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  • 1. Social Network serviseFacebook, twitter and skype. PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See for more information. PDF generated at: Mon, 12 Sep 2011 17:39:22 UTC
  • 2. ContentsArticlesservise 1 Social network 1Servise 12 Social networking service 12 Facebook 27 Twitter 48 Skype 67References Article Sources and Contributors 85 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 86Article Licenses License 87
  • 3. 1 serviseSocial networkA social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called "nodes", which are tied(connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest,financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.Social network analysis (SNA) views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties(also called edges, links, or connections). Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are therelationships between the actors. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. There can be manykinds of ties between the nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate onmany levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems aresolved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals.In its simplest form, a social network is a map of specified ties, such as friendship, between the nodes being studied.The nodes to which an individual is thus connected are the social contacts of that individual. The network can alsobe used to measure social capital – the value that an individual gets from the social network. These concepts areoften displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines.
  • 4. Social network 2 Social network analysis Social network analysis (related to network theory) has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology. It has also gained a significant following in anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, and sociolinguistics, and has become a popular topic of speculation and study. People have used the idea of "social network" loosely for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. In 1954, J. A. Barnes started using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties, encompassing concepts traditionally used by the public and those used by social scientists: bounded groups (e.g., tribes, families) and social categories (e.g., gender, ethnicity). Scholars such as S.D. Berkowitz, Stephen Borgatti, Ronald Burt, Kathleen An example of a social network diagram. The node with the highest betweenness Carley, Martin Everett, Katherine Faust, centrality is marked in yellow. Linton Freeman, Mark Granovetter, David Knoke, David Krackhardt, Peter Marsden, Nicholas Mullins, Anatol Rapoport, Stanley Wasserman, Barry Wellman, Douglas R. White, and Harrison White expanded the use of systematic social network analysis.[1] Social network analysis has now moved from being a suggestive metaphor to an analytic approach to a paradigm, with its own theoretical statements, methods, social network analysis software, and researchers. Analysts reason from whole to part; from structure to relation to individual; from behavior to attitude. They typically either study whole networks (also known as complete networks), all of the ties containing specified relations in a defined population, or personal networks (also known as egocentric networks), the ties that specified people have, such as their "personal communities".[2] In the latter case, the ties are said to go from egos, who are the focal actors who are being analyzed, to their alters. The distinction between whole/complete networks and personal/egocentric networks has depended largely on how analysts were able to gather data. That is, for groups such as companies, schools, or membership societies, the analyst was expected to have complete information about who was in the network, all participants being both potential egos and alters. Personal/egocentric studies were typically conducted when identities of egos were known, but not their alters. These studies rely on the egos to provide information about the identities of alters and there is no expectation that the various egos or sets of alters will be tied to each other. A snowball network refers to the idea that the alters identified in an egocentric survey then become egos themselves and are able in turn to nominate additional alters. While there are severe logistic limits to conducting snowball network studies, a method for examining hybrid networks has recently been developed in which egos in complete networks can nominate alters otherwise not listed who are then available for all subsequent egos to see.[3] The hybrid network may be valuable for examining whole/complete networks that are expected to include important players beyond those who are formally identified. For example, employees of a company often work with non-company consultants who may be part of a network that cannot fully be defined prior to data collection.
  • 5. Social network 3 Several analytic tendencies distinguish social network analysis:[4] There is no assumption that groups are the building blocks of society: the approach is open to studying less-bounded social systems, from nonlocal communities to links among websites. Rather than treating individuals (persons, organizations, states) as discrete units of analysis, it focuses on how the structure of ties affects individuals and their relationships. In contrast to analyses that assume that socialization into norms determines behavior, network analysis looks to see the extent to which the structure and composition of ties affect norms. The shape of a social network helps determine a networks usefulness to its individuals. Smaller, tighter networks can be less useful to their members than networks with lots of loose connections (weak ties) to individuals outside the main network. More open networks, with many weak ties and social connections, are more likely to introduce new ideas and opportunities to their members than closed networks with many redundant ties. In other words, a group of friends who only do things with each other already share the same knowledge and opportunities. A group of individuals with connections to other social worlds is likely to have access to a wider range of information. It is better for individual success to have connections to a variety of networks rather than many connections within a single network. Similarly, individuals can exercise influence or act as brokers within their social networks by bridging two networks that are not directly linked (called filling structural holes).[5] The power of social network analysis stems from its difference from traditional social scientific studies, which assume that it is the attributes of individual actors—whether they are friendly or unfriendly, smart or dumb, etc.—that matter. Social network analysis produces an alternate view, where the attributes of individuals are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors within the network. This approach has turned out to be useful for explaining many real-world phenomena, but leaves less room for individual agency, the ability for individuals to influence their success, because so much of it rests within the structure of their network. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations. For example, power within organizations often comes more from the degree to which an individual within a network is at the center of many relationships than actual job title. Social networks also play a key role in hiring, in business success, and in job performance. Networks provide ways for companies to gather information, deter competition, and collude in setting prices or policies.[6] History of social network analysis A summary of the progress of social networks and social network analysis has been written by Linton Freeman.[7] Precursors of social networks in the late 1800s include Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (gemeinschaft) or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (gesellschaft). Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. He distinguished between a traditional society – "mechanical solidarity" – which prevails if individual differences are minimized, and the modern society – "organic solidarity" – that develops out of cooperation between differentiated individuals with independent roles. Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, was the first scholar to think directly in social network terms. His essays pointed to the nature of network size on interaction and to the likelihood of interaction in ramified, loosely-knit networks rather than groups (Simmel, 1908/1971). After a hiatus in the first decades of the twentieth century, three main traditions in social networks appeared. In the 1930s, J.L. Moreno pioneered the systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (sociometry), while a Harvard group led by W. Lloyd Warner and Elton Mayo explored
