History of social welfare and social work


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History of social welfare and social work

  1. 1. History of Social WelfareHistory of Social Welfare and Social Workand Social Work Compiled by:Compiled by: Florence Flores-Pasos, RSW, MSWFlorence Flores-Pasos, RSW, MSW
  2. 2. Social WelfareSocial Welfare Everything that men do for the good of societyEverything that men do for the good of society ““An organized concern of all people for all people”An organized concern of all people for all people” ““An organized system of social services andAn organized system of social services and institutions designed to aid individuals and groups toinstitutions designed to aid individuals and groups to attain satisfying standards of life and health”attain satisfying standards of life and health”
  3. 3. Social WorkSocial Work A profession that is concerned with manA profession that is concerned with man’s’s adjustment to his environment and the enhancementadjustment to his environment and the enhancement of his social functioningof his social functioning A profession which is primarily concerned withA profession which is primarily concerned with organized social service activity aimed to facilitateorganized social service activity aimed to facilitate and strengthen basic social relationships and theand strengthen basic social relationships and the mutual adjustment between individuals and theirmutual adjustment between individuals and their social environment for the good of the individual andsocial environment for the good of the individual and of societyof society
  4. 4. EuropeEurope (16(16thth -19-19thth century)century) United StatesUnited States (18(18thth -20-20thth century)century) PhilippinesPhilippines (16(16thth -20-20thth century)century)
  5. 5. EUROPEEUROPE 1536 A law was passed in England stating that alms collected by local authorities and churches on Sundays, holidays or festivals were to help relieve the sick and the poor Focus: Poor Sick Impotent Persons with illnesses who were not able to work
  6. 6. EUROPEEUROPE Provisions of the law: Illegality of begging Responsibility of society to help Assistance by and through the local community Voluntary alms Under the direction of the state
  7. 7. EUROPEEUROPE 1572 Overseers of the poor were appointed as Civil Officers in each parish Parliamentary enactment at this time provided for a direct public tax for assistance to the poor and destitute
  8. 8. EUROPEEUROPE Elizabethan Poor Laws – these laws were enacted during the reign of Queen Elizabeth Toward the close of the 16th century: a civic sense of responsibility on a nationwide basis had developed in England
  9. 9. EUROPEEUROPE 1598 An act was passed and revised in 1601 that provided a systematic plan for helping the poor and established a system of public responsibility implemented through local care In operation until 1834
  10. 10. EUROPEEUROPE Act of 1601 Played an important role in the development of social welfare in Europe, in the United States and elsewhere. 3 Classes of the Poor: 1.able bodied poor 2.impotent poor 3.dependent children
  11. 11. EUROPEEUROPE 18th Century Situations that warranted assistance to the poor: Industrial revolution Urbanization Slums Anonymity in living
  12. 12. EUROPEEUROPE 18th Century Begging, almsgiving, charity, workhouses Orphanages, insane asylums, jails There were attempts to help the poor in a dignified manner and various programs, both public and private came into existence
  13. 13. EUROPEEUROPE 1834: Poor Law Provided for a centralized administration with a pattern of uniformity throughout the country Central Authority: 3 Poor Law Commissioners The country were divided into districts (poor law unions) that replaced the parishes as units of administration Each district had an elective Board of Guardians with salaried officers who were responsible for the administration of relief
  14. 14. EUROPEEUROPE 1834: Poor Law Workhouse – where relief was administered - relief to able-bodied persons outside the workhouse was abolished
  15. 15. EUROPEEUROPE 1860s London Society for Organizing Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendicancy or London Charity Organizations (LCO) There was a considerable increase in the number of applicants for aid Social reform, innovations and change Pioneers in Social Welfare: Octavia Hill and Edward Denison (their efforts paved the way to the organization of the LCO)
  16. 16. United StatesUnited States The roots of social welfare in America had their beginnings in Europe particularly related to the Elizabethan Poor Laws of England. Towns and local communities assumed responsibilities for aiding the unfortunate and disadvantaged
  17. 17. United StatesUnited States Colonial Period: Voluntary acts of service Individuals and families would care for themselves, but if further difficulties existed, friends, neighbors or representatives of the community would volunteer to meet their needs
  18. 18. United StatesUnited States 1800s Organizations and associations were formed and the act of helping became more formalized Seminaries, inns, churches, hospitals, prisons, schools Interaction with the needy, the ill and other social problems; distribution of books and sending of missionaries in certain places
