Business Research

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Business Research

  1. 1. CBEB 2105 BUSINESS RESEARCH FINAL GROUP ASSIGNMENT
  2. 2. QUESTION 1 Perform frequency distribution with chart for the following variables and discuss the results a)Sex b)Readership of newspaper c) Race d) Credit card
  3. 3. a)Sex Missing data = 4 Female = 46.4% Male = 52.8%
  4. 4. b)Readership of newspaper
  5. 5. c) Race d) Credit card
  6. 6. Run mean, median, mode, range,stan dard deviation, variances, skewness and kurtosis for age & TOTSATL, Discuss the result. QUESTION 2
  7. 7. Statistics Your age TOTSATL N Valid 500 500 Missing 0 0 Mean 26.32 4.2188 Median 25.00 4.2361 Mode 25 4.70 Std. Deviation 7.038 .65418 Variance 49.532 .428 Skewness 1.160 -.464 Std. Error of Skewness .109 .109 Kurtosis 3.665 .062 Std. Error of Kurtosis .218 .218 Range 55 3.91 Mean > Median > Mode Positive Skewness Mean < Median < Mode Negative Skewness
  8. 8. Positively Skewed Negatively Skewed
  9. 9. QUESTION 3 Assess the reliability of the following:  Satisfaction in life.  Moral standards scale.  Religious inclination. Can the reliability of the scale be improved?
  10. 10. Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted SAT01 38.55 34.884 .506 .728 SAT02 37.79 38.773 .385 .746 SAT03 38.17 34.556 .463 .735 SAT04 38.12 35.977 .457 .735 SAT05 38.33 35.979 .423 .740 SAT06 38.10 37.784 .392 .745 SAT07 37.85 37.476 .421 .741 SAT08 38.35 35.734 .344 .756 SAT09 38.17 36.238 .528 .728 SAT10 37.32 38.581 .362 .748 Alphas above 0.7 indicated the reliability of the test is considered ok. In this case, the obtained alpha score is 0.760 which indicates that the scale has high internal consistency reliability. As in this case, if we deleted these items, then it will reduce the Alphas to less than 0.76. Therefore, I would suggest not to removing any items because they are good items. SATISFACTION IN LIFE Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .760 10
  11. 11. MORAL STANDARDSItem-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted A04 31.13 19.997 .493 .551 A14 30.98 19.944 .575 .536 A15 32.01 24.849 -.033 .698 A31 30.89 21.726 .327 .596 A33 31.13 19.997 .493 .551 A38 30.98 19.944 .575 .536 A42 30.97 20.991 .309 .600 A43 30.88 21.748 .129 .670 In this case, the obtained alpha score is 0.628. Based on the above result, it shows that the reliability goes up to 0.698 and 0.67 after we deleting item A15 and item A43 respectively; therefore we need to delete these two items Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .628 8
  12. 12. Below show the TOTMORAL reliability scale after we deleted item A15 and A43 Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .757 6 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted A04 22.88 14.092 .564 .703 A14 22.74 14.295 .620 .691 A31 22.64 15.753 .369 .754 A33 22.88 14.092 .564 .703 A38 22.74 14.295 .620 .691 A42 22.72 15.403 .309 .779 Based on the result above, we can see that the TOTMORAL Alpha will increase to 0.757 when we excluded the item A15 and A43.
  13. 13. RELIGIOUS INCLINATION Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .777 3 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted A08 9.16 4.183 .324 1.000 A19 9.25 2.986 .798 .489 A30 9.25 2.986 .798 .489 In this case, the obtained alpha score is 0.628. Based on the above result, it shows that the reliability goes up to 1.00 after deleting item A08; However, I would suggest not to removing this item even though it improves Alpha, because only 2 items is not much of a composite. If we were analyzing many items then it would be more appropriate to exclude this item. Besides, the result above also show that the reliability will goes down after deleting item A19 and A30. Therefore, we should not delete this good item.
  14. 14. QUESTION 4 Perform the relation analysis on the following variable: • Satisfaction in life (TOTSAT) • Moral standard (TOTMORAL) • Religious inclination (TOTRELIGION) Discuss the result.
  15. 15. Correlations
  16. 16. Relationship between Variables SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP DIRECTION STRENGTH TOTSAT & TOTMORAL YES DIRECT STRONG TOTSAT & TOTRELIGION YES DIRECT STRONG TOTSAT & age NO DIRECT WEAK TOTMORAL & TOTRELIGION YES DIRECT STRONG TOTMORAL & age NO INDIRECT WEAK TOTRELIGION & age NO INDIRECT WEAK
  17. 17. QUESTION 5 Cross tabulate ethnic groups (RACE1) with satisfaction in life groups (TOTSAT1). Is there a relationship between races and satisfaction on life? Discuss the result.
