Somewhat Often' to 'Always' Have they watched the movie before visiting the page? Movie Introduction / Awareness 9 Regular to frequent cases of movie awareness pre-visit Answers: 'Somewhat Often' to 'Always'
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 66 Construct 2: Attitude toward the Behavior The attitude toward the behavior is a combination of the personal feelings, opinions, past experiences and expectations of the individual. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule What are they hoping from the legal and illegal consumption? Expectations 12, 14, 17, 20, 23 Motivations to act: Answers from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Why do they perform legal or illegal actions? Feelings and Values 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Construct 3: Perceived Pressure The perceived pressure can come from very different people, important to the eyes of the individual, and among his/her social environment or network (including his/her personal Facebook network). Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Who are the people who influence them? Nature of the Influential Population 24 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Construct 4: Perceived Risk The perceived risk can be the perceived safety or danger to legally consume, or to illegally consume the movie. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Which dangers do they see in the behavior? Nature of the risks 12-19, 21, 22 Fears to act: Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' How risky do they evaluate these dangers? How strong are these fears? Strength of the risks 12-19, 21, 22 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 67 Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Construct 5: Intention to Behave The intention to behave is the final behavior of legally consuming the movie, in opposition to illegally consuming it. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Do they plan to achieve the action in the future? Willingness to perform the different actions 26 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' - Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more favorable the attitude toward the behavior. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people visit the FB Page change their attitude toward the movie? Impact of the page on the attitude 10 Regular to frequent actions Answers: 'Somewhat Often' to 'Always' Hypothesis 2: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the higher the perceived pressure. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people visit the FB Page increase the pressure to legally consume the movie? Impact of the page on the social pressure 24, 25 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Hypothesis 3: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the lower the perceived risk. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people visit the FB Page lower the Impact of the page on the 20, 23 If they agree with the
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 68 perceived risk toward legal movie consumption? risk / Control propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Hypothesis 4: The more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more likely the intention to behave. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people visit the FB Page increase the intention to legally consume the movie? Impact of the page on the intention 9, 10, 11, 20, 23, 25 Regular to frequent actions Answers: 'Somewhat Often' to 'Always' Hypothesis 5: The more favorable the attitude toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people have a positive attitude toward legal consumption increase the intention to legally consume the movie? Impact of the attitude on the intention 20, 23 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Hypothesis 6: The higher the perceived pressure, the more likely the intention to behave. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people feel highly pressured toward legal consumption increase the intention to legally consume the movie? Impact of the pressure on the intention 20, 23, 25 If they agree with the propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' Hypothesis 7: The lower the perceived risk toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. Information needed Measurement Questions Decision Rule Does the fact that people see low risk in legal consumption Impact of the pressure on 20, 23 If they agree with the
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 69 increase the intention to legally consume the movie? the intention propositions, Answers: from 'Somewhat Agree' to 'Strongly Agree' These decision rules helped me assemble and analyze the data I collected according to the different categories. According to Abbas Tashakkori and John W. Creswell, there are two kinds of data analysis: the statistical and thematic analysis. Marshall and Rossman (1990, p. 111) asserted that "[qualitative] data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. Qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships among categories of data." This research follows both qualitative and quantitative data analyses.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 70 3. 4. Limitations 3. 4. 1. Time Horizons As inquired in the Research methods for business students, I asked myself the following question: “Do I want my research to be a ‘snapshot’ at a particular time (cross- sectional) or do I want it to be more similar to a diary or a series of snapshots and be a representation of events over a given period (longitudinal)”? These time horizons are independent from the chosen research strategy. I considered that the cross-sectional study was more appropriate to my research in the sense that I wish to get a picture, or snapshot, of a real situation and give propositions according to the understanding of that situation; the situation being the visit on the Facebook Fan Page of a Film. 3. 4. 2. Reliability and Validity 3. 4. 2. 1. Reliability According to Saunders, Loewis, and Thornhill, reliability “refers to the extent to which the data collection techniques or analysis procedures will yield consistent findings” (p. 156). Consistent findings can be declared as such if measures and evaluations produce the same findings on other occasions and if other researchers obtain the same conclusions. Four threats to reliability were identified (Robson): - subject or participant error, coming from subjective, ‘feelings’ evaluation, - subject or participant bias, coming from what people think they should answer (example of interviews), - observer error, in case of several observers for the same study (different value scheme), - observer bias, coming from subjective interpretation. I made sure to question myself at every stage of the data collection and analysis in order to reduce these risks.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 71 3. 4. 2. 2. Validity Validity “is concerned with whether the findings are really about what they appear to be about” (Saunders, Loewis, and Thornhill, p. 157). What is the exact nature of the relationship between the factors I am studying? Have I exploited the right information collected from my data collection techniques? Have I exploited the information correctly? Six threats to validity were identified (Robson): - history, or the time period between an event and the feedback, - testing, or the actions participant take to affect the results (according to what they think is right), - instrumentation, or the instructions individuals may have received from external sources, - mortality, or the number of participants who quit the study, - maturation, or the effect of other events, - ambiguity about causal direction, or the difficulty to understand what is the cause and what is the consequence. I evaluated in which extent these threats applied to my findings and how I could moderate their impact. 3. 4. 3. Assumptions The main objective of my work is to obtain valid conclusions that will be helpful to the readers. One of the first concerns was the identification of the research population. As my goal was to generalize a behavior (and consequently solutions) to the whole population of Facebook users, I had to choose the sample population very carefully. Was my selection big enough or representative enough? Furthermore, how could I prevent my data from being biased? Similarly, the questionnaire was self administrated; the data collected was also biased by the participant willingness to deliver thorough answers. As long as my research is based on subjective and not empirical variables, nothing could prevent it from being somewhat partial. In terms of conclusions, I had to make sure that I make “viable recommendations, which are the result of clear conclusions based on a set of findings” (Saunders, et al., 2009 p. 158).
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 72 4.Findings This section is devoted to the descriptive and statistical analyses of the results collected from the survey. The interpretation of the results helps the evaluation of the relationships between the different constructs. The first part refers to the descriptive analysis of the data. The second part focuses on the statistical analysis. 4. 1. Data Analysis 4. 1. 1. Descriptive Analysis I first pursued a descriptive data analysis in order to get insight on the different items constituting the constructs. I will discuss these findings and how they meet and complement the findings of the literature review. To exploit the collected data in adequacy with my decision rules, I decided to join the positive answers on one side (from ‘somewhat agree’ to ‘strongly agree’) and the negative answers on the other side (from ‘somewhat disagree’ to ‘strongly disagree’). This choice allowed me to classify the answers more easily. I also decided to disregard some values such as ‘sometimes’ and ‘neither agree nor disagree’ as these neutral values did not give critical information. The Internet-based survey was sent primarily to IESEG students at the beginning of November. Two hundred individuals answered the questionnaire. Among them, over 80% are between 18 and 30, 67% are students and nearly 65% from Western Europe. Three quarter of the respondents affirmed to be frequent Facebook users, but only one third said they visit Facebook Movie fan pages. From those who do, only one percent visit pages frequently. Even though only one percent of the surveyed population did visit pages frequently, nearly 40% said they visited pages from less than once a week to few times a week. When it comes to the Facebook Fan Page of a movie, most people think that visiting the page is quite easy, informative, pleasant, entertaining and useful. People mainly visit Facebook fan pages in order to get thorough information about the movie, to gain discounts to purchase the movie (tickets or DVDs), or to win invitations to special events. Facebook users are more interested in opportunities to acquire the movie than to get gifts, other goodies, or fan certificates. Some people added that they visited Facebook movie Fan pages in order to ‘stream the movie directly on the page’. It seems that this possibility is available in North America (where the respondent was from). Respondents added that they also read other people’s comments and opinions, without taking part in the discussion themselves. It does not seem that the expected ‘community belonging need’ is a real need after all. Only one fourth of
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 73 the population affirms to ‘like’ the Fan page. As presented in the literature review by Lee Dong-Hun, Facebook users are looking for quick and easy access to information. However, results do not show the dimensions of social relationship, participation and brand support. When it comes to their movie consumption, people responded that they go to the cinema as an opportunity to go out, to enjoy the cinema experience in good visual and audio qualities, and to gather with friends. But most of these people also said that going to the cinema is expensive even though they consider it to be pleasant, comfortable, easy, and convenient. Respondents added that they consume (buy and rent) DVDs for their visual and audio qualities, as well as an opportunity to gather with friends. Moreover, most people find that buying DVDs is fast and easy, comfortable, pleasant and convenient, even though they agreed that it is expensive. When it comes to renting the DVD, most people think it is easy, fast, pleasant, and convenient. Then, people tend to think that paying to download or stream movies is fast, easy, convenient, and comfortable, but on the other hand, quite expensive and scary. Only a small part of this population responded that they actually consume movies that way. Finally, people think that downloading or streaming free copies is cheap, comfortable, convenient and pleasant, easy and fast, as well as largely done. This way of consuming movies is more performed among the interviewed population. As it was seen in the literature review, movie consumers are looking for convenience, availability, high quality and fair prices (Ernesto, 2010). Regarding people or factors that may influence their behavioral intentions, most people said that their friends, family members, colleagues, and cinema critics were important in their decisions to consume movies. Some individuals answered that posts and comments from their Facebook network influence their decisions to legally consume the movie, as well as the fact that some of their friends may already like the page. The personal social network seems to have a higher impact than the Facebook movie fans' community. 39% of respondents affirmed that visiting the FB page of the movie would make them want to watch the movie. Respondents said that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of the movie does not strongly impact their attitudes toward the movie, nor does it significantly impact their intention to behave. It will be interesting to check that in the statistical analysis. Then, people identified several risks regarding their movie consumption. The fear of being disappointed by the movie is the first risk people perceive toward consuming movies. This fear related both to the legal and illegal consumption. When people may prefer to go to the cinema or buy the DVD because they fear the free copy will be disappointing, people also prefer to download or stream free copies by fear of being disappointed by the movie if they went to the theater or purchase it in any other way. People fear of losing their money and time when they acquire a movie and this is therefore their first motivations to consume free copies.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 74 Finally, when half of the population responded they had already seen the movie before visiting the page, only 8% said they watched it after visiting the page. Nevertheless, people said that visiting the page make them want to go to the cinema or stream a free copy of the movie. On the overall, it looks like people do not consider that Facebook Fan pages and their content have a strong impact on their attitudes toward the behavior or their perceived risk to perform such or such behaviors, even though it may influence their intentions to behave and perceived social pressure, coming from their personal Facebook network, rather than from the Fan page. I tried to identify what could help people to acquire the movie form legal sources and 92% of the population said that lower price was the main solution. Results also reported that nearly nine individual out of ten intend to go to the cinema in the next two months; six out of ten intend stream movies for free, and only four out of ten intend to buy the DVD. Form this same population, nearly half said to be looking for pecuniary incentives from the Facebook Fan pages. 4. 1. 2. Statistical Analysis As explicated earlier in the methodology, the proposed model highlights five constructs and seven relationships. According to the proposed model, the variables (or constructs) are related. The relationships were clarified and translated into seven propositions. The dependency or correlation was tested through simple and multiple linear regression analyses. The following abbreviations will be used during the analysis: - VFP: Perceived Value of the Facebook Fan Page - AB: Attitude Toward Behavior - P: Perceived Pressure - R: Perceived Risk - IB: Intention To Behave - f: function of This section is based on simple and multiple regressions, reliability and significance evaluations. But the first important part is ‘content validity’. Content validity has been completed from the start of the data collection process as I followed strict steps toward the construction of the final questionnaire, and therefore the choice and inclusion of particular items, that compose the several constructs. The content has been gathered initially from in- depth interviews that allowed the identification of the constructs and relationships within the model. Content was then validated through further interviews (that I called pilot questionnaires), that permitted the identification of items, or variables, constituting each construct. The statistical relevance will be checked below in the reliability analysis section.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 75 4. 1. 2. 1. Reliability Analysis I studied the reliability of the different constructs within the model, and the correlations of their constituting items, by looking at the coefficient of correlation called Cronbach Alpha. This coefficient aims at determining the inner consistency of any variable, or construct, made up of several items. Reliability can only be calculated for constructs that have three or more items. In this case, only VFP and AB satisfy this condition. "A reliability coefficient of 0.70 or higher is considered 'acceptable' in most social science research situations"56 . The evaluation of the reliability of the scale relies on the correlations between the different items that constitute the scale, relative to the variances of these items. The reliability analysis reported that the alpha coefficient for the four items that constitute de VFP construct was αVFP = 0.843, which is higher than 0.7. This means that the items have relatively high internal consistency. α²VFP = 0.711, then the perceived value of the Facebook fan page is explained by 71.1% of inner variance. The alpha coefficient for the ten items that constitute de AB construct is αAB = 0.935. The coefficient is higher than 0.7, which mean that homogeneity is high (high internal consistency). α²AB = 0.87, then the attitude toward the behavior is explained by 87% of inner variance. The closer the coefficient alpha is to 1, the more reliable the items are, and the more consistent their measurement is. We can conclude that the items constituting the VFP and AB constructs are reliable and do measure respectively the same thing. 4. 1. 2. 2. Simple Regression H1, AB as a function of VFP Hypothesis 1 can be written as follow: Hyp 1: AB = f(VFP) 4. 1. 2. 2. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 2, in order to complete the equation: AB= B0 + BVFP.VFP 56 Source: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 76 Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.307 .209 6.254 .000 VFP .212 .095 .157 2.238 .026 a. Dependent Variable: AB Table 2: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 1 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.307, and that BVFP equals 0.212 such as: AB= 1.307+ 0.212VFP 4. 