  19. 19. United StatesUnited States 1800s Home for Little Wanderers Penitent Female Refuge Home for Intemperate Women Volunteer efforts were frequently marked by a condescending attitude toward the recipients of services
  20. 20. United StatesUnited States Volunteer services: 25 members of a Junior League spent half a day a week in assisting activities in the local comprehensive mental health center The Medical Wives Auxiliary perform a variety kind of tasks in local hospitals Volunteers from churches and religious groups minister to the sick, the poor, the destitute and unfortunate
  21. 21. United StatesUnited States Working as volunteer is characteristic of the American way of life. 1965 USDOL reported 22 M individuals made contributions to some health, education or welfare service on a voluntary basis 1974: 37 million were listed as volunteers
  22. 22. United StatesUnited States The emergence of the social work profession 1915-1950
  23. 23. United StatesUnited States Developing out of volunteer work came social work as an occupation Special relief Department of the United States Sanitary Commission – the first to employ social workers as Special Relief Agents (mostly women) Clients: soldiers and their families experiencing social and health problems during the civil war The agency later ceased functioning and social workers temporarily disappeared
  24. 24. United StatesUnited States 1863 Massachusetts Board of Charities (MBC)was established Coordinated services in almshouses, hospitals and other institutions Functions were basically inspection and advice Initiated by Samuel Gridley Howe and the director was Frank B. Sanborn The board gained wide acceptance
  25. 25. United StatesUnited States 1863 The causes of poverty identified by the MBC: Physical degradation and inferiority Moral perversity Mental incapacity Accidents and infirmities Unjust and unwise laws Customs of society Paid staff were required to deal with such complex situations
  26. 26. United StatesUnited States Early 1870s The concept of state boards spread to other states and many achieved greater administrative responsibilities 1900s Responsibility for program management was achieved
  27. 27. United StatesUnited States 1877 Charity Organization Society (COS) of Buffalo was established Function: Finding means to help the poor and preventing the poor from taking advantage of the numerous uncoordinated social agencies that had developed in many communities. “Friendly visitors” – they were trained people to contact clients. They believed poverty could be eradicated thru the introduction of additional scientific Techniques: planned intervention or treatment
  28. 28. United StatesUnited States 1893 Nathaniel Rosenau of the COS questioned the right of the superannuated clergyman, unsuccessful merchant or political favorite to serve as manager of a charitable society or institution He concluded that it was necessary that persons in charge of this work be specially trained, have a calling for the work and intend to devote themselves to it.
  29. 29. United StatesUnited States 1898 The New York School of Philantropy was formed under the guidance of Edward T. Devine, secretary of the New York COS From a 6-week summer session to one year then two year training for social workers
  30. 30. United StatesUnited States 1886 Initiation of the settlement movement Settlement houses were established and patterned after the settlement houses of London’s Toynbee Hall Purpose: to deal with the problems of the city and its poor focusing mostly on immigrants Pioneers in this movement: Stanton Coit and Jane Addams – they established settlement houses in New York and Chicago
  31. 31. United StatesUnited States Settlement Workers: Friendly contact with the poor Acquired knowledge and understanding of the daily life and trials of the urban masses Where others thought of the people of the slums as miserable wretches deserving either pity or correction, settlement residents knew them as much entitled to respect as any other members of the community This attitude was the most important contribution of the settlement movement to social welfare
  32. 32. United StatesUnited States 1905 The first medical social work department was established by Ida Cannon at the Massachusets General Hospital Medical social service invigorated the quest for professional skill and technique and the implications of casework theory and practice. It demanded new and special instruction and expertise as opposed to relief and economic dependency. “Human kindness alone cannot solve tangled social problems” Ida Cannon
  33. 33. United StatesUnited States Medical social work: Medical social workers became interested in professional education as a means of moving from the “warm-heart” position into an understanding of the psychic or social conditions at the base of patient distress With professional education, it would be possible to move into a colleague relationship with the physician
  34. 34. United StatesUnited States 1912 A one-year course in medical social work was established in the Boston School of Social Work 1915 Meeting of the National Conference on Charities and Corrections Abraham Flexner, an authority on graduate education asked: Is social work a profession?