  18. 18. a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 23.36. There is a significant relationship between Races
  19. 19. [ X2 = 18.474, df = 4, p < 0.005] The relationship between ethnic groups and satisfaction in life group could not have occurred by chance factors alone
  20. 20. Cross tabulate ethnic groups (race1) with all newspapers. Is there a relationship between races and newspaper readership? QUESTION 6 :
  21. 21. Ethnic group*New Straits Time Crosstab New Straits time Total Yes No ethnic group Malay Count 104 150 254 % within ethnic group 40.9% 59.1% 100.0 % % within New Straits time 44.1% 58.8% 51.7 % % of Total 21.2% 30.5% 51.7 % Chinese Count 85 73 158 % within ethnic group 53.8% 46.2% 100.0 % % within New Straits time 36.0% 28.6% 32.2 % % of Total 17.3% 14.9% 32.2 % indian & others Count 47 32 79 % within ethnic group 59.5% 40.5% 100.0 % % within New Straits time 19.9% 12.5% 16.1 % % of Total 9.6% 6.5% 16.1 % Total Count 236 55 491 % within ethnic group 48.1% 51.9% 100.0 % % within New Straits time 100.0% 100.0% 100.0 % % of Total 48.1% 51.9% 100.0 % Most ethnic who reads the New Straits Times (NST) within races : Malay (44.1%) followed by Chinese (36%) Most ethnic who did not read New Straits Times (NST) within races : Also Malay constribute the highest percentageNew Strait Times
  22. 22. • Pearson chi-square value is 11.372 • These results shows that there is statistically significant relationship between the type of race and reading New Straits Time (p = 0.003). • Since the p-value is less than 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis • Conclude, there is relationship between race1 and NST newspaper Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 11.372a 2 .003 Likelihood Ratio 11.419 2 .003 Linear-by-Linear Association 10.860 1 .001 N of Valid Cases 491 a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 37.97. Chi-Square Test for New Strait Times newspaper
  23. 23. Ethnic group*The Star Crosstab The Star Total Yes No ethnic group Malay Count 86 169 255 % within ethnic group 33.7% 66.3% 100.0% % within The Star 38.9% 62.4% 51.8% % of Total 17.5% 34.3% 51.8% Chinese Count 87 71 158 % within ethnic group 55.1% 44.9% 100.0% % within The Star 39.4% 26.2% 32.1% % of Total 17.7% 14.4% 32.1% Indian & others Count 48 31 79 % within ethnic group 60.8% 39.2% 100.0% % within The Star 21.7% 11.4% 16.1% % of Total 9.8% 6.3% 16.1% Total Count 221 271 492 % within ethnic group 44.9% 55.1% 100.0% % within The Star 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% % of Total 44.9% 55.1% 100.0% Most ethnic who prefer reads the The Star within races : Chinese (39.4%) Most ethnic who did not prefer read The Star within races : Malay (62.4%) The Star
  24. 24. Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 27.497a 2 .000 Likelihood Ratio 27.734 2 .000 Linear-by-Linear Association 25.086 1 .000 N of Valid Cases 492 a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 35.49. • Pearson chi-square value is 27.497 • These results shows that there is statistically significant relationship between the type of race and reading The Star (p = 0). • Since the p-value is less than 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis • Conclude, there is relationship between race1 and The Star newspaper Chi-Square Test for The Star newspaper
  25. 25. Ethnic group*Utusan Malaysia Crosstab Utusan malaysia Total Yes No ethnic group malay Count 191 64 255 % within ethnic group 74.9% 25.1% 100.0% % within Utusan malaysia 78.9% 25.6% 51.8% % of Total 38.8% 13.0% 51.8% chinese Count 17 141 158 % within ethnic group 10.8% 89.2% 100.0% % within Utusan malaysia 7.0% 56.4% 32.1% % of Total 3.5% 28.7% 32.1% indian & others Count 34 45 79 % within ethnic group 43.0% 57.0% 100.0% % within Utusan malaysia 14.0% 18.0% 16.1% % of Total 6.9% 9.1% 16.1% Total Count 242 250 492 % within ethnic group 49.2% 50.8% 100.0% % within Utusan malaysia 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% % of Total 49.2% 50.8% 100.0% Most ethnic who prefer reads the Utusan Malaysia within races : Malay (78.9%) Most ethnic who did not prefer read Utusan Malaysia within races : Chinese (56.4%) Utusan Malaysia
  26. 26. Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 162.012a 2 .000 Likelihood Ratio 178.707 2 .000 Linear-by-Linear Association 73.077 1 .000 N of Valid Cases 492 a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 38.86. Chi-Square Test for Utusan Malaysia newspaper • Pearson chi-square value is 162.012 • These results shows that there is statistically significant relationship between the type of race and reading Utusan Malaysia (p = 0). • Since the p-value is less than 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis • Conclude, there is relationship between race1 and Utusan Malaysia newspaper
  27. 27. Ethnic group*Berita Harian Crosstab Berita Harian Total Yes No ethnic group malay Count 188 67 255 % within ethnic group 73.7% 26.3% 100.0% % within Berita Harian 77.7% 26.8% 51.8% % of Total 38.2% 13.6% 51.8% chinese Count 31 127 158 % within ethnic group 19.6% 80.4% 100.0% % within Berita Harian 12.8% 50.8% 32.1% % of Total 6.3% 25.8% 32.1% indian & others Count 23 56 79 % within ethnic group 29.1% 70.9% 100.0% % within Berita Harian 9.5% 22.4% 16.1% % of Total 4.7% 11.4% 16.1% Total Count 242 250 492 % within ethnic group 49.2% 50.8% 100.0% % within Berita Harian 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% % of Total 49.2% 50.8% 100.0% Most ethnic who prefer reads Berita Harian within races : Malay (77.7%) Most ethnic who did not prefer read Berita Harian within races : Chinese (50.8%) Berita Harian
  28. 28. Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 129.434a 2 .000 Likelihood Ratio 136.463 2 .000 Linear-by-Linear Association 90.621 1 .000 N of Valid Cases 492 a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 38.86. Chi-Square Test for Berita Harian newspaper • Pearson chi-square value is 129.434 • These results shows that there is statistically significant relationship between the type of race and reading Berita Harian (p = 0). • Since the p-value is less than 0.05, so we reject the null hypothesis • Conclude, there is relationship between race1 and Berita Harian newspaper
  29. 29.  Malay races are more prefer to Utusan Malaysia and Berita Harian, both of this newspaper are in Bahasa Melayu. • Malay language is their mother tongue • Official language used daily is in Malay Chinese races tend to read The Star Newspaper. • Lingua franca for Chinese while dealing with customers is in English •To keep them up-to-date with the latest news in the Star
  30. 30. QUESTION 7 Perform some statistical tests to see sex differences with respect to all the items in the satisfaction in life scale. Discuss the results.