1. 2. 2. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.025, which means that the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 2.5% of Attitude toward Behavior. 4. 1. 2. 2. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 23.606 1 23.606 5.007 .026 a Residual 933.527 198 4.715 Total 957.134 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), VFP b. Dependent Variable: AB Table 3: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 1 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 3) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.026, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 2.5% of the Attitude Toward Behavior, and it has an effective impact on that Attitude Toward Behavior. I can conclude that Hypothesis 1 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the value that people see in the Facebook Fan page of movies does influence, or change, their attitude toward consuming the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 77 4. 1. 2. 2. 4. Interpretation The value that people see in the Facebook fan page come from several dimensions such as the use that people do of the page (gathering information about the movie, reading interviews, watching trailers, etc), and the interest and worth they put in the information they sought for. Accepting hypothesis 1 means that increasing the value of the page by proposing the services users are looking for would change the attitude of users toward the consuming behavior. This regression assumes that relevant interviews, pictures, and funny videos could change or reinforce users' opinions toward legally consuming movies. 4. 1. 2. 3. Simple Regression H2, P as a function of VFP Hypothesis 2 can be written as follow: Hyp 2: P = f(VFP) 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 4, in order to complete the equation: P= B0 + BVFP.VFP Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.301 .208 6.251 .000 VFP .210 .094 .156 2.229 .027 a. Dependent Variable: P Table 4: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 2 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.301, and that BVFP equals 0.210 such as: P= 1.301+ 0.210VFP 4. 1. 2. 3. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.024, which means that the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 2.4% of Perceived Pressure.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 78 4. 1. 2. 3. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 23.227 1 23.227 4.969 .027 a Residual 925.480 198 4.674 Total 948.707 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), VFP b. Dependent Variable: P Table 5: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 2 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 5) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.027, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 2.4% of the Perceived Pressure, and it has an effective impact on that Perceived Pressure. I can conclude that Hypothesis 2 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the value that people see in the Facebook Fan page of movies does influence, or change, the pressure perceived toward consuming the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Interpretation Accepting hypothesis 2 means that increasing the value of the page by proposing the services users are looking for would change the pressure that users perceive from the page toward the consuming behavior. This second regression assumes that page applications could change or reinforce users' perceived social pressure toward legally consuming movies. Increasing or enhancing applications allowing people to share their opinion, to show their support, or to express their concern could increase the pressure perceived toward illegal movie consumption and reduce the one perceived toward legal consumption. Facebook users would
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 79 4. 1. 2. 4. Simple Regression H3, R as a function of VFP Hypothesis 3 can be written as follow: Hyp 3: R = f(VFP). 4. 1. 2. 4. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 6, in order to complete the equation: R= B0 + BVFP.VFP Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.684 .167 10.086 .000 VFP .255 .076 .233 3.373 .001 a. Dependent Variable: R Table 6: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 3 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.684, and that BVFP equals 0.255 such as: R = 1.684 + 0.255 VFP 4. 1. 2. 4. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.054, which means that the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 5.4% of Perceived Risk. 4. 1. 2. 4. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 34.220 1 34.220 11.376 .001 a Residual 595.624 198 3.008 Total 629.845 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), VFP b. Dependent Variable: R Table 7: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 3 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 7) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.001, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 80 zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 5.4% of the Perceived Risk, and it has an effective impact on that Perceived Risk. I can conclude that Hypothesis 3 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the value that people see in the Facebook Fan page of movies does influence, or change, the risk perceived toward consuming the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model. 4. 1. 2. 4. 4. Interpretation Accepting hypothesis 3 means that enhancing services available on the Facebook fan page would affect the risk that users perceive toward the consuming behavior. This could imply that proposing streaming services on the Facebook page would decrease user's perceived risk toward legal movie streaming for instance. 4. 1. 2. 5. Simple Regression H4, IB as a function of VFP Hypothesis 4 can be written as follow: Hyp 4: IB = f(VFP). 4. 1. 2. 5. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 8, in order to complete the equation: IB= B0 + BVFP.VFP Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.213 .108 11.243 .000 VFP .219 .049 .303 4.472 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 8: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 4 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.213, and that BVFP equals 0.219 such as: IB = 1.213 + 0.219 VFP 4. 1. 2. 5. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.092, which means that the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 9.2% of Intention To Behave.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 81 4. 1. 2. 5. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 25.128 1 25.128 20.000 .000 a Residual 248.773 198 1.256 Total 273.902 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), VFP b. Dependent Variable: IB Table 9: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 4 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 9) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.000, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Value of the FB Page explains 9.2% of the Intention To Behave, and it has an effective impact on that Intention To Behave. I can conclude that Hypothesis 4 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the value that people see in the Facebook Fan page of movies does influence, or change, the Intention to consume the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model. 4. 1. 2. 5. 4. Interpretation Accepting hypothesis 4 means that what is offered on the Facebook fan page does impact the intention of the user to consume the movie. It means that offering streaming or tickets buying opportunities would push people to legally consume movies. 4. 1. 2. 6. Simple Regression H5, IB as a function of AB Hypothesis 5 can be written as follow: Hyp 5: IB = f(AB). 4. 1. 2. 6. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 10, in order to complete the equation: IB = B0 + BAB.AB
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 82 Coefficients a Model dimension2 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 1.119 .091 12.353 .000 AB .259 .033 .484 7.791 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 10: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 5 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.119, and that BAB, equals 0.259 such as: IB = 1.119 + 0.259 AB 4. 1. 2. 6. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.235, which means that the Attitude Toward the Behavior explains 23.5% of Intention To Behave. 4. 1. 2. 6. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model dimension2 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Regression 64.269 1 64.269 60.703 .000 a Residual 209.633 198 1.059 Total 273.902 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), AB b. Dependent Variable: IB Table 11: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 5 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 11) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.000, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Attitude Toward the Behavior explains 23.5% of the Intention To Behave, and it has an effective impact on that Intention To Behave. I can conclude that Hypothesis 5 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the Attitude Toward consuming movies does influence, or change, the Intention to consume the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 83 4. 1. 2. 6. 4. Interpretation The attitude toward the behavior is composed of the feelings and opinions of the user toward the action of consuming movies. Accepting hypothesis 5 means that the more positive this attitude, the more likely the intention to behave. Creating a favorable opinion or enhancing a positive feeling toward legal consuming into the Facebook users' mind would lead the users to legally consume the movies. 4. 1. 2. 7. Simple Regression H6, IB as a function of P Hypothesis 6 can be written as follow: Hyp 6: IB = f(P). 4. 1. 2. 7. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 12, in order to complete the equation: IB = B0+ BP.P Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.120 .091 12.362 .000 P .260 .033 .484 7.792 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 12: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 6 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 1.120, and that BP, equals 0.260 such as: IB = 1.120 + 0.260 P 4. 1. 2. 7. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.235, which means that the Perceived Pressure explains 23.5% of Intention To Behave.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 84 4. 1. 2. 7. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 64.280 1 64.280 60.716 .000 a Residual 209.622 198 1.059 Total 273.902 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), P b. Dependent Variable: IB Table 13: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 6 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 13) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.000, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Pressure explains 23.5% of the Intention To Behave, and it has an effective impact on that Intention To Behave. I can conclude that Hypothesis 6 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the pressure perceived toward consuming movies does influence, or change, the Intention to consume the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model. 4. 1. 2. 4. 4. Interpretation The perceived pressure toward the behavior is made of the social pressure that the users may perceive from its social, feasible and virtual, environment. According to the descriptive analysis, this pressure comes mostly from friends and Facebook social networks ('Facebook friends'). Accepting hypothesis 6 means that the higher the pressure toward legal consumption, the more likely the intention to legally consume the movie. The higher the pressure toward illegal consumption, the more likely the intention to illegally consume the movie. Increasing the social pressure against illegal consumption would then push users to legally consume movies. 4. 1. 2. 8. Simple Regression H7, IB as a function of R Hypothesis 7 can be written as follow: Hyp 7: IV = f(R). 4. 1. 2. 8. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 14, in order to complete the equation: IB = B0+ BR.R
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 85 Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .438 .075 5.840 .000 R .534 .028 .809 19.399 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 14: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 7 I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 0.438, and that BR, equals 0.534 such as: IB = 0.534 + 0.534 R 4. 1. 2. 8. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.655, which means that the Perceived Risk explains 65.5% of Intention To Behave. 4. 1. 2. 8. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 179.473 1 179.473 376.323 .000 a Residual 94.429 198 .477 Total 273.902 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), R b. Dependent Variable: IB Table 15: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 7 Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 15) to determine the significance of this relationship. The level of significance is agreed to be 5% (α=0.05). We can see that P- value equals 0.000, which is lower than 0.05, so the variable coefficient β is different from zero, then the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the Perceived Risk explains 65.5% of the Intention To Behave, and it has an effective impact on that Intention To Behave. I can conclude that Hypothesis 7 is verified, and is therefore accepted. It means that the risk perceived toward consuming movies does influence, or change, the Intention to consume the movie, as was suggested in the proposed model.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 86 4. 1. 2. 4. 4. Interpretation The perceived risk is the risk, or danger, that user perceived when they consider legally or illegally consuming the movies. These risks can be the fear to give personal or banking information online (for legal downloading or streaming), or the fear to get a virus from free (illegal) copies. Accepting hypothesis 7 means that increasing the perceived danger toward illegal consumption would increase the intention to legally consume the movie. In the same way, reducing the information sharing risk online could also decrease the intention to illegally watch movies and increase the intention to legally watch them. 4. 1. 2. 9. Multiple Regression, IB as a function of VFP, AB, P, and R The model can be written as follow: IB = f(VFP; AB; P; R) 4. 1. 2. 9. 1. Parameters Estimates First, I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 16, in order to complete the equation: IB = B0 + BVFP.VFP + BAB.AB + BP.P + BR.R Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .316 .079 3.980 .000 VFP .082 .030 .113 2.730 .007 AB .064 1.180 .120 .054 .957 P .011 1.185 .020 .009 .993 R .474 .030 .719 15.672 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 16: Coefficients Table Proposed Model I can read that B0, or Bconstant, equals 0.316, and that: - BVFP equals 0.082, - BAB equals 0.064, - BP equals 0.011, - BR equals 0.474: IB = 0.316 + 0.082.VFP + 0.064.AB + 0.011.P + 0.474.R
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 87 4. 1. 2. 9. 2. Correlation Then, I looked at the coefficient of determination R² to determine the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.685, which means that the different constructs explains 68.5% of the Intention To Behave. 4. 1. 2. 9. 3. Significance We can see from the coefficient table (see table 16) that the Attitude Toward the Behavior and the Perceived Pressure are in fact not significant since p-valueAB = 0.957 and p- valueP = 0.993. Both p-values are higher than the significance level of 5%, which means that these two constructs are in fact not statistically significant, and should therefore not be included in the final model. This observation challenges what was said in the simple regressions. Indeed, when the simple regressions accepted all hypotheses, the multiple regression rejects the influence of the attitude toward behavior and the perceived pressure on the intention to behave. Even though the attitude toward behavior and the perceived pressure were assessed as significant in their direct and unique relationship with the final construct (Intention to Behave), there are not significant in the overall model. When all the variables are included in the regression, they all interact with each other and some may neutralize others. This means that the combination of relationships may in fact reduce the effective impact of the overall path. The paths going from the perceived value of the Facebook fan page to the intention to behave, through the attitude toward behavior and perceived pressure are then not significant. The attitude toward the behavior, affected by the perceived value of the page (at 2.5%) has in fact no impact on the intention to behave. Moreover, the perceived pressure, affected by the perceived value of the page (at 2.4%) has ultimately no impact either on the intention to behave. The fact that the simple regressions accept all the variables and hypotheses mean that all the variables (or constructs) help explaining the complete process of formation of the intention to behave. However, the multiple regression show that only the VFP and R constructs are effective predictors of the intention to behave. When all the constructs help the understanding of the phenomenon, only two actually predict it.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 88 4. 1. 2. 10. Reduced Model: IB as a function of VFP and R We can conclude that the two constructs: attitude toward the behavior and perceived pressure should be withdrawn from the final model (see table 17). Table 17: Final Model This final model implies that the perceived value of the Facebook fan page impacts both the final intention to behave and the perceived risk toward the behavior. It also states that the perceived risk impacts the final construct too. It is now interesting to run an additional and reduced regression with only the constructs that are significant. 4. 1. 2. 10. 1. Parameters Estimates I looked at the 'B' coefficients, as seen in Table 17, in order to complete the equation: IB = B0 + BVFP.VFP + BR.R Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .345 .080 4.300 .000 VFP .087 .030 .121 2.865 .005 R .515 .028 .781 18.537 .000 a. Dependent Variable: IB Table 18: Coefficient Table Reduced Model We can read that B0 equals 0.345, BVFP. equals 0.087 and BR equals 0.515 such as: IB = 0.345 +0.087VFP +0.515R Perceived Value of the Facebook Fan Page Perceived Risk Intention to Behave