  35. 35. United StatesUnited States 18th and 19th centuries: Industrialization Greater mobility Increase in population and accompanying social problems implied the increase in public and private social services
  36. 36. United StatesUnited States 1935 The Social Security Act revolutionized the total social welfare scene Provisions: Public assistance Social insurance Unemployment insurance Aid to dependent children Aid to the blind Other special services
  37. 37. United StatesUnited States 1962 Major modifications in the act Additional provisions: Additional federal participation Liberalization of grants Safeguarding the rights of children and families Greater emphasis on rehabilitation and preventive social welfare
  38. 38. United StatesUnited States 1965 amendments to the act – expanding medical and health care system in the US Medicare Encompassed a compulsory hospital insurance plan and a voluntary supplemental medical insurance Medicaid Provided medical care to low income people
  39. 39. United StatesUnited States 1898 The Charity Organization in New York initiated a summer training course on social work education 1904 The course developed inhto a one-year training program within the New York School of Philantrophy
  40. 40. United StatesUnited States 1921 The American Association of Social Workers was created, the first major professional social work body 1955 National Association of Social Workers was created based on the amalgamation of 7 smaller specialized social work associations As of 1977, it had 154,000 members 1995: NASW’s 40th anniversary
  41. 41. United StatesUnited States 1974 The CSWE approved the accreditation of the undergraduate programs in SW or social welfare
  42. 42. PhilippinesPhilippines Pre-historic period Social welfare centered on mutual protection and economic survival among the people in the “barangays”
  43. 43. PhilippinesPhilippines Spanish Period Communities were formed into “pueblos” creating large concentrations of people in an area resulting in: Health and sanitation problems Personal maladjustments Economic dislocation Destitution or indigency due to the punitive methods of the Spanish conquerors
  44. 44. PhilippinesPhilippines Encomenderos provided the sick and the poor with aid Primary motivation: religious: to do good to others for the salvation of their souls. This was the underlying philosophy behind all social welfare activities in the country
  45. 45. PhilippinesPhilippines The Spanish missionaries administered Hospitals Orphanages Asylums Schools 1885 The Asilo de San Vicente de Paul, an asylum for girls, was established
  46. 46. PhilippinesPhilippines 1565 Parochial School of Cebu – the first school to be established Other school were soon established
  47. 47. PhilippinesPhilippines 1589 Colegio de San Ignacio 1595 San Ildefonso College 1601 Colegio de San Jose 1717 College de San Felipe 1754 Artillery School 1859 Ateneo de Manila (out of the original school: Obras Pias in 1817) 1694 Santa Isabel 1750 Santa Rosa 1696 Santa Catalina
  48. 48. PhilippinesPhilippines After the 1850s, public school started to be put up in the country 1867 There were 593 primary schools in the country Hospitals, asylums, orphanages and schools were subsidized by the Spanish gov’t with some donations from philantrophic individuals
  49. 49. PhilippinesPhilippines The outbreak of the revolution against the Spanish government in the country led to efforts that were directed mainly at the sick and wounded Filipino soldiers who needed medical care “Hermanos”, a religious order and women Provided leadership in nursing the wounded in the battlefields particularly after the execution of Dr. Jose Rizal on Dec. 30, 1896
  50. 50. PhilippinesPhilippines 1899 The National Association of the Red Cross was organized Provided medical supplies and food to the revolutionaries in the provinces of Luzon
  51. 51. PhilippinesPhilippines American Period 1899 The Philippines was occupied by America New educational system New health methods Religious freedom
  52. 52. PhilippinesPhilippines 1902 The Insular Board was created following an epidemic of bubonic plague, cholera and small pox Function: to coordinate and supervise private institutions engaged in social work
  53. 53. PhilippinesPhilippines 1908 The Philippine General Hospital was established 1915 Public Welfare Board legislative act no. 2510 To coordinate the welfare activities of various Charitable organizations
  54. 54. PhilippinesPhilippines 1910 School for the deaf and blind 1917 Associated Charities of Manila Functioned as a “community chest”, centralized the receipt and distribution of donations to different charitable organizations 1905 Philippine chapter of the American Red Cross
  55. 55. PhilippinesPhilippines 1907 La Gota de Leche furnished child-caring institutions with fresh cow’s milk. Offered free consultation clinic for mothers 1910 Philippine Anti- Tuberculosis Society 1911 Tuberculosis Sanitarium in QC
  56. 56. PhilippinesPhilippines 1913 Association de Damas Filipinas Helped destitute mothers and their children founded a settlement house on Rizal Ave in Manila chronic illness, accidents, broken homes
  57. 57. PhilippinesPhilippines 1921 Office of the Public Welfare Commmissioner (PWC) Under the Department of Interior Absorbed the functions of the Public Welfare Board Coordinating and intensifying the activities of child welfare organizations and agencies
  58. 58. PhilippinesPhilippines 1933 A law was passed requiring any person, corporation, organization or association desiring to solicit or receive contributions for charitable or public welfare purposes 1924 The associated charities had become an independent agency under the supervision of the PWC
  59. 59. PhilippinesPhilippines 1924 Phil Legislative Act No. 3203 Care and custody of neglected and delinquent children There were reformatories in Manila for boys and for girls under PWC 1926 Welfareville – a 50-hectare compound in San Felipe Neri (now Mandaluyong) under PWC Divison of Dependent children