  31. 31. 1)Sig p<0.05, equal variances not assumed 2)Sig p>0.05, equal variances assumed Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p>0.05, no significant relationship, accept null hypothesis, reject alternative hypothesis Money Friend s
  32. 32. 1)Sig p<0.05, equal variances not assumed 2)Sig p>0.05, equal variances assumed Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p>0.05, no significant relationship, accept null hypothesis, reject alternative hypothesis Affair/ Romanc e Job Study
  33. 33. 1)Sig p<0.05, equal variances not assumed 2)Sig p>0.05, equal variances assumed Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship between male and female, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship between male and female, accept alternative hypothesis, reject Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p>0.05, no significant relationship, accept null hypothesis, reject alternative hypothesis Relation with parent Physical Appearance Leisure
  34. 34. 1)Sig p<0.05, equal variances not assumed 2)Sig p>0.05, equal variances assumed Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship between male and female, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship between male and female, accept alternative hypothesis, reject Sig (2-tailed) p<0.05, significant relationship, accept alternative hypothesis, reject null hypothesis Sig (2-tailed) p>0.05, no significant relationship, accept null hypothesis, reject alternative hypothesis Relation with opposite sex Material Comfort
  35. 35. QUESTION 8 Perform some statistical tests to see marital status group differences (marital 1) with respect to all the items in the religious inclination scale. Discuss the results.
  36. 36. When significant value greater than 0.05 (p>0.05), Levene’s test for the homogeneity of variances is not significant and we have not violated the homogeneity of variances assumptions. Therefore marital status is not related with religion. We accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis.
  37. 37. QUESTION 9 Using the following variables, perform a regression analysis and discuss the results:  Dependent = Satisfaction in life (TOTSAT).  Independent Variables= Moral Standards (TOTMORAL), Religious Inclination (TOTRELIGION), Age.
  38. 38. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .272a .074 .068 .63138 a. Predictors: (Constant), Your age, TOTMORAL1, TOTRELIG •The R value = 0.282 • •R2 = 7.4% •Adjusted R2 =6.8% •R is the multiple correlation coefficients that tell the relationship between the independent variables with the dependent variable. •The R2 value show how much of the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variable. Changes on the independent variable can affect the dependent variable by 6.8%. Changes on the independent variable can affect the dependent variable by 7.4%. Indicates a low degree of correlation.
  39. 39. ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 15.823 3 5.274 13.231 .000b Residual 197.725 496 .399 Total 213.548 499 a. Dependent Variable: TOTSATL b. Predictors: (Constant), Your age, TOTMORAL1, TOTRELIG The significant value is .000, P- Value <0.005 Therefore, this model is significant.
  40. 40. Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.955 .207 14.246 .000 TOTMORAL1 .166 .067 .191 2.466 .014 TOTRELIG .058 .058 .077 .995 .320 Your age .009 .004 .099 2.280 .023 a. Dependent Variable: TOTSATL • TOTMORAL have the largest beta coefficient which is 0.191. This means that the variable makes the strongest unique contribution in explaining the dependent variable. • TOTRELIG was slightly lower (0.077) indicating that it made less of a unique contribution. • The P value for TOTMORAL (.0014) and ages (.023), P- value< 0.05This show that they are contributed significantly to the dependent variable. Reject the Ho hypothesis. • TOTRELIG have a significant value of more than 0.05 which is 0.320, therefore we can conclude this variable is not making significant unique contribution to the prediction of the dependent variable. Accept the Ho hypothesis.
  41. 41. The beta value is positive. There is a positive relationship between the independent variable (Moral standards, religious inclination, age and the dependent variable ( satisfaction in life)
  42. 42. THANK YOU!

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