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 89 4. 1. 2. 10. 2. Correlation The coefficient of determination R² determines the adequacy between the model and the observed data. R²=0.669, which means that the two constructs explains 66.9% of the Intention To Behave. 4. 1. 2. 10. 3. Significance ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 183.251 2 91.625 199.118 .000 a Residual 90.651 197 .460 Total 273.902 199 a. Predictors: (Constant), R, VFP b. Dependent Variable: IB Table 19: ANOVA Table Reduced Model Finally, I looked at the ANOVA table (see Table 19) to determine the significance of the relationships. P-value equals 0.000, which is lower than the agreed level of significance of 5%, therefore the variable coefficient β is different from zero. The relationships are statistically significant. This means that the Perceived Value of the Facebook Fan Page and the Perceived Risk explain 66.9 % of the Intention To Behave, and have an effective impact on that Intention To Behave. 4. 1. 2. 10. 4. Interpretation This final regression shows that the Perceived Value of the Facebook Fan Page and the Perceived Risk are pertinent explainers and predictors of the intention to behave formed in Facebook users' minds. On a practical stage, this would mean that the applications and services available on the page, combined with risk-free messages toward legal consumption would lead users to legally consume the movies. The fact that the page offers the possibility to stream the movie directly on the Facebook page, or ease the purchasing path would push people to consume legal reproductions of the movies. Then, risk-free messages toward legal streaming and downloading may also lead users to consume legal reproductions. Moreover, the fact that legal consumption services are available on the official fan page of the movie may reduce the danger that people may perceive toward legal online consumption.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 90 4. 2. Limitations I launched the Internet-based questionnaire at the beginning of November, and communicated it to IESEG students at a time that may not have been the more appropriate: when students are either working on their own research paper or preparing for exams. Moreover, I have been waited quite a long time to gather the largest amount of responses, and was unable to get as many responses as expected. Then, I restricted the number of items to be tested as I did not want the survey to be too long (it was already 30-question long). I was afraid that people might get discourage half way and give up answering. Other items could have been studies within the different constructs in order to complete the understanding of the phenomenon of the formation of behavioral intentions. Finally, I limited the surveyed population to students. It could have been interesting to interview and survey other parts of the global population such as younger people (high school students), mid-career professionals, or even people from the cinema industry. I decided to study the final customers but it could have been relevant to interrogate movie marketers too. This would have given another perspective of the phenomenon, and maybe highlight new dimensions. The literature and survey revealed that American movie firms are more familiar with using Facebook as a marketing tool, and it seems that there is still a field for other movie studios and marketers to study and invest. I presented some potential solutions that companies could further explore. However, we can wonder if American consumers are not more sensitive and less reluctant to online marketing, consuming and purchasing. It may be interesting to see if using other social networking websites could be relevant, or more appropriate for movie companies. It could also be tempting to study if the synchronization of several social networking accounts would be profitable to increase movie awareness and consumers' involvement.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 91 5. Discussion and Contribution This section highlights the evolution from the literature to the findings, and discusses how the research filled in the lacks of the literature. Then, it announces the practical and managerial implications that brands would be required to follow in order to answer the movie- fans' needs. 5. 1. Discussion This research was designed to help movie-related organizations to understand how their consumers formed their intention to consume their movies, but also to predict what they should implement or modify on their page in order to get a direct and positive impact on their outcome. The descriptive and statistical analyses allow answering these concerns as well as the initial research questions. o Do Facebook users visit Facebook movie Fan Pages?  Do Facebook users find Facebook Fan Pages useful?  How do they engage with the movie on Facebook?  How this technology platform and its social richness impacts on their decision making process regarding the movie legal consumption? The analyses showed that even though visiting movie fan pages is not yet a very popular activity, most users who do find it useful and visit the page to gather information about the movie and to access to financial advantages to acquire the movie. They do not often engage on the page but take advantage of the offered consuming services when making their decisions. o How do they form their attitudes toward the movies?  Do Facebook users process information as other consumers?  What options do they consider when they intend to consume a movie? It was highlighted that the attitudes of the users, feelings and opinions, could be reinforced or changed by the content available on the Facebook fan page. Movies are very specific products: highly emotional products. Their consumption depends on which feelings and expectations it creates in the customers. Movie consumers are now seeking for convenience, availability, fair prices and high quality. This is why Video-On-Demand is more and more popular. People want to be able to watch the movies they like when they want, where they want, at a reasonable price and in high visual and audio quality. The increase in
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 92 VOD popularity may come from the rising usage of the internet and of online social networking platforms. Social networkers, such as Facebook users are looking for the same convenience, availability, good quality and free access. o How are their intentions [to consume the movie] influenced?  How are their intentions influenced by their Facebook personal networks?  How are their intentions influenced by the different types of content that the Facebook Fan Page provides? The statistical analysis confirmed that the intention to consume movies can be explained by the attitudes users have toward the movie, the pressure they perceive from their virtual and real friends' networks, the danger they perceive from the legal and illegal ways of consuming the movie, as well as the services offered on the Facebook page. The fact that some of their Facebook friends already like the page of the movie or shared that they watch the movie positively impact users' intention to consume that movie. Then, the fact that movie acquisition or consumption applications are available on the Facebook fan page positively influence users to legally behave toward the movie. o How can companies drive Facebook users toward legal movie consumption? The statistical analysis gave the evidence that the perceived risk and the perceived value of the Facebook fan page effectively predict the intention to behave. Therefore, if companies want to drive Facebook users toward legal movie consumption, they should propose multiple acquisition and consumption applications for users to get the movies and deliver risk-free messages to these users. Indeed, offering legal consumption techniques on the page transmit the message that legal online acquisition of the movie is not dangerous and is obviously to be preferred. The descriptive analysis showed that negative messages toward illegal online movie consumption have no real impact on the Facebook users. However, offering the legal ways of consuming the movie is already a very positive message saying that users 'should not be scared' and could ultimately push people to legally stream the movie, for example.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 93 5. 2. Contribution This part will detail some managerial implications and practical suggestions that can be proposed, for movie firms on the Facebook Fan page of movies. 5. 2. 1. Managerial Implications This first section refers to the investments movie studios could make in order to increase their Facebook presence and benefit from Facebook opportunities. Indeed, Facebook is full of capabilities, options, and surprises; the key is to be equipped to manage them. Developing its Facebook presence is not a job a single man can pursue in a single day. Firms will need staff, time, and money. As Kevin Ertell (2010, p.1) said Facebook is still, by far, “the best place to reach shoppers”. 5. 2. 1. 1. Back to the beginning As discussed above, we may wonder if the reason why Facebook users do not use Facebook and Facebook pages more often in order to consume movies is more related to their attitudes toward using the tool or their attitudes toward the pages' offers. I would recommend managers to appraise their marketing plans and to assess how Facebook could integrate their strategy, and which offers they could develop in order to finally reach the Facebook population. As the DEI World Wide (2008, p.6) report added “companies who integrate elements of social media into their marketing mix will have a greater opportunity to influence consumers’ buying choices”. 5. 2. 1. 2. New Investments Social media are a complex, constantly moving environment that require hiring a team as pro-active as the Facebook population and Fan base. The objective is to keep the page update, and to engage with Facebook visitors, respond to their comments, and call for actions. The team needs to be as enthusiastic as the consumers' crowd. Moreover, it is important to work with web designers or team members who are confident with the platform and its functionalities in order to use the most appropriate applications. Getting revenue from a Facebook fan page is not instantaneous. The first step is to define, with the collaboration of web designers, what the brand needs and wants to create. Then, while designers work on the page design and development, marketers can build up their strategy to drive consumers on their Facebook page (Facebook related messages, for instance). The page should first be tested on a small scale. Once the page is created, both
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 94 teams (marketers and designers) will have time to respond to visitors and keep adapting the applications to their needs, in order to develop it globally in the future. Some applications are free, but will have limited capacity. It would be interesting for brands to ask for quotes from several applications' creators in order to get the offer that will best meets the brand's objectives and budget. 5. 2. 2. Practical Implications The literature offered some very interesting solutions in terms of Facebook fan pages' development through iFrame applications. First, it was shown that marketers should understand internal and external factors in order to be able to convert visitors into customers, and therefore drive consumers to purchase their movie. Internal factors include the usability_ is the page easy to use and valuable for the consumer? Is the page available and fast enough so that users will not leave it? Is the information relevant, credible and trustworthy? Is the product well displayed so that users may consider acquiring it? Then, is the path to purchase easy to find? External factors include the competition_ what are other movie producers doing on Facebook? Are they even present on Facebook? Are they easier to find? Are their pages more pleasant or entertaining? Which existing solutions do they use? Which existing solutions do they not use? When these questions have to be answered by the brands, here is a reminder of the solutions that were found in the literature and from the survey's answers. 5. 2. 2. 1. Welcome visitors The results showed that Facebook users are visiting fan pages primarily to get information about the movie. It is important to welcome them on your page with a warm inviting first page that will press the visitors to stay on it. This 'welcome page' can also be a 'fan gate' and push visitors to 'like' the page to access further functionalities. This is a good way to transform visitors into fans. Wildfire57 supports welcome pages. 57 The references made to iFrame applications are just examples. Other applications are available and support the same functionalities.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 95 5. 2. 2. 2. Re-Create the movie universe Because the page refers to a specific movie, it has to bring the visitor into the universe of the movie. TabSite is an application that allows the creation of a 'mi-website' look within the Facebook page. Brands will be able to create different tabs and pages within the main Facebook page. This is the opportunity to customize the page according to the movie. 5. 2. 2. 3. Engage in the conversation The conversation around the brand and the industry does not only take place on Facebook. Twitter is a great social networking site to share short-text content and stream a lot of content at one time. Integrating the tweets Feed is a nice opportunity to link the two platforms while keeping the Facebook users on the page. Powered by applications such as involver or thismoment, integrated tweets will allow fans to see what is said about the brand, and what the brand say about itself, but also to engage in the conversation by tweeting directly on the page. As Booth, et al. (2010, p.2) declared, "the quality of the relationship between the firm and the consumer" is brand success. 5. 2. 2. 4. Get visitors involved Facebook users utilize the website to be part of a network, this is why they add friends, share pictures and content with their friends. This is the core value of the platform. It would be good to develop this need of community belonging and to give the wish and possibility to the user to enter the movie community. And that is to become a ‘FB Fan’ as explained in the litterature review, and explained by Lee Dong-Hun: “the characteristics of a Facebook user are the willingness to be part of a network, the strengths of relationships with him/her network. Whichever the story of the film, there is surely a way to congratulate the characters, comfort them, give condolences, etc. Creating a 'guestbook' is one way to gather the best wishes, thoughts and support messages from fans. This is also a great way to include them in the film's story. Summit entertainment, LLC supported the guestbook on the Twilight Saga fan page. 5. 2. 2. 5. Awake fans' senses Wake up fans' senses with a musical background! Movies are not just characters and stories, they are also tunes. Instead of losing visitors for musical websites such as iTunes, Deezer, or Spotify, why not hold the soundtrack playlist within the Facebook page? Spotify can be integrated within Facebook in order to listen to music directly on the Fan page. The
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 96 brand can also use this opportunity to promote the soundtrack of the movie and forward visitors and fans toward iTunes in order to purchase the tracks. 5. 2. 2. 6. Entertain fans Facebook is where people like to spend time for pleasure and games. The brand can create contest, challenges, and games to entertain and engage fans. However, these contests should be regulated and timely, and offer relevant goodies and gifts. “The greater the site’s ability to nurture desired relationships among participants, the greater the potential is to build a strong and significant community" (Dickey, et al. p. 141). 5. 2. 2. 7. Offer fans coupons and discounts Offering special discounts to fans only has two main goals: transforming visitors into fans, and then, converting fans into customers. Payvement is an application that supports the creation of this kind of pages. It answers to the growing wish, of Facebook users, to get privileges. The brand cannot, obviously, offer a discount for each 'click'. Therefore, the offer can be limited to one Facebook account. The fan would then benefit just one time from this offer; otherwise it might not be viable for the brand. 5. 2. 2. 8. Take advantage of Facebook credits Facebook credits were created in order to allow fiduciary transactions within the platform. They are a virtual currency users can acquire, with their credit card from the 'Payments tab' in their Account Settings (or directly from any application that accepts payments) and then use these credits to buy virtual goods from any applications on the Facebook platform. Facebook alleges that user's financial information are protected with 'state-of-the-art' security features and stored on a 'secured server behind a firewall'. Users will be able to rent, purchase and stream movies directly on the official Facebook Movie Fan page. These credits are helpful if the brand decides to transform page visitors/fans into customers by allowing the booking of theater tickets or the renting and buying of DVDs within its page. These options are supported by fandango.com or movietickets.com and ensure a safe checkout process throughout the purchasing process. This is another great way to convert page visitors/fans into customers, and to respond to Facebook users' needs to have easier access to purchasing solutions. Indeed, the findings showed that consumers might not feel confident leaving their banking information to companies online.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 97 5. 2. 2. 9. Be there where and when consumers want it The survey revealed an interesting addition option that I have to admit, I did not know was possible. North American students who are currently following an exchange semester at IESEG added in the survey, to the movie watching behaviors possibilities, the opportunity to stream the movie within the Facebook fan page of that movie. I did not hear about this option earlier in the process, first because the people I interviewed did not know about it, then because this option is only available from the USA. Dean Takahashi (2011) explained in an article, that Warner Bros. Entertainment Corporation decided to allow users to rent and stream movies from and directly within the studio's movie fan pages. Warner Bros. understood the need for new movie distribution methods and bet on the 'communal consumption behavior', which means that users will share their intention to watch the movie with their friends on their Facebook personal pages and therefore create a communal, group intention to consume the movie. The business model is simple, and is facilitated by the 'Facebook Credits'. The average rental cost is 30 Facebook credits ($3). Thomas Gewecke, president of Warner Bros. Digital Distribution declared that "Facebook has become a daily destination for hundreds of millions of people. Making films available through Facebook is a natural extension of our digital distribution efforts. It gives consumers a simple, convenient way to access and enjoy our films through the world's largest social network". Such possibilities enhance interactivity and consumers' engagement and loyalty toward the movie. It also responds to their need for convenience, immediate availability, fair prices and high movie quality. Indeed, if the visitor is seduced by the movie and decides to watch it immediately, he/she can either look at Netflix, or look at torrent sources. Whichever the solution, they would leave the platform, and also leave the brand environment for Netflix environment or other movie streaming sources, where they could also be distracted by other movies and end up not consuming the first movie at all. With this innovative proposition, Facebook users who are willing to spend some Facebook credits will stay in the brand's environment. Studios can restrain access to this offer to fans only, and then convert visitors into fans and ultimately into customers. Fans have 48 hours to watch the movie after purchase; they can pause and resume the movie whenever they want, comment on the movie, share their movie watching with friends, etc. Such initiatives are great because they allow movie fans to consume movies through a tool they like and use daily. This kind of initiatives could revolution the global movie distribution market if this opportunity was…globally available. Indeed, this offer is only available for now in North America.