  60. 60. PhilippinesPhilippines “Congragate system” of the division: Wards were grouped in separate cottages based on children’s needs and problems 1933 Frank Murphy became governor general Scholarship grants for professional training in social work in the US were made available
  61. 61. PhilippinesPhilippines Other developments during the administration of Murphy: Maternal health centers in each town Social health centers in selected communities First housing committee that undertook the study of slums (31 houses in Tondo) Private colleges and technical schools National Economic Protectionism (NEPA) established to promote home industries
  62. 62. PhilippinesPhilippines Unemployment Committee which recommended the creation of a National Emergency Relief Board to relieve distress caused by unemployment and to reduce unemployment; later extended to typhoon victims Women suffrage campaign – signed a law enfranchising women in 1933 that took effect in 1937
  63. 63. PhilippinesPhilippines Prominent Persons: Dr. Jose Fabella – Director of PWC Josefa Jara Martinez – obtained a diploma in social work from the New York School of Social Work in 1921; she worked for the Public Welfare Board where she started to introduce the scientific approach in social work and then was detailed to the Associated Charities
  64. 64. PhilippinesPhilippines Frank Murphy It was during his administration that the government took full responsibility for the relief of the distressed due to any cause.
  65. 65. PhilippinesPhilippines Commonwealth Period (Manuel L. Quezon) Filipinos took over the government Rural charity clinics A home for mentally defective children and for the aged in Welfareville Anti-usury laws 8-hour labor law; minimum wages Laws related to insurance, pensions, women and child labor
  66. 66. PhilippinesPhilippines Commonwealth Period (Manuel L. Quezon) Housing projects Relief boards and other bodies Creation of the Department of Health and Public Welfare
  67. 67. PhilippinesPhilippines Japanese Occupation Medical care and treatment and provision of food and clothing to the wounded soldiers, prisoners and civilians during World War II Relief work was undertaken by volunteer organizations Workers of the Philippine war relief, Inc. organized in the US accompanied the liberating army when it landed in Leyte
  68. 68. PhilippinesPhilippines Bureau of Public Welfare was closed during the war and reopened in 1946. 1947 it became the Social Welfare Commission under the Office of the President This signified the formal recognition of social welfare as a responsibility by the state
  69. 69. PhilippinesPhilippines Bureau of Public Welfare was closed during the war and reopened in 1946. 1947 it became the Social Welfare Commission under the Office of the President This signified the formal recognition of social welfare as a responsibility by the state
  70. 70. PhilippinesPhilippines Three Categories of Services of the Commission: 1. Child welfare work (probation and parole, institutional care) 2. Public assistance (relief and casework) 3. Coordination and supervision of all public welfare activities
  71. 71. PhilippinesPhilippines 1948 Pres. Quirino created the President’s Action Committee on Social Amelioration (PACSA) Gave relief assistance to the hungry, the homeless and the sick. UNICEF – United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund was created in 1946 by the United Nations general Assembly (maternal and child health)
  72. 72. PhilippinesPhilippines 1949 Council of Welfare Agencies of the Phils Community Chest of Greater Manila Early 1950s Philippine Youth Welfare Coordinating Council (PYWCC)
  73. 73. PhilippinesPhilippines 1951 The Social Welfare Commission and PACSA were fused into one agency called Social Welfare Administration Responsibility for relief was taken over by its Division of Public Assistance Was concerned with the need for a more professional administration of public tax supported welfare programs Accepted field practice students and conducted surveys
  74. 74. PhilippinesPhilippines 1968 Marcos signed RA 5416 Social Welfare Act elevating the Social Welfare Administration into a Department 1970s Martial Law (1972) Marcos set up a crisis government Developmental decades (1960s and 1970s) The UN called on nations to focus on developmental efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of people
  75. 75. PhilippinesPhilippines 1976 The Dept of Social Welfare became the Department of Social Services and Development (DSSD) From the traditional, institution-based social welfare to community-oriented programs and services which underscored people’s own capacities for problem-solving 1978 Conversion of departments into Ministries
  76. 76. PhilippinesPhilippines 1976 The Dept of Social Welfare became the Department of Social Services and Development (DSSD) From the traditional, institution-based social welfare to community-oriented programs and services which underscored people’s own capacities for problem-solving 1978 Conversion of departments into Ministries
  77. 77. PhilippinesPhilippines 1980s The Ministry of Social Services and Development (MSSD) banner program: the Self-Employment Assistance case management system
  78. 78. PhilippinesPhilippines 1987 Pres. Corazon Aquino signed Executive Order No. 123 reorganizing the MSSD and renaming it Department of Social Welfare and Development “evolving from mere welfare or relief agency to the greater task of development”
  79. 79. PhilippinesPhilippines 1990s-Early 2008 October 10, 1991 RA 7160 or the Local Government Code was passed The DSWD devolved its functions, programs and services, direct services workers, budget and assets and liabilities to the local government units starting 1992.
  80. 80. PhilippinesPhilippines The national DSWD became leaner and more responsive Four categories of social services: Center-institution based services Community-based programs and services Locally funded and foreign assisted projects Disaster relief and rehabilitation augmentation
  81. 81. PhilippinesPhilippines In the 90s, the DSWD moved from its traditional image of service provider to one that leads in social welfare policy and program development, provision of technical assistance, capability-building and augmentation support to local government units (LGU), non-government organizations (NGO) and people’s organizations (PO)
  82. 82. PhilippinesPhilippines Vision of the DSWD Poverty eradication and empowerment of disadvantaged individuals, families and communities with capability to improve their quality of life through the provision of assistance to LGUs, Pos, NGOs, NGAs (other national government agencies) and other members of civil society
  83. 83. PhilippinesPhilippines The NGOs They supplement government efforts Defined as “private, non-profit, voluntary organizations that are committed to the task of socio-economic development and established primarily for service” The number of NGOs began to grow after the EDSA Revolution in 1986
  84. 84. PhilippinesPhilippines NGO Classifications: 1. Primary NGOs – also called POs, direct organizations of the beneficiaries themselves 2. Secondary/intermediate – composed of different professions providing services to the beneficiaries 3. Tertiary – usually a network of NGOs established for mutual assistance or for special purposes
  85. 85. PhilippinesPhilippines 1999 Philippine Council for NGO Certification was launched by NGO networks to regulate the operation of NGOs Certifies NGOs applying for donee institution status based on specific standards: professionalism, transparency and accountability Has certified 858 applicants out more than 1,500 applications over a period of 9 years
  86. 86. The Development of theThe Development of the Social Work Profession inSocial Work Profession in the Philippinesthe Philippines
  87. 87. PhilippinesPhilippines The mother of the SW profession in the Phils: The Associated Charities (1917) First to use casework First to use social workers as full time, paid employees The first to hire a trained social worker as its Executive Secretary (Josefa Jara Martinez then later Asuncion A. Perez who was also educated in the US)
  88. 88. PhilippinesPhilippines 1947 The seven or eight social workers who had gone to the US before the war to pursue formal social work education formed the Philippine Association of Social Workers (PASW) Nurturing the development of the social work profession
  89. 89. PhilippinesPhilippines 1950 The Philippine School of Social Work was established One-year program: Master of Arts in Social Administration – Josefa Jara Martinez was the school’s first director 1951- graduate program expanded to two years and the degree changed to Master of Social Work
  90. 90. PhilippinesPhilippines The University of the Philippines and Centro Escolar University also started offering social work courses at the grduate level 1956 The Civil Service Commission gave an examination for social workers
  91. 91. PhilippinesPhilippines Early 50s The following offered a bachelor’s degree in social work: Philippine School of Social Work Centro Escolar University University of the Philippines University of Santo Tomas
  92. 92. PhilippinesPhilippines A big boost to the professionalization of social work was the launching of the UNICEF- assisted Social Services Project of the Social Welfare Administration in July 1961. Improvement of child welfare services by upgrading the competence of family and child workers (seminars, study grants, pilot projects) leading to the upgrading of SWA personnel salaries
  93. 93. PhilippinesPhilippines 1965 Passage of RA 4373, An Act to Regulate the Practice of Social Work and the Operation of Social Work Agencies in the Philippines Completion of Bachelor of Science in Social Work degree 1,000 hours of supervised field practice Passing of a government board examination in Social Work for licensing or registration as a social worker
  94. 94. PhilippinesPhilippines Creation of a board of examiners (now called Board for Social Workers) that will administer its provisions Empowered the Department of Social Welfare and development (DSWD) to license and accredit public and private organizations for social welfare work The law had a desirable effect of making those already occupying social work positions undergo professional social work education
  95. 95. PhilippinesPhilippines The passing of RA 4373 is generally considered as the formal recognition of social work as a profession in the Philippines As of December 2006 – 16,134 licensed social workers in the Philippines
  96. 96. PhilippinesPhilippines The Philippine Association of Social Workers, Inc. (PASWI) The national organization of social workers in the country Founded on Nov. 12, 1947, incorporated on April 18, 1948, re-incorporated with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1988.