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 98 6. Recommendations for further research I decided to center the research around the situation of a visit on the Facebook Fan page. I assumed that firms who might refer to this paper would already be aware of tactics to drive their consumers to their Facebook page, and that Facebook users were already visiting such pages. But, I discovered, through the survey, that consumers are not really using or consulting Facebook pages when they intend to consume a movie. It would be interesting to pursue a deeper analysis of consumers' expectations, attitudes and behaviors toward movies, and then toward the Facebook Fan page functionalities. It may be relevant to know exactly what users are looking for when they decide to watch a movie, and also what they are doing, and enjoying, on this specific social networking site. More precise items could be identified within these two new constructs and could reveal new influences on the final behavioral intention. After further exploration of Facebook pages, I observed that only a few movies are strategically using Facebook fan pages. If the value of the page is verified, it may be interesting to explore the different tactics marketers are using in the cinema industry to bring their movie-watchers, or potential movie-watcher, to their Facebook Fan page in the first place, and to keep them on the page in a second time. Then, the solutions to enhance pages attractiveness and interactivity were only slightly presented. It could be relevant to further research the iFrame applications and OpenSource features in order to evaluate all the possibilities that can be held within the Facebook platform. Such a research might, however, be much more technical, and would be relevant only in order to deliver new movie offers. Finally, this paper does not talk about metrics and measurements of the return on investing in Facebook. Even though Jason Falls (2008) said that "perhaps we shouldn’t measure social media ROI in the first place", the adoption of the previous solutions might allow the creation of new metrics that would help firms to evaluate their return on investment. But according to Tia Fisher (2009, p. 189), "return on Investment has become the Holy Grail of social media". And when it comes to social media, 2008 and 2009 are thousand years away. Indeed, when evaluating the revenue of a retweet on Twitter, or a 'like' on Facebook can seem tricky, I believe that it may be possible to easily track the revenues the iFrame applications generate by measuring how many Facebook users streamed the movie on the page or purchased the movie from the fan page, for instance, by following API or IP addresses. Adding these applications may, by itself, create new, more inclusive metrics that allow ROI measurement. And being able to quantify ROI will help companies validate, implement and sustain their Facebook strategy. It will also allow firms to compare social media (and Facebook) marketing with other conventional marketing methods.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 99 7. Conclusion First, I can yet conclude, from results' description and personal observation, that Facebook Fan pages have less impact than I expected on consumers' attitudes and behaviors toward the movie. The Facebook fan pages are still not highly valued, and even though consumers may visit the page to get information about the movie or cast, the page is not seen as a consuming tool or purchasing platform yet. Then, the statistical analysis allowed me to conclude that the four explanatory constructs help understanding how Facebook users form their intention to behave toward the movie. Indeed, the seven hypotheses stated in the methodology were accepted. The first hypothesis stated that the more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more favorable the attitude toward the behavior. This relationship is accepted and therefore posits that if a Facebook user appreciates the services and applications from the Facebook fan page, he/she will change his/her negative opinion, or reinforce his/her positive opinion toward the movie. The second hypothesis postulated that the more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the higher the perceived pressure. This relationship was accepted and supposes that a Facebook user may recognize social pressure to legally consume the movie if he/she values the fan page and sees that people from his/her own network already like and value the page, and therefore the movie. The third hypothesis suggested that the more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the lower the perceived risk. This relationship was also accepted and explains that users may perceive some kind of risks toward legally or illegally consuming movies according to what they see on the fan page. For users received, from the page, risk-free messages related to the legal consumption of movies such as easy legal consuming opportunities (streaming on the page, tickets purchasing on the page), then, they will perceive a lower risk toward the legal consumption. The fourth hypothesis stated that the more positive the perceived value of the FB Fan Page, the more likely the intention to behave. This relationship was accepted and highlights the fact that if Facebook users appreciate the content of the Facebook fan page and are given attractive opportunities to legally consume the movie, then, they will be more likely to legally consume that movie.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 100 The fifth hypothesis posited that the more favorable the attitude toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. This relationship was accepted and describes the idea that when a Facebook user has a positive feeling toward a movie, he/she will more likely legally consume that movie. It includes the fact that users also carry a positive opinion toward the legal consumption of movies. The sixth hypothesis assumed that the higher the perceived pressure, the more likely the intention to behave. The relationship was accepted and explains that if users feel highly pressured to legally consume the movie, then, they will tend to legally consume that movie. In the other way, if they are pressured to illegally consume movies, they will more likely consume free copies. The seventh hypothesis said that the lower the perceived risk toward the behavior, the more likely the intention to behave. The relationship was accepted and shows that if Facebook users do not see a high danger in legally consuming the movies, then they will more likely legally consume them. All these relationships explain how Facebook users may form their intention to perform legal or illegal movie consuming behaviors. It helps movie organizations understanding that several dimensions integrate the phenomenon and that the creation of a Facebook fan page should be thought carefully and should contain content that helps the formation of positive feelings toward the movie and its legal consumption, that increases social pressure toward the legal consumption of that movie, and that conveys risk-free messages toward the legal consumption. However, the regression analyses also demonstrated that only two constructs effectively predicted the formation of the behavioral intentions of Facebook users toward movies. Only the perceived value of the Facebook fan page and the perceived risk toward the behavior actually predict their intentions to behave. What it means for movie professionals is that these two constructs are essential to pushing consumers to legally acquire their movies. When all the variables explained earlier are part of the human decision making process, only these two variables really influence the intention to behave. If movie professionals want to increase their outcome thanks to Facebook, they should create a Facebook fan page that ease the process of online consuming and purchasing, as well as delivering content that reassure people that legal consumption is to be preferred. Indeed, the descriptive analysis showed that Facebook users do not consider the consumption of free copies as very risky, therefore increasing scary messages about illegal consumption might have less impact that increase positive messages about the legal consumption. Creating an entertaining, trustworthy and practical page may then push people to legally consume movies.
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  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 114 Table of Appendices Appendix 1: Presentation of the thesis director: Pr. Carlos M. Rodriguez (p. 122) Appendix 2: Presentation of the thesis co-director: Dr. Constantinos K. Coursaris (p. 124) Appendix 3: Choice of Bill Clinton's quote (p. 126) Appendix 4: Analysis of Overall Model of Standardized Coefficients (p. 127) Appendix 5a: In-depth interview 1 (p. 128) Appendix 5b: In-depth interview 2 (p. 132) Appendix 5c: In-depth interview 3 (p. 137) Appendix 6a: Pilot questionnaire 1 (p. 140) Appendix 6b: Pilot questionnaire 2 (p. 147) Appendix 6c: Pilot questionnaire 3 (p. 152) Appendix 6d: Pilot questionnaire 4 (p. 157) Appendix 6e: Pilot questionnaire 5 (p. 161) Appendix 7: Internet-based questionnaire (p. 165)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 115 Appendix 1: Presentation of the thesis director: Dr. Carlos M. Rodriguez Dr. Rodriguez is Associate Professor of Marketing and Director of the Center for the Study of Innovation Management, CSIM, College of Business, Delaware State University, USA. Previously, he held positions as Assistant Professor of Marketing at Clark University, Assistant Professor of Marketing and Director of the Master of Science Program in Marketing, Division of Business and Management at Johns Hopkins University, Professor of Marketing and International Business and Research Director of the International Business and Global Trade Research Institute at Governors State University, Lecturer in Global Marketing and International Business Operations at the Pennsylvania State University, and Assistant Professor in the areas of Marketing, International Business, and Management Science at the School of Business Administration, ESAN, Peru. Professor Rodriguez holds a Doctorate Ph.D. in Marketing and Master of Science, M.Sc. in Marketing and Quantitative Analysis, Pennsylvania State University; Master of Business Administration, MBA, ESAN, Peru; Postgraduate in International Business CICOM/OEA/FUNDACION GETULIO VARGAS, Brazil; Postgraduate in International Business Management, ESAN/OEA, Postgraduate degree in Marketing and Finance, ESAN; Bachelor in Science, B.Sc.; Industrial Engineering degree, I.E., Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Peru. Dr. Rodriguez has international exposure through executive seminars in Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Croatia, and Costa Rica, as well as presentations in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Holland, Spain, Mexico, Peru, and USA. He is a permanent lecturer in Product Design and Innovation at IESEG, France; International Marketing in the School of Business Administration and Department of Management and Economic Science at the Universidad of Murcia, Spain; Marketing Decision Models and New Product Development in the School of Business Administration, EGADE, ITESM, Monterrey, Mexico; Research Methodology at the Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Norte, Natal, Brazil; Product Design and Development in Zagreb School of Economics, ZSEM, Croatia. He has professional experience as Brand Manager, Product Manager, and Advertising Director for consumer and industrial products and as a Consultant in Marketing and New Product Development and Strategy. His research interests are in the areas of product design and development, strategic alliances and international joint ventures, internationalization process and market entry strategies, new product development, cross-cultural and strategic marketing management, relationship marketing, market research, and business-to-business operations. Professor Rodriguez has published in the Journal of Business to Business Marketing, Journal of International Marketing, Journal of Electronic Business, International Marketing Review,
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 116 Journal of Business and Leadership, Journal of Higher Education & Research, and several conference proceedings. He is the Reviews Editor for the International Marketing Review based in the U.K. and member of the Editorial Board for the Journal of Business to Business Marketing, Journal of Business and Leadership, Advances in Business Research, Revista de Administracao Contemporanea (Brazil), Journal of Asian Business Studies, Journal of Higher Education & Research (Australia), Decision Sciences Journal of Innovation Education (USA), and Forum Empresarial (Puerto Rico).
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 117 Appendix 2: Presentation of the thesis co-director: Dr. Constantinos K. Coursaris Dr. Constantinos Coursaris is an Assistant Professor with the Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies, and Media at Michigan State University (MSU) and an expert in human-computer interaction, web usability, mobile and social media, and marketing. He has a second appointment with MSU’s Usability / Accessibility Research and Consulting, a unit that serves both internal and external community with the goal of optimizing users’ experience and increasing the use of web interfaces by key stakeholders (e.g. students). He is offering this course on Social Media Marketing for IESEG in his capacity of Visiting Professor, one he’s held since 2005. This is not the first international engagement for Constantinos. He was the first Faculty to be appointed at Michigan State University Dubai in offering the Media Management concentration of the Media and Communication Technology program and participated in outreach activities focusing on high school students in the U.A.E. While on assignment, he implemented the use of social media and electronic advertising to engage both current and prospective students of Michigan State University Dubai, while also managing the university’s Web presence. Constantinos also founded a study abroad program on “Technology & Culture: Communication and Games” in Japan five years ago. The program exposes students to the latest industry research and application in the mobile communication and gaming industries. In its first year, he led 10 students to one company and several cultural site visits. Since then, Constantinos has grown the program and is taking 18 students to eight companies, three universities, and more than a dozen cultural sites across 10 cities every year. His next project entails the inaugural Freshman Seminar to the United Arab Emirates next month, co- developed with Jim Lucas from the Office of the Provost for Undergraduate Education. Twelve students will be visiting one university, three companies, and a number of cultural sites in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Sharjah over 12 days exploring issues related to globalization and sustainability. Most recently, Constantinos has been able to leverage this international network for producing scholarship in a cross-cultural context on issues pertaining to mobile and social media. Constantinos was recently honored to have been invited to join the Phi Beta Delta Honor Society for International Scholars. This is the third award in three years; his dedication to service-learning led to his course on I.T. Project Management receiving the ITERA Innovative Course Award at the 2009 ITERA Conference in Atlanta (note: ITERA is the International Telecommunication Education and Research Association). More
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 118 recently, he received the Outstanding Faculty Award by MSU’s Senior Council for the academic year 2009-2010 for his commitment and achievements in undergraduate education. He has also been consulted on Strategy, Marketing, and Technology matters by for-profit, non-profit, and Government organizations. Industry projects undertaken have involved Web development, Web content management, online marketing, social media marketing, and mobile commerce. Constantinos shares tips and resources on these topics via his Twitter account ‘DrCoursaris’.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 119 Appendix 3: Choice of Bill Clinton's quote (Bill Clinton, TED2007) Bill Clinton, former U.S. President, pronounced these words during the TED 2007 Conference when he called for 'help for the construction of sustainable health care centers in developing countries'. TED is a "non-profit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading"58 , and the conference was titled 'Icons. Geniuses. Maveriks" and held March 7-10, 2007 in California, USA. Even though the context of my research is totally different, these words echoed the idea that I form when I think about social media. First, social media are, to my opinion, facilitator of community building. Individuals can gather around a common purpose; organizations can offer a place for their stakeholders to meet. Being part of a social online community is that belonging to a real life team; you want the best for your team and you get, hopefully, involved in the common project. Then, social media, and more particularly Facebook, are globally shared social set of connections where people can connect with family, friends, colleagues and other people from their daily lives, but also with people from the other side of the world. They can also connect with organizations they like, follow and support their activity and stay 'tuned' to what is happening around them and elsewhere in the world. Social networks provide a set of accessible connection, interaction, engagement and 'voice' opportunities. Social networkers have the possibility to express their own opinion, their agreements and disagreements in a public stage when they may not have this chance in 'real life'. Organizations can provide a safe place for stakeholders to communicate with them, exchange, give insight and feedbacks, request information, etc. Social Media enable enhanced communication capabilities. Finally, groups and communities that form on social media websites are constituted of individuals that share the same, strong sense of belonging, and that hold a sense of responsibility toward their communities, and the accomplishment of their environment. Social media answer the inherent human need of socialization and consideration. These are the reasons why I though this quote was appropriate for this research! 58 http://ted.com/pages/about "The characteristics of all successful communities: broadly shared, accessible set of opportunities, a shared sense of responsibility for the success of the common enterprise, and a genuine sense of belonging."