  97. 97. PhilippinesPhilippines As of 2007 - 36 active chapters in different regions of the country 429 lifetime members 1,036 regular members A member of the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) There are 1.5 million professional workers in practice globally
  98. 98. PhilippinesPhilippines PASWI’s Objectives: Promote and maintain a professional standard of social work practice Strengthen the members’ competence Work for better understanding, acceptance and recognition of the profession Work for social legislation in social welfare and development Expansion through local chapters and linkages
  99. 99. PhilippinesPhilippines PASWI’s Accomplishments: Adopted the Phil Soc Work Code of Ethics in 1964, revised in Nov. 1998 Nominated members of the Board for Social Workers (to the President) since 1965 Worked for the passage of RA 4373 in 1965 and its amendments with RA 5175 in 1967 Supported the passage of the SW Act elevating the SWA to DSW in 1968
  100. 100. PhilippinesPhilippines PASWI’s Accomplishments: Served as core of the Phil organizing committee for the SW symposia in the Phils in 1970 Took a stand on issues such as family planning, integration of cultural minorities into society, etc. Submitted proposals to the 1971 constitutional convention
  101. 101. PhilippinesPhilippines PASWI’s Accomplishments: Initiated proposal to merge the DSWD and the Department of Health in the 1980s Supported the package of the Magna Carta for Public Social Workers (RA 9433 on April 11, 2007)
  102. 102. PhilippinesPhilippines Magna Carta for Social Workers For all registered social workers in government service Positions in government for social workers Upgrading of salaries Code of conduct Professional development
  103. 103. Summary:Summary: EuropeEurope Situation of the poor (simple to complex) Presence of laws Role of the parish church Evolving programs and services Public responsibility was emphasized: use of public tax to help the poor; from district units to a nationwide concern Administration by the state From plain charitable work to an organized and systematic way of helping the poor
  104. 104. United StatesUnited States The rise of the profession of Social Work Social work education; medical social work The number of trained social workers increased rapidly at the turn of the 20th century National Association of Social Workers (NASW) became the cenrtal professional body Council on Social Work Education – a national educational body for setting standards From volunteer to paid staff Charity organizations Welfare societies
  105. 105. Prominent PersonsProminent Persons Mary Ellen Richmond (1861-1928) A social work pioneer Worked as Treasurer of the Charity Organization Society The first to develop a structured social work Published “Social Diagnosis” in 1917 – formalized a communicable body of techniques in different settings where social workers were found
  106. 106. Prominent PersonsProminent Persons Dr. Abraham Flexner An authority on graduate education who had made a penetrating study that led to major changes in medical education
  107. 107. Prominent PersonsProminent Persons Dr. Abraham Flexner An authority on graduate education who had made a penetrating study that led to major changes in medical education
  108. 108. PhilippinesPhilippines From charity and relief to social development and empowerment From the sick and homeless to individuals, families and communities Developments in social welfare under the Spaniards, the Americans, the Japanese The professionalization of Social Work Social work education Supportive laws The rise of NGOs and POs as partners Networking and Alliance-building The evolution of the DSWD PASWI
  109. 109. Social Work is committed to theSocial Work is committed to the pursuit of social welfarepursuit of social welfare There is a continuity in theThere is a continuity in the development of social welfare anddevelopment of social welfare and social work in the Philippinessocial work in the Philippines
  110. 110. Thank you!Thank you!