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 120 Appendix 4: Analysis of Overall Model of Standardized Coefficients
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 121 Appendix 5a: In-depth interview 1: J., 35 year-old male engineer 1. When you think about 'consuming', or 'watching' a movie, which ways do you think about? Respondent: I think of going to the theater like on a date. Or I think of going to rent a movie for the evening and watching at home. If it’s one of those really high-def movies then I go and watch it with my neighbor Jim on his big screen. 2. What do you think when I say: "Facebook and the Cinema"? Respondent: My first thought, “Is Facebook going to start offering movies to watch?” I wouldn’t go to a Fan page for a movie, unless I thought it was one of the coolest movies ever. Or if it had a really hot girl in it, and I wanted to learn more about her! 3. Do you believe that Facebook is easy to use? (Why?) Respondent: Well I think that for general use, Facebook is easy. But it definitely can be cumbersome. I don’t fully grasp the filters that it offers. And other things are unique and not that intuitive. So apart from normal use, I think Facebook can be confusing at times. 4. Do you ever visit the Facebook Fan Page of movies? Respondent: Not that often, but it happened. 5. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is easy? (Why?) Respondent: Getting to the site should be easy. But wading through all the other info on the page can be a lot. The page should either direct me directly toward the official website or provide me with all the information from its official website. 6. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact the value, or usefulness, that you can see in the page? (Why?) Respondent: I think so. Because if it’s easy to navigate through all the info, easy to make a purchase, or easy to click on links that lead one to other possible purchases, then people will buy. But if I am not lead quickly and easily to something I like, then I’m not going to search and search for things that are usually an impulse buy anyhow. The content of the page is what is important. Good content is always supposed to be easy to access. Otherwise, the company isn't doing its job! 7. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact your feeling toward the movie? (Why?) Respondent: I think that it very well impact my feeling of the movie, because I typically think that very well made movies will have the resources to have very well made fan pages and other public promotions on TV or at live events.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 122 8. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is useful, or valuable? Why? Respondent: I’m not sure, I somewhat rarely ever do. But it seems to me that it all depends on how much useful data the site has on easy display. 9. Do you believe that this value can impact the feelings that you have toward the movie? Respondent: If the site builds suspense, then yes. I could imagine that if a site has information that guides you through the movie with intimate details of things not otherwise known about the movie, or maybe if it leads a viewer through a scavenger hunt of hidden things inside a movie, then such fan pages could blow up in popularity… The page should only provide information to increase your willingness to watch the movie. It should not reveal the movie. 10. Do you believe that this value can impact the ways you would like to consume the movie? Respondent: Maybe a fan page could give me the tools, or discounts on buying the movie to download to different types of media. Or prizes to win merchandise. If I won a cool t-shirt, I’d wear it, and then I’d be a walking billboard advertising for the movie! 11. Do you believe that ease of use and value of the fan page should be separated items or should be seen as a whole? Do you think one is influencing the other? Respondent: It is all part of the same. I don't think the fact that easy, accessible information will look more interesting to anybody. The fact that it is easy to access is part of the fact that it is useful. The fact that the page is easy to visit does not make it more valuable if the info delivered is not interesting. The other way around, the fact that the page delivers rich and valuable information doesn't mean that it is easy to visit, and certainly doesn't make it easier to visit. In my opinion, both characteristics should be seen as a whole. 12. When you think about watching the movie, you told me that you think about going to the cinema and buying the DVD. These actions can be final actions, also called final behaviors, or they can be intentions to behavior, or the willingness to do something. Do you believe that some factors can prevent you from performing the final behavior even though you had the intention to do it? Respondent: Of course. As opposed to just downloading a movie through the TV network, if I have to travel to the cinema, then maybe the movie isn’t playing at a good time for me. Maybe I’m low on gas. Maybe my car’s not even functioning!
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 123 13. In the context of this study, do you believe that these factors have a significant impact on the final behavior to be accounted? Should we keep them in the model? Respondent: Yes I do believe they have an impact. 14. With this conclusion, do you believe that the final construct to be focused on should be the final behavior or the intention to behave? Respondent: My guess would be to focus on the intention. Because even if it’s easy enough, or attractive enough to the customer, and they could follow through with their intention, people can be easily distracted by life's situations, and life's distractions are numerous and not always feasible. Sometimes, you're just not in the mood! 15. When you think of these intentions to behave, what can impact your intentions? Which factors? Respondent: The opinions of my friends would impact my intentions. In Facebook, it would be the same as a ‘virtual’ Word of Mouth. And Word of Mouth has always been the most successful means of advertising. I typically am interested in, but don’t pay too much attention to movie critic’s summaries, because many times they sound like they know what they’re talking about when they say a movie is a waste of your time, but I find that I still like the movie anyway. So just their comments on a Facebook fan page will not be enough to follow through with my Final Behavior. Contests, suggestions of other movies that people liked who liked this movie (this would allow me to see if I agreed with their taste in movies) and quick, easy, and convenient access to the movie will determine whether I watch it or not. 16. These factors are known as the Attitude toward the behavior and the Subjective norms toward that behavior. Do you see any other factors that could influence your intention to watch the movie? Respondent: Is it snowing or raining outside? Have I convinced my girlfriend to come over and visit? These would impact my intentions. Maybe if you stored up points that would award you free movies after purchasing a number of other movies. That would entice me. I'm pretty fond of goodies, rewards, etc. 17. Do you believe that some of the behaviors might be risky? Why? How? Respondent: Sure. What if I was concerned about downloading a virus? Then I would be much more cautious or even reluctant. 18. Do you believe that these risks can impact your intention to watch the movie in such or such a way? Respondent: Yes. I am often reluctant to watch free version of new movies. I know the DVD didn't come out yet, so you can be sure than online versions will be pretty
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 124 bad. Moreover, I have a job and earn good money. I have no real excuse to not pay for a movie. 19. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence your attitude toward the action? I.e. do you believe that your attitude toward the action can be impacted by your visit on the FB Fan Page? Respondent: Yes, but the way Facebook should seek out the value from the customer, should probably be customized to the things that work with the customer. For example, like I said above, I don’t get much out of movie critic’s comments, but the opinions of friends do influence me. But another person may depend on a particular critic’s comments. So the Facebook should try to get to know what the customer likes and dislikes. Maybe the Fan Page could offer a way to coordinate an event for my friends to get together to watch a movie. Movie watching for me is social. Either with a date or with friends. 20. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the pressure that you observe from your social environment? I.e. do you believe that what you see and read on the FB Fan page of the movie can impact the pressure you perceive toward consuming the movie? Respondent: I guess. But I react oppositely to pressure. Too heavily advertised, or promoted turns me off. I want to think it’s my idea to go, not to have it shoved down my throat, because I’ll gag. So I don’t like to feel strong marketing forces on my mind. 21. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the risks that you perceive from your environment? I.e. do you believe that the posts and comments that you read from the page owner or from fans can impact on the potential risks toward the different ways of consuming the movie? Respondent: Yes. 22. In terms of population, who do you think would be targeted by this survey? What type of people? Respondent: I think that people who are less active or who have more free time in the days would be a better target audience. i.e. unemployed, work from home, part-time employees, students. 23. In which context (or situation, or event) would they be targeted? Respondent: On Facebook definitely. But maybe also through a web-downloading site, an offer can be given for them to earn a free movie download if they share their opinion. No I’m not asking for free movie credits!
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 125 Appendix 5b: In-depth interview 2: A.C., 23 year-old female business student 1. When you think about 'consuming', or 'watching' a movie, which ways do you think about? Respondent: - go to the cinema - rent a DVD - stream a movie (for free) - stream a movie ( charged) - download a movie (for free) - download a movie (charged) - borrow a DVD to your local library - borrow a DVD from a friend - friends giving movies they have downloaded - watch a movie with friends (one of your friends has bought the DVD) 2. What do you think when I say: "Facebook and the Cinema"? Respondent: You can go to Movie Fan Pages and press the “like” button to be a fan. Sometimes you don’t even have to press the “like” button. You can watch trailers, actor’s interviews, read fan’s commentaries, and write commentaries. Some people may press the “like” button just to show that they are fan and so that they belong to the “movie community”. I don't do that. I prefer to read the information but I don't want my friends to see which pages I visit. 3. Do you believe that Facebook is easy to use? (Why?) Respondent: Facebook is really easy to use. Even kids use it (my little cousins for example already use it at the age of ten). Everything is explained; many people already have it and can help you if you’re not familiar with it. The utilization is, overall very simple. 4. Do you ever visit the Facebook Fan Page of movies? Respondent: I often visit Facebook Fan Page of movies. I like to get information before watching a movie (is it worth it or not?). I also visit Facebook Fan Page of movies when I really enjoyed a movie, to re-watch the trailer, watch bloopers or to read what other people think about that movie. In this case, I might press the “like” button. 5. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is easy? (Why?)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 126 Respondent: Once you’re used to the utilization of Facebook (which is not complicated at all, in my opinion), there is nothing easier than go to the Fan page of a movie (or of any other product). Visiting the Facebook Fan Page is like asking for a new friend, or go to a band fan page. Just write the name and you easily find the page (usually official pages are at the top of the answers). 6. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact the value, or usefulness, that you can see in the page? (Why?) Respondent: If I cannot easily visit the page, my interest about the fan page may decrease very quickly. I don’t want to spend time on complicated Facebook pages. 7. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact your feeling toward the movie? (Why?) Respondent: Yes, the fact that I can’t get the information very easily may lower my interest in the movie. I may associate the difficulty of visiting the page with the value of watching the movie. I think (or hope) that good movies would have good pages. But I would say that, to me, the fact that it is easy to visit the page goes with the fact that it creates value. If a firm decides to build a fan page for its products, it will consider all the aspects of the page at once. 8. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is useful, or valuable? Why? Respondent: It is useful to get information (which actors play in the movie, did people actually like it?) It also feels good to know that other people share the same interest. For some people, it is valuable to show that you like a movie which is considered as good by your friends or by other people who are “expert” in cinema (the fact that you like a movie they think good makes you feel “smart”). It also reminds me of what I said just before. This 'value' of the page comes from its easiness to stream, the information that is shared, and the applications (I like pages asking you to vote for your favorite character or stuff like that). 9. Do you believe that this value can impact the feelings that you have toward the movie? Respondent: Yes and yes! As I said before, I would hope that good movies have good fan pages. When I don't know about the movie yet (heard about it but never seen it), it works the other way: if the fan page is good, I would think that the movie may be pretty good too. 10. Do you believe that this value can impact the ways you would like to consume the movie? Respondent: Yes. If I was first very interested in the movie, and if the page is also very good, then I would be more willing to pay to see it (to go to the theater or to buy
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 127 the DVD). But, if I was first very interested in the movie, but then the page was disappointing, I would try to get a free copy of the movie instead of spending movie. And if I really liked the free version that I saw, I might even go to the cinema or buy the DVD. Money doesn't count when you really like something! 11. Do you believe that ease of use and value of the fan page should be separated items or should be seen as a whole? Do you think one is influencing the other? Respondent: Well, exactly as I said before, I think that is it all part of a brand's page strategy. I think that the "ease of use", richness of information, and page design would all be part of the page. I think that these items cannot be separated. 12. When you think of watching the movie, you told me that you think about going to the cinema and buying the DVD. These actions can be final actions, also called final behaviors, or they can be intentions to behavior, or the willingness to do something. Do you believe that some factors can prevent you from performing the final behavior even though you had the intention to do it? Respondent: Yes, many factors can impact this: the price of the ticket, the fact that none of your friends is available to watch the movie with you (and you don’t like to go the cinema on your own), the DVD is not easy to find, your friends tell you that it’s not such a good movie after all, or the fact that the DVD might be too expensive. 13. In the context of this study, do you believe that these factors have a significant impact on the final behavior to be accounted? Should we keep them in the model? Respondent: No, I don’t think you should keep them, they are significant, but they are also difficult to evaluate. They may be very different from a person to another. In the same way, a lot of alternatives can be seen to these individual causes: you can go on Sundays to the cinema, to have cheaper tickets, you can have “carte de fidélité” to have discounted price; you also probably have other friends who liked the movie I think other factors such as this friend influence might be more important than external events. 14. With this conclusion, do you believe that the final construct to be focused on should be the final behavior or the intention to behave? Respondent: The intention to behave, because it is much more feasible to evaluate. If you want to evaluate the final behavior, it would require an investigation on a longer term. It would be like asking the same person if, from their intention to see such or such movie, they finally watch it or not, and why. It would be time-consuming. Also, some people may lie to you and say they did see the movie in a cinema when in fact they streamed it. Intentions already are subjective evaluations of what people would
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 128 aim to do. If you add potential non-trustworthy answers, you would have too many potential 'errors'. It seems better to stick with the intentions. 15. When you think of these intentions to behave, what can impact your intentions? Which factors? Respondent: First, it is the kind of movie I like or not. Then, people’s (friends, family, “experts” or just normal people) opinion about the movie, the price of the cinema, the price of the DVD, the easiness to access the movie (is it available at the closest rental agency? Is it already available on the streaming website I most often use?...) 16. These factors are known as the Attitude toward the behavior and the Subjective norms toward that behavior. Do you see any other factors that could influence your intention to watch the movie? Respondent: I barely can see any other for now… 17. Do you believe that some of the behaviors might be risky? Why? How? Respondent: Download or stream illegally is risky (you can go to jail if you’re caught). One of my friends download close to a hundred movies a day and he got a notification by the ADOPI agency. 18. Do you believe that these risks can impact your intention to watch the movie in such or such a way? Respondent: I am afraid to get any legal notification. I could choose a legal way to avoid these risks, but often, I prefer to get the copies from my friends and then I don't have to download them myself! 19. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence your attitude toward the action? I.e. do you believe that your attitude toward the action can be impacted by your visit on the FB Fan Page? Respondent: Yes, if I really see that it’s a good movie (from fans' comments, for instance) and that it seems worth watching in a cinema or on a big screen, I wouldn’t like to watch it in a very bad quality on my computer. Also, if it’s a movie in 3D (and that the 3D is good), I prefer to go to the cinema. I said earlier, I believe that to good movies, good pages, and good pages for good movies! 20. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the pressure that you observe from your social environment? I.e. do you believe that what you see and read on the FB Fan page of the movie can impact the pressure you perceive toward consuming the movie?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 129 Respondent: Yes, reading that many people think that you would kill many people jobs by downloading the movie illegally may make my rethink of my original intentions. These commentaries may also question the fact that you’re a true cinema lover (you are not if you download/stream movies illegally). If I read such comments, I would feel about myself and I'd prefer to go to the cinema. But it doesn't mean that I would not try to get the free copy of another film. These comments have short-time effects on my intentions. 21. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the risks that you perceive from your environment? I.e. do you believe that the posts and comments that you read from the page owner or from fans can impact on the potential risks toward the different ways of consuming the movie? Respondent: No, I don’t think they can impact the potential risks. If there are risks, they were already there, whether I visit the page or not. 22. In terms of population, who do you think would be targeted by this survey? What type of people? Respondent: Young people, students = they are the ones who are the most likely to download/stream illegally (less financial capacity, more used to download and use a computer and internet in general). 23. In which context (or situation, or event) would they be targeted? Respondent: When they are on Facebook visiting pages.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 130 Appendix 5c: In-depth interview 3: C., 23 year-old nurse 1. When you think about 'consuming', or 'watching' a movie, which ways do you think about? Respondent: I think of two things, going to the cinema to watch the movie, buy the DVD or watch it online. 2. What do you think when I say: "Facebook and the Cinema"? Respondent: I think of the FB page of a movie with different information about the movie: photos, trailers, summary. Florence: "I asked you these questions because I am working on a project that aims to assess the relationship between the action of visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie and the different ways of consuming that movie". 3. Do you believe that Facebook is easy to use? (Why?) Respondent: Yes, I find FB really easy to use because it is very intuitive. You have a rapid access to a lot of data, with just a ‘click’. 4. Do you ever visit the Facebook Fan Page of movies? Respondent: Yes, always when I’m interesting in a movie. 5. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is easy? (Why?) Respondent: Yes, as easy as a personal page. You can surf on the page quickly because you find the same functions that you do on a friend’s page. 6. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact the value, or usefulness, that you can see in the page? (Why?) Respondent: Yes, and No. I would not visit a page if it was hard to navigate through but it’s so intuitive on Facebook that the value is all the same. 7. Do you believe that this ease (or difficulty) of use can impact your feeling toward the movie? (Why?) Respondent: Not really, it just influences my envy to search for other information about the movie like photos, interviews... If it’s difficult to use a website, I do not look further. 8. Do you believe that visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is useful, or valuable? Why? Respondent: Yes. As other websites do, it gives you a lot of info about the movie, but you can also find opinions of others fans, you can share your impressions after and before watching the movie. That makes the FB Fan Page a real place of exchanges between fans.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 131 9. Do you believe that this value can impact the feelings that you have toward the movie? Respondent: Surely. If I read that the others fans were disappointed by the movie for example, I will be less motivated to see the movie. 10. Do you believe that this value can impact the ways you would like to consume the movie? Respondent: Certainly, if after surfing of the FB fan page of a movie my global impression about it is bad, I mean if I read bad comments about it..., I will be less inclined to pay to watch it (cinema, DVD...) but I might watch it for free. 11. When you think of watching the movie, you told me that you think about going to the cinema and buying the DVD. These actions can be final actions, also called final behaviors, or they can be intentions to behavior, or the willingness to do something. Do you believe that some factors can prevent you from performing the final behavior even though you had the intention to do it? Respondent: Yes. If finally I am late to go to the movie, I don’t want to rush so I might delay or cancel it. Or if someone purposed me something else to do I might not watch the movie. 12. In the context of this study, do you believe that these factors have a significant impact on the final behavior to be accounted? Should we keep them in the model? Respondent: Not really because if I really want to see the movie, I don’t think I will change my mind, I might only postpone it, and then it’s difficult to check if I did it in a study. 13. With this conclusion, do you believe that the final construct to be focused on should be the final behavior or the intention to behave? Respondent: I think you should keep the intention to behave because there is always a difference between what people say and what they really do. 14. When you think of these intentions to behave, what can impact your intentions? Which factors? Respondent: The good comments I heard or read about it. The free time I have in my schedule. The rapidity I might watch the movie if I don’t have a lot of time (better online in that case that in the cinema). 15. These factors are known as the Attitude toward the behavior and the Subjective norms toward that behavior. Do you see any other factors that could influence your intention to watch the movie? Respondent: If I lack of money, if no-one agreed to come with me, if no time, I will prefer watch the movie online for free. Or a bad Internet connection if I watch it online.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 132 16. (Do you believe that some of the behaviors might be risky? Why? How? Respondent: Watching a film online can be risky if you have to pay on the website (hacking of your bank account). If you stream or download it, it’s risky because it’s illegal. 17. Do you believe that these risks can impact your intention to watch the movie in such or such a way?) Respondent: Yes, if I only can watch the movie by paying on Internet, I won’t watch it because I don’t want to reveal my bank information on the web. But I don’t fear the free downloading or streaming. 18. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence your attitude toward the action? I.e. do you believe that your attitude toward the action can be impacted by your visit on the FB Fan Page? Respondent: Yes, if the majority of the fans say on the FB fan Page that they were disappointed by the movie, I might change my mind. But even if there are bad comments of the fans, if the FB fan page purpose me lots of interactions, trailers, bloopers, photos of movie scenes, I will watch it. 19. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the pressure that you observe from your social environment? I.e. do you believe that what you see and read on the FB Fan page of the movie can impact the pressure you perceive toward consuming the movie? Respondent: Yes, if fans write bad comments about the movie, I think I won’t watch it. And if I wasn’t sure to watch the movie, good comments would decide me. 20. Do you believe that the value that you see in the FB Fan page can influence the risks that you perceive from your environment? I.e. do you believe that the posts and comments that you read from the page owner or from fans can impact on the potential risks toward the different ways of consuming the movie? Respondent: Yes, crazy example but if the were bomb alerts in the cinemas, I would not go. If fans or friends tell the bonuses on the dvd are disinterested, i will not buy or rent it. If they say the free copies on Internet are bad quality, I will not watch it online... 21. In terms of population, who do you think would be targeted by this survey? What type of people? Respondent: I think young people, people who are susceptible to use Facebook, have a FB account and of course Cinema enthusiasts. 22. In which context (or situation, or event) would they be targeted? Respondent: When they surf on Facebook.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 133 Appendix 6a: Pilot questionnaire 1: C., 19 year-old female law student Instructions: Please take a few minutes to tell me what you think about the action of going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie in comparison to other movie consumption (free copies downloading and streaming, for instance). In response to the questions below, please list the thoughts that come immediately to mind. Write each thought on a separate line. Questions related to the Facebook Fan Page: 1. What do you see as the advantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: - See pictures of the movie, the actors, the set, etc. - See videos (interviews of actors, bloopers, trailers, etc.) - Read the opinion of other people, fans and movie staff. 2. What do you see as the disadvantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: - Some comments can be very stupid. - The Page Wall can sometimes be polluted by irrelevant news or videos. 3. What else comes to mind when you think about visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: X Questions related to the behavior: 1. What do you see as the advantages?  What do you see as the advantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: - Quality of the film - I often go to the cinema with other people, to share a good moment with friends - To watch the movie in 3D (even if I'm not a huge fan of 3D, it's nice to watch it with friends) - I don't feel guilty: I'm not stealing from anyone  What do you see as the advantages of buying a DVD?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 134 Respondent: - Quality of the film - I like to possess the DVD when I like the film. I also love watching the bonuses, cut scenes, etc. - I don't feel guilty: I'm not stealing from anyone  What do you see as the advantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: - Quality of the film - Pretty cheap compared to a cinema ticket: around 2 Euros for 24 hours (only 1 euro for oldest films) - I organize DVD parties: we rent some DVDs and we order pizzas! - I can see movies I haven't seen on screen or watch again movies I've already seen but I don't want to buy. - If I don't like the movie, I'm not disappointed because I can just bring it back. If I like it, I can them buy the DVD. - I don't feel guilty: I'm not stealing from anyone  What do you see as the advantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: I've never done it before but I guess the advantage would be that you can get a legal copy of the film without actually buying the DVD  No guilt!  What do you see as the advantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: Same, except that you don't even keep the copy. You don't have to keep so many files.  What do you see as the advantages of downloading free copies? Respondent: -You can get movie copies without spending money. -If you like the film, you can keep the copy and even burst a DVD - If you don't like the film, you can just get rid of the file  What do you see as the advantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: -You can watch movie you've never seen, or movies you have already seen but that you don't want to buy or rent, or just pay to watch it again. - You don't have any hard copy on your computer: once you've watched it, you can just close the tab! 2. What do you see as the disadvantages?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 135  What do you see as the disadvantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: -The price!! Cinema tickets are very expensive, nearly 9 Euros in France! - You need to move to get to the cinema, and sometimes, it's much better to stay home!  What do you see as the disadvantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: -Price, most DVDs cost between 15 and 22 Euros in France - I don't have enough room at my place to stock all my DVDs. It takes place!  What do you see as the disadvantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: -Need to move to go to the renting place - Less and less DVD renting stores  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: I've never done it but I guess you would have to register online, give some personal information, and pay online. I don't like giving banking information on the internet.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: Same as above  What do you see as the disadvantages of downloading free copies? Respondent: -I fear of getting spams - Downloading can be very long, because my internet connection is pretty bad - There is a specific amount of movies that can be downloaded for one day - I feel like I'm stealing  What do you see as the disadvantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: -I fear of getting spams - It can be long because of my internet connection - There is a time limit (72 minutes on average) to stream movies; once reached, you have to wait around 30 minutes to be able to stream again. - I feel like I'm stealing 3. What else comes to mind?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 136  When you think about going to the cinema?  When you think about buying?  When you think about renting a DVD?  When you think about paying to download a film?  When you think about paying to stream a film?  When you think about downloading free copies?  When you think about streaming free copies? Respondent: X When it comes to going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, paying to download or to stream a specific movie, or downloading and streaming free copies, there might be individuals or groups who would think you should or should not perform this behavior. 1. Please list the individuals or groups who would approve or think you should:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, -People from the cinema industry (I don't know all the people involved): actors, producers, cinemas, etc. (all the people from whom salaries depend on cinema entries, DVD sales… - Cinema critics - The government - Some people, like my parents, with 'values' such as 'you shall not steal'!  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, -Friends you are very familiar with free copies acquisition and who can give me some copies. They would think I'm silly to pay to watch a movie when they can provide it to me easily and for free. 2. Please list the individuals or groups who would disapprove or think you should not:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 137 Respondent: For all of the above, I don't really know how to call them, but some people (maybe consumers' associations) who think that we are 'used' by the media, and by the industries, who think that prices are too high and that we have a right to use any free way of acquiring goods: a kind of 'rebellion' against high prices!  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, The people quoted above (from the cinema industry, government, parents) 3. Sometimes, when we are not sure what to do, we look to see what others are doing. Please list the individuals or groups who are most likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, - people with means - cinema-lovers - cinema critics - people with rigid values - people who are not familiar with newest technologies  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, -People without means - 'Rebellious' type of people - Younger people who are aware and familiar with new technologies and downloading/streaming platforms 4. Please list the individuals or groups who are least likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, -People without means
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 138 - Younger people who are aware and familiar with new technologies and downloading/streaming platforms  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, - people with means - cinema-lovers - people with strong values - people who are not familiar with newest technologies 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it easy or enable you to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: Lower prices (main factor)  Buy a DVD Respondent: Lower prices (main factor)  Rent a DVD Respondent: -More DVD renting stores - Home delivery (like Netflix in the USA)  Pay to download a film Respondent: -Easier access to legal downloading sources - Easy 'payment' options  Pay to stream a film Respondent: -Easier access to legal streaming sources - Easy 'payment' options  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, -Less risks of spams - No time limits 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it difficult or prevent you from:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 139  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, - Increase in cinema ticket or DVD prices  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, -Stronger legislation against illegal downloading and streaming - More complicated access to illegal downloading and streaming - Lower quality of downloaded and streamed films Questions related to the FB Fan Page and to the behavior: 0. Please list any factors, options or applications on the Movie Facebook Fan Page that would make you want to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: For the three above, -Discounts to get cinema tickets, or to buy or rent DVDs (for instance, if you like the page, you get a 1 or 2euro discount in the nearest cinema, or in a specific grocery store)  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For the two above, -Coupons that allow you to download or stream legal copy by entering a code (no need to enter personal or banking information to access the film) Respondent: For all of the above, -If you become a fan (if you like the page), get a 'fan certificate' to show at the cinema in order to get goodies…
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 140 Appendix 6b: Pilot questionnaire 2: D., 42-year old male writer. Instructions: Please take a few minutes to tell me what you think about the action of going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie in comparison to other movie consumption (free copies downloading and streaming, for instance). In response to the questions below, please list the thoughts that come immediately to mind. Write each thought on a separate line. Questions related to the Facebook Fan Page: 1. What do you see as the advantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: To see enhanced content beyond the previews and perhaps learn more about the making of the movie 2. What do you see as the disadvantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: Receiving marketing and promotion from the studio 3. What else comes to mind when you think about visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: I think I learn more about the movie from unofficial sources than from marketing sources Questions related to the behavior: 1. What do you see as the advantages?  What do you see as the advantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: Some films are such visual spectacles that it is worth paying to see the film on a big screen.  What do you see as the advantages of buying a DVD?  What do you see as the advantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: However, I am happy to pay to buy or rent most films at home, where I can better control the experience (visual quality, volume, no noisy neighbors, pause when I choose, temperature, no sound coming through the wall from the neighboring theater, etc.).  What do you see as the advantages of paying to download a film?  What do you see as the advantages of paying to stream a film?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 141 Respondent: Paying to do so is a better guarantee that I will not download or stream a file with a virus or spyware, and it usually easier and of better quality than trying to find a pirated version online.  What do you see as the advantages of downloading free copies?  What do you see as the advantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: I don't ever download or stream. 2. What do you see as the disadvantages?  What do you see as the disadvantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: The disadvantages of going to the cinema are primarily cost (tickets as well as food / drink) and secondarily that most movie theaters are not particularly satisfying venues for enjoying a movie – the seats are not as comfortable as my couch at home, the projection quality is generally sub-standard, and often the other patrons in the theater are talking or using their cell phones.  What do you see as the disadvantages of buying a DVD?  What do you see as the disadvantages of renting a DVD?  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to download a film?  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to stream a film?  What do you see as the disadvantages of downloading free copies?  What do you see as the disadvantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: Free copies are ruining the cinema industry. 3. What else comes to mind? Respondent: Because I am a creative content producer, I believe it is important to support other content creators by purchasing their work. I feel very personally that piracy is wrong.  When you think about going to the cinema?  When you think about buying?  When you think about renting a DVD?  When you think about paying to download a film?  When you think about paying to stream a film?  When you think about downloading free copies?  When you think about streaming free copies? When it comes to going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, paying to download or to stream a specific movie, or downloading and streaming free copies, there might be individuals or groups who would think you should or should not perform this behavior. 1. Please list the individuals or groups who would approve or think you should:
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 142  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, Film studios and distributors (including rental and streaming networks and telecoms providers), theater owners and employees of theaters, producers and financers, directors and crew, actors, and screenwriters  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: X 2. Please list the individuals or groups who would disapprove or think you should not:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, Providers of competing entertainment content or alternatives (musicians, authors, recreation providers like bowling alleys and casinos, etc.)  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: X 3. Sometimes, when we are not sure what to do, we look to see what others are doing. Please list the individuals or groups who are most likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For all of the above, -Families, - Families on family outings - Couples on dates  Download a free copy
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 143  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, Teenagers and young adults (high school and college students) 4. Please list the individuals or groups who are least likely to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: Young People  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For all of the above, Older citizens 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it easy or enable you to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: Free time and easy access to technology that is easy to use and integrate with my television and stereo. 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it difficult or prevent you from:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: -Unpleasant theater experience - Difficulty finding the film I’m interested in through rental or streaming services.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 144 Questions related to the FB Fan Page and to the behavior: (0) Please list any factors, options or applications on the Movie Facebook Fan Page that would make you want to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: Ability to get enhanced content – alternate takes or endings, deleted scenes, director’s cut, etc.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 145 Appendix 6c: Pilot questionnaire 3: P.Y., 24 year-old unemployed (new graduate). Instructions: Please take a few minutes to tell me what you think about the action of going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie in comparison to other movie consumption (free copies downloading and streaming, for instance). In response to the questions below, please list the thoughts that come immediately to mind. Write each thought on a separate line. Questions related to the Facebook Fan Page: 1. What do you see as the advantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: To get information about the movie, and to see all videos related and endorsed by the movie (I don't like watching too many fan-made, unofficial videos, from YouTube for instance) 2. What do you see as the disadvantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: I don't see any 3. What else comes to mind when you think about visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: I compare Facebook fan pages to 'movie websites' such as Allociné.com in France. I prefer to get comments from my Facebook peers instead of comments from cinema critics or people coming from I don't know where (I tend to trust the Facebook community a lot). Questions related to the behavior: 1. What do you see as the advantages?  What do you see as the advantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: It's a good time to go out with friends or on a date: restaurant + movie + drink: sounds like a great night!  What do you see as the advantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: you keep a feasible copy of the movie, something that belongs to you and that you can watch over and over on your TV or computer. I like my DVD collection; it's nearly half the size of my bedroom!  What do you see as the advantages of renting a DVD?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 146 Respondent: It can be nice to see the movie at your place in high quality without having to buy it. But really, I nearly never buy DVDs.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: I did it once and I like the quality. The movie had all the characteristics of a DVD, except that I had no CD to insert. I did it on my mini-laptop. There is no DVD player on it and I don't have an external DVD player. This was the best option to watch the movie on it.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: Same as above: it ensures me a great visual and sound quality. And it doesn't take place on your hard drive!  What do you see as the advantages of downloading free copies? Respondent: if you can get a good version, it is always more interesting to get it free, even though I consider that paying to see a movie you like is worth it.  What do you see as the advantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: Same as above. 2. What do you see as the disadvantages?  What do you see as the disadvantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: Going to the theater can be costly. I don't have a job yet and I've been a student until now so my finances are limited.  What do you see as the disadvantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: None! Except maybe the price; some collection (like the James bond 'box' was pretty expensive). I sometimes buy second-hand DVD from Amazon.com, but I don't really like it. I'm often worried about the quality of the DVD. And what if it arrives broken? I would rather download a free version that pay and finally get a bad DVD.  What do you see as the disadvantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: you need to go out to get a DVD that you most likely will watch alone at your place and then have to bring it back. It's not as enjoyable as going out to the cinema, and at the end, you don't even own the DVD.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to download a film?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 147 Respondent: You don't get all the features of the DVD. Moreover, it stays in a file on hardware. I prefer to get it in a nice box on my shelf! Also, I can find great free copies, no need to always pay for it.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: Same as above: why pay when you can find (if you search) as good quality for free? Also, same as rental DVDs, I prefer to keep the movie one way or the other.  What do you see as the disadvantages of downloading free copies?  What do you see as the disadvantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: For the two above, you might get very bad versions of the movie. Also, some movie streaming/downloading websites are pretty tricky and push you to click on links you would not normally click on. Then, you may arrive on some PG rated websites, or even get viruses. 3. What else comes to mind?  When you think about going to the cinema? Respondent: Pop corn  When you think about buying? Respondent: Christmas Gift  When you think about renting a DVD? Respondent: Waste of time  When you think about paying to download a film?  When you think about paying to stream a film? Respondent: For the two above, Waste of money  When you think about downloading free copies?  When you think about streaming free copies? Respondent: For the two above, Translation/subtitles issues When it comes to going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, paying to download or to stream a specific movie, or downloading and streaming free copies, there might be individuals or groups who would think you should or should not perform this behavior. 1. Please list the individuals or groups who would approve or think you should:  Go to the cinema Respondent: my friends. We often go to the theater all together. It's our party of the week. We always go on Wednesdays to watch the last movie going out even if we don't know the movie or have an initial bad sentiment about it. It's a real event. Then
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 148 we have a drink and discuss the movie: was it better than expected or as bad as expected?  Buy a DVD Respondent: my friends again. When we loved a movie, we like to watch it again at my place (I have a big nice screen).  Rent a DVD Respondent: No idea  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For the two above, maybe my parents who are afraid that the police might knock at my door one day for too much downloading  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, my friends when we don't want to wait for the DVD to come out. 2. Please list the individuals or groups who would disapprove or think you should not:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: For all of the above, nobody I know  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For the two above, my friends who also know safe websites where to find good quality copies  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the two above, my parents 3. Sometimes, when we are not sure what to do, we look to see what others are doing. Please list the individuals or groups who are most likely to: Respondent: When I don't know what to do, I talk with my friends and look at Facebook. My friends and I share a lot on Facebook: brands that we like, articles that we read, games that we play, and, movies that we watched, liked or would like to watch. I will decide which movie to see according to what my network says (and I have a big network: around 780 friends!)  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 149  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the all of the above, same answers as question 1 just above. 4. Please list the individuals or groups who are least likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: For the all of the above, same answers as question 2 just above. 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it easy or enable you to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: friends are available, the car is ok, I have free time, cash in my pocket or enough money on my account  Buy a DVD Respondent: enough money  Rent a DVD Respondent: the more I think about it, the less I think about doing it…  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: for the two above, no DVD player on my laptop, no way to find good free version, money on my account  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: for the two above, no risks for PG rated links or viruses, easy access o good quality files 5. Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it difficult or prevent you from:  Go to the cinema
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 150 Respondent: no car or money  Buy a DVD Respondent: no money  Rent a DVD Respondent: x  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: For the two above, access to other free sources  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: for the two above, bad quality of the copies, dangerous websites Questions related to the FB Fan Page and to the behavior: (0) Please list any factors, options or applications on the Movie Facebook Fan Page that would make you want to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: Possibility to purchase, get discounts or even win tickets from the page, and share it with friends  Buy a DVD Respondent: Possibility to purchase, get discounts or even win DVDs from the page, and share it with friends  Rent a DVD Respondent: possibility to pay for the rental DVD and get it delivered at home (kind of like Netflix)  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: for the two above, possibility to get discount to download or stream the film
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 151 Appendix 6d: Pilot questionnaire 4: H., 19 year-old art student Instructions: Please take a few minutes to tell me what you think about the action of going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie in comparison to other movie consumption (free copies downloading and streaming, for instance). In response to the questions below, please list the thoughts that come immediately to mind. Write each thought on a separate line. Questions related to the Facebook Fan Page: Perceived Value (1) What do you see as the advantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: Easy access to the data, familiarity with the tool (highly used every day) (2) What do you see as the disadvantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: No link with the concrete, no offers like reductions, special gifts. (3) What else comes to mind when you think about visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: X. Questions related to the behavior: Behavioral outcomes (1) What do you see as the advantages?  What do you see as the advantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: Good way to share a moment with friends.  What do you see as the advantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: You can watch the movie whenever you want, stop it when you want, you don’t need to go out.  What do you see as the advantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: I can see if I like the movie to buy it after.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: I do not watch movies online because I don’t want to give my bank information.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: I don’t because it’s illegal.  What do you see as the advantages of downloading free copies?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 152 Respondent: X  What do you see as the advantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: X. (2) What do you see as the disadvantages?  What do you see as the disadvantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: The price of the tickets.  What do you see as the disadvantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: Finally if you don’t like it.  What do you see as the disadvantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: None. You can buy the DVD after watching the movie if you liked it. And if you don’t, it’s cheaper to rent a DVD than to buy it.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: You give your bank information.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: Same.  What do you see as the disadvantages of downloading free copies? Respondent: It’s dangerous because illegal.  What do you see as the disadvantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: Same. (3) What else comes to mind?  When you think about going to the cinema? Respondent: See people!  When you think about buying? Respondent: Expensive.  When you think about renting a DVD? Respondent: Cheaper and easy.  When you think about paying to download a film?  When you think about paying to stream a film? Respondent: Scary.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 153  When you think about downloading free copies?  When you think about streaming free copies? Respondent: illegal. Normative referents When it comes to going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie, there might be individuals or groups who would think you should or should not perform this behavior. (1) Please list the individuals or groups who would approve or think you should:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: friends, family, the press.  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: friends, family  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: X. (2) Please list the individuals or groups who would disapprove or think you should not:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: friends, family, the press  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: friends, family  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: friends, family (3) Sometimes, when we are not sure what to do, we look to see what others are doing. Please list the individuals or groups who are most likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: family, friends
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 154  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: friends  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: friends (4) Please list the individuals or groups who are least likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: X.  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: family  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: family Control factors (1) Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it easy or enable you to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: company of someone  Buy a DVD Respondent: promotion on the DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: no idea  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: perfect protection of my bank information  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: legal free copy
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 155 (2) Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it difficult or prevent you from:  Go to the cinema Respondent: to be alone to go  Buy a DVD Respondent: lack of money  Rent a DVD Respondent: distance from the store  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: lack of money, bad connection  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: everything can prevent me from this actions! Questions related to the FB Fan Page and to the behavior: (0) Please list any factors, options or applications on the Movie Facebook Fan Page that would make you want to:  Go to the cinema Respondent: reduction on the tickets  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: reduction on the prices  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: reductions and link to a unique platform of download  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: link to a unique platform of download
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 156 Appendix 6e: Pilot questionnaire 5: T., 29 year-old technician Instructions: Please take a few minutes to tell me what you think about the action of going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie in comparison to other movie consumption (free copies downloading and streaming, for instance). In response to the questions below, please list the thoughts that come immediately to mind. Write each thought on a separate line. Questions related to the Facebook Fan Page: Perceived Value (1) What do you see as the advantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: Quick and easy. (2) What do you see as the disadvantages of your visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: Can’t think of any disadvantage. (3) What else comes to mind when you think about visiting the Facebook Page of a specific Movie? Respondent: Liberty of navigation, even if you are redirecting, you always have access to every functions of the Facebook page. Questions related to the behavior: Behavioral outcomes (1) What do you see as the advantages?  What do you see as the advantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: Great quality of the movie and 3D!  What do you see as the advantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: The bonuses, interviews, choice of languages...  What do you see as the advantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: I prefer possess the DVD than rent it.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: Cheaper than buying a DVD.  What do you see as the advantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: I prefer have it definitely.  What do you see as the advantages of downloading free copies?
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 157 Respondent: Free! and You have it always with you if you want (I never leave my computer!!!!)  What do you see as the advantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: You can stop the movie and quit the page in the middle of the movie if you don’t like it. (2) What do you see as the disadvantages?  What do you see as the disadvantages of your going to the cinema? Respondent: I prefer to stay at home, it’s more comfortable and I can do what I want in the same time. And I don’t like the darkness...bouh!....AH!  What do you see as the disadvantages of buying a DVD? Respondent: I can’t see any.  What do you see as the disadvantages of renting a DVD? Respondent: It is not yours and if you really like the movie and want to buy it, you payed two times!  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to download a film? Respondent: I see none.  What do you see as the disadvantages of paying to stream a film? Respondent: You just watch it and don’t have it anymore when you close the page.  What do you see as the disadvantages of downloading free copies?  What do you see as the disadvantages of streaming free copies? Respondent: None! (3) What else comes to mind?  When you think about going to the cinema? Respondent: Need for planification.  When you think about buying? Respondent: Easy.  When you think about renting a DVD? Respondent: Convenient.  When you think about paying to download a film? Respondent: Rapidity.
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 158  When you think about paying to stream a film? Respondent: Facility.  When you think about downloading free copies?  When you think about streaming free copies? Respondent: Freedom. Normative referents When it comes to going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or to stream a specific movie, there might be individuals or groups who would think you should or should not perform this behavior. (1) Please list the individuals or groups who would approve or think you should:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: virtual networks, friends  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: virtual networks and friends  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: virtual networks (2) Please list the individuals or groups who would disapprove or think you should not:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: virtual networks, friends  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: virtual networks (3) Sometimes, when we are not sure what to do, we look to see what others are doing. Please list the individuals or groups who are most likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 159 Respondent: friends  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: virtual networks (4) Please list the individuals or groups who are least likely to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: virtual networks  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: family Control factors (1) Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it easy or enable you to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: cheaper prices  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: I don’t need circumstances (2) Please list any factors or circumstances that would make it difficult or prevent you from:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: too many people  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 160  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: bad quality of the copy Questions related to the FB Fan Page and to the behavior: (0) Please list any factors, options or applications on the Movie Facebook Fan Page that would make you want to:  Go to the cinema  Buy a DVD  Rent a DVD Respondent: special offers, tickets’ reductions  Pay to download a film  Pay to stream a film Respondent: platform of copies in high quality  Download a free copy  Stream a free copy Respondent: links to free copies in high quality
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 161 Appendix 7: Internet-based questionnaire: Facebook and Movie Research Q1 Page 1/11Do you have a Facebook account?  Yes (1)  No (2) Q2 How often do you visit Facebook?  Less than once a week (1)  Few times a week (2)  Once a day (3)  Few times a day (4)  More than 5 times a day (5) Q3 Page 2/11Do you ever visit Facebook Movie Fan Pages?  Yes (1)  No (2) If No Is Selected, Then Skip To Page 5/11Why do you go to the cinema?... Q4 How often do you visit Facebook Movie Fan Pages?  Never (1)  Less than once a week (2)  Few times a week (3)  Once a day (4)  Few times a day (5)  More than 5 times a day (6)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 162 Q5 Page 3/11If you do, why do you visit the Facebook Movie Fan Page? Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) To get information about the movie (abstract, actors, videos, locations, on-screen dates...) (1)        To receive Marketing and Promotion from Studios (2)        To get advices, Read other people's opinions (3)        To submit your own opinion (4)        To feel connected to other fans, movie cast, to be part of a community (5)        To participate in special events (6)        To get a discount or a coupon in       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 163 order to purchase the movie (7) Other? Please specify (8)        Q6 Do you think visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Easy? (1)        Useful? (2)        Informative? (3)        Time consuming? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Entertaining? (6)        Rewarding? (7)        Other? Please specify (8)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 164 Q7 What would you like to find on the Facebook Page of a movie?(You may mark more than one option.)  Thorough information about the movie (abstract, actors, interviews, videos, pictures, trailers, bloopers...) (1)  Discounts to purchase cinema tickets or DVDs (2)  Coupons to rent, download or stream the movie (3)  Games and Contests (4)  Invitations to special events (5)  Exclusive gifts (by-products, goodies...) (6)  Fan certificates to present to cinema and renting offices to win goodies (7)  Other, please specify (8) ____________________
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 165 Q8 Page 4/11On the Facebook Page, do you ever: Never (1) Nearly Never (2) Somewhat Rarely (3) Sometimes (4) Somewhat Often (5) Often (6) Always (7) 'Like' the Movie Fan Page? (1)        'Like' comments or posts from the Fan Page? (2)        'Comment' or 'Post' on the Fan Page? (3)        'Share' content from the Fan Page on your personal Page? (4)        Interact on the page in any other way? Please specify (5)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 166 Q9 Do you ever watch the specific movie: Never (1) Nearly Never (2) Somewhat Rarely (3) Sometimes (4) Somewhat Often (5) Often (6) Always (7) BEFORE visiting the Facebook Fan Page? (1)        AFTER visiting the Facebook Fan Page? (2)        Q10 Does visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie: Never (1) Nearly Never (2) Somewhat Rarely (3) Sometimes (4) Somewhat Often (5) Often (6) Always (7) Reinforce your opinion about the movie? (1)        Change your opinion about the movie? (2)        Make you want to watch the movie? (3)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 167 Q11 Does visiting the Facebook Fan Page of a movie: Never (1) Nearly Never (2) Somewhat Rarely (3) Sometimes (4) Somewhat Often (5) Often (6) Always (7) Make you want to go to the cinema? (1)        Make you want to Buy the DVD? (2)        Make you want to Rent the DVD? (3)        Make you want to Pay to Download the movie? (4)        Make you want to Pay to Stream the movie? (5)        Make you want to Download the movie for Free? (6)        Make you want to Stream the movie for Free? (7)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 168 Q12 Page 5/11Why do you go to the cinema?(If you never go to the cinema, please SKIP this question.) Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Visual Quality (1)        Audio Quality (2)        To Gather with friends (3)        To Go out (4)        To Enjoy an experience (5)        To watch the film in 3D (6)        To Support the cinema industry (7)        By fear of other sources (8)        Other, please specify (9)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 169 Q13 Do you believe that going to the cinema is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Expensive? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Comfortable? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Convenient? (6)        Viable? (7)        Scary? (8)        Other, please specify (9)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 170 Q14 Page 6/11Why do you buy or rent DVDs?(If you never buy or rent DVDs, please SKIP this question.) Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Visual Quality (1)        Audio Quality (2)        To Gather with friends (3)        To Enjoy an experience (4)        To watch the film in 3D (5)        To Support the cinema industry (6)        By fear of other sources (7)        Other, please specify (8)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 171 Q15 Do you believe that buying a DVD is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Expensive? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Comfortable? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Convenient? (6)        Viable? (7)        Scary? (8)        Other, please specify (9)        Q16 Do you believe that renting a DVD is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Expensive? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Comfortable? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Convenient? (6)        Viable? (7)        Scary? (8)        Other, please specify (9)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 172 Q17 Page 7/11Why do you pay to download or stream movies?(If you never pay to download or stream movies, please SKIP this question.) Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Visual Quality (1)        Audio Quality (2)        To Gather with friends (3)        To Enjoy an experience (4)        To Support the cinema industry (5)        By fear of other sources (6)        Other, please specify (7)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 173 Q18 Do you believe that paying to download a movie is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Expensive? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Comfortable? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Convenient? (6)        Viable? (7)        Scary? (8)        Other, please specify (9)        Q19 Do you believe that paying to stream a movie is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Expensive? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Comfortable? (4)        Pleasant? (5)        Convenient? (6)        Viable? (7)        Scary? (8)        Other, please specify (9)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 174 Q20 Page 8/11Why do you 'Go to the cinema', 'Buy or Rent DVDs', or 'Pay to Download or Stream a movie'? Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) I fear of legal actions if I download or stream Free copies (from unauthorized sources). (1)        I fear of getting spams or viruses from the free copies. (2)        I fear of being disappointed by the quality of the free copies. (3)        I don't feel comfortable downloading or streaming free copies. (4)        I don't know any websites to download or stream free copies. (5)        I fear of disappointing the important people among my network. (6)        Comments       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 175 and Posts from the Facebook Fan Page reinforced my fears toward free copies. (7) Comments and Posts from the Facebook Fan Page reinforced my expectations toward the action of paying to see the movie. (8)        Other, please specify (9)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 176 Q21 Do you believe that downloading a movie for free is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Cheap? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Convenient? (4)        Comfortable? (5)        Good Visual Quality? (6)        Good Audio Quality? (7)        Pleasant? (8)        Viable? (9)        Largely done? (10)        Dangerous? (11)        Scary? (12)        Other, please specify (13)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 177 Q22 Do you believe that streaming a movie for free is: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Cheap? (1)        Easy? (2)        Fast? (3)        Convenient? (4)        Comfortable? (5)        Good Visual Quality? (6)        Good Audio Quality? (7)        Pleasant? (8)        Viable? (9)        Largely done? (10)        Dangerous? (11)        Scary? (12)        Other, please specify (13)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 178 Q23 Why do you 'Download', or 'Stream' free copies?(If you never download or stream free copies, please SKIP this page.) Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) I fear of being disappointed by the movie. (1)        I fear of wasting my time going to the cinema. (2)        I fear of wasting my money purchasing the movie (cinema, DVD or charged copies) (3)        I don't feel comfortable going out to the cinema. (4)        I don't feel comfortable leaving my personal and bank information to get an online copy (payment to download or stream a movie). (5)        Comments and Posts from the       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 179 Facebook Fan Page reinforced my fears toward the action of paying to see the movie. (6) Comments and Posts from the Facebook Fan Page reinforced my expectations toward free copies. (7)        Other, please specify (8)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 180 Q24 Page 9/11When you consider 'going to the cinema, buying or renting a DVD, or paying to download or stream a movie, the following people may influence your decisions: Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Family Members (1)        Friends (2)        Facebook Friends (3)        Colleagues (4)        Cinema critics (5)        Cinema Fans' networks (6)        Fans from the Facebook Movie Fan Page (7)        People from the cinema industry (actors, producers, distributors) (8)        Consumer associations (9)        Government (10)        Other, please specify (11)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 181 Q25 Do the following things that you read, or find, on the Facebook Fan Page, influence your decision to 'go to the cinema, buy or rent a DVD, or pay to download or stream a movie? Strongly Disagree (1) Disagree (2) Somewhat Disagree (3) Neither Agree nor Disagree (4) Somewhat Agree (5) Agree (6) Strongly Agree (7) Posts and Comments from the movie cast (actors, producers) (1)        Posts and Comments from fans (2)        Posts and Comments from your Facebook network (3)        The fact that some of your Facebook friends already like the page (4)        Games or Contests on the page (5)        Special Gifts (6)        Discounts or Coupons (7)        Other, please specify (8)       
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 182 Q26 Page 10/11In the next two months, I will: Very Unlikely (1) Unlikely (2) Somewhat Unlikely (3) Undecided (4) Somewhat Likely (5) Likely (6) Very Likely (7) Go to the Cinema? (1)        Buy a DVD? (2)        Rent a DVD? (3)        Pay to Download a movie? (4)        Pay to Steam a movie? (5)        Download a movie for Free? (6)        Stream a movie for Free? (7)        Q27 Which factors would help your 'going to the cinema', 'buying or renting a DVD', 'paying to download or stream a movie'?(You may mark more than one option.)  Lower prices (1)  More bonuses on the DVDs (2)  Easier access to legal downloading and streaming (3)  Stronger repression against free downloading and streaming (4)  Lower quality of free copies (5)  Other, please specify: (6) ____________________
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 183 Q28 Page 11/11Gender  Male (1)  Female (2) Q29 What is your age? Please express it with numbers, e.g. '24' Q30 Occupation  Student (1)  Unemployed (2)  Entry level (3)  Mid-career (4)  Top management (5)  Retired (6)  Other, please specify: (7) ____________________ Q31 Where are you from?  North America (1)  Central America (2)  South America (3)  Western Europe (4)  Eastern Europe (5)  North Africa (6)  Central Africa (7)  South Africa (8)  Middle-East (9)  Western Asia (10)  Pacific Asia (11)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 184 Table of Figures Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model, Davis, 1989 (p. 47) Figure 2: Theory of Planned Behavior, Ajzen, 1985 (p. 49) Figure 3: Theory of Planned Behavior, Ajzen, 1991 (p. 50) Figure 4: Theory of Planned Behavior toward Movies (p. 60) Figure 5: Proposed Model in the context of Facebook (p. 61)
  • Florence Poirel - Facebook and the Cinema thesis – All right reserved – 21 Nov 2011 185 Table of Tables Table 1: Values and Factors Consumers and Brands see in Facebook and Movie Consumption Means (p. 40) Table 2: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 1 (p77) Table 3: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 1 (p77) Table 4: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 2 (p78) Table 5: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 2 (p79) Table 6: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 3 (p80) Table 7: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 3 (p80) Table 8: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 4 (p81) Table 9: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 4 (p82) Table 10: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 5 (p83) Table 11: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 5 (p83) Table 12: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 6 (p84) Table 13: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 6 (p85) Table 14: Coefficients Table Hypothesis 7 (p86) Table 15: ANOVA Table Hypothesis 7 (p86) Table 16: Coefficients Table Proposed Model (p87) Table 17: Final Model (p89) Table 18: Coefficient Table Reduced Model (p89) Table 19: ANOVA Table Reduced Model (p90)