  • 6. Social network 4 interpersonal relations at work. In 1940, A.R. Radcliffe-Browns presidential address to British anthropologists urged the systematic study of networks.[8] However, it took about 15 years before this call was followed-up systematically. Social network analysis developed with the kinship studies of Elizabeth Bott in England in the 1950s and the 1950s–1960s urbanization studies of the University of Manchester group of anthropologists (centered around Max Gluckman and later J. Clyde Mitchell) investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom. Concomitantly, British anthropologist S.F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.[9] In the 1960s-1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. One group was centered around Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations: Ivan Chase, Bonnie Erickson, Harriet Friedmann, Mark Granovetter, Nancy Howell, Joel Levine, Nicholas Mullins, John Padgett, Michael Schwartz and Barry Wellman. Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis.[10] Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who have elaborated and popularized social network analysis.[11] Significant independent work was also done by scholars elsewhere: University of California Irvine social scientists interested in mathematical applications, centered around Linton Freeman, including John Boyd, Susan Freeman, Kathryn Faust, A. Kimball Romney and Douglas White; quantitative analysts at the University of Chicago, including Joseph Galaskiewicz, Wendy Griswold, Edward Laumann, Peter Marsden, Martina Morris, and John Padgett; and communication scholars at Michigan State University, including Nan Lin and Everett Rogers. A substantively-oriented University of Toronto sociology group developed in the 1970s, centered on former students of Harrison White: S.D. Berkowitz, Harriet Friedmann, Nancy Leslie Howard, Nancy Howell, Lorne Tepperman and Barry Wellman, and also including noted modeler and game theorist Anatol Rapoport.In terms of theory, it critiqued methodological individualism and group-based analyses, arguing that seeing the world as social networks offered more analytic leverage.[12] Research Social network analysis has been used in epidemiology to help understand how patterns of human contact aid or inhibit the spread of diseases such as HIV in a population. The evolution of social networks can sometimes be modeled by the use of agent based models, providing insight into the interplay between communication rules, rumor spreading and social structure. SNA may also be an effective tool for mass surveillance – for example the Total Information Awareness program was doing in-depth research on strategies to analyze social networks to determine whether or not U.S. citizens were political threats. Diffusion of innovations theory explores social networks and their role in influencing the spread of new ideas and practices. Change agents and opinion leaders often play major roles in spurring the adoption of innovations, although factors inherent to the innovations also play a role. Robin Dunbar has suggested that the typical size of an egocentric network is constrained to about 150 members due to possible limits in the capacity of the human communication channel. The rule arises from cross-cultural studies in sociology and especially anthropology of the maximum size of a village (in modern parlance most reasonably understood as an ecovillage). It is theorized in evolutionary psychology that the number may be some kind of limit of average human ability to recognize members and track emotional facts about all members of a group. However, it may be due to economics and the need to track "free riders", as it may be easier in larger groups to take advantage of the benefits of living in a community without contributing to those benefits.
  • 7. Social network 5 Mark Granovetter found in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation. Cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits. This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. However, being similar, each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew. To find new information or insights, members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances. This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties". Guanxi (关系)is a central concept in Chinese society (and other East Asian cultures) that can be summarized as the use of personal influence. The word is usually translated as "relation," "connection" or "tie" and is used in as broad a variety of contexts as are its English counterparts. However, in the context of interpersonal relations, Guanxi (关系)is loosely analogous to "clout" or "pull" in the West. Guanxi can be studied from a social network approach.[13] The small world phenomenon is the hypothesis that the chain of social acquaintances required to connect one arbitrary person to another arbitrary person anywhere in the world is generally short. The concept gave rise to the famous phrase six degrees of separation after a 1967 small world experiment by psychologist Stanley Milgram. In Milgrams experiment, a sample of US individuals were asked to reach a particular target person by passing a message along a chain of acquaintances. The average length of successful chains turned out to be about five intermediaries or six separation steps (the majority of chains in that study actually failed to complete). The methods (and ethics as well) of Milgrams experiment were later questioned by an American scholar, and some further research to replicate Milgrams findings found that the degrees of connection needed could be higher.[14] Academic researchers continue to explore this phenomenon as Internet-based communication technology has supplemented the phone and postal systems available during the times of Milgram. A recent electronic small world experiment at Columbia University found that about five to seven degrees of separation are sufficient for connecting any two people through e-mail.[15] Collaboration graphs can be used to illustrate good and bad relationships between humans. A positive edge between two nodes denotes a positive relationship (friendship, alliance, dating) and a negative edge between two nodes denotes a negative relationship (hatred, anger). Signed social network graphs can be used to predict the future evolution of the graph. In signed social networks, there is the concept of "balanced" and "unbalanced" cycles. A balanced cycle is defined as a cycle where the product of all the signs are positive. Balanced graphs represent a group of people who are unlikely to change their opinions of the other people in the group. Unbalanced graphs represent a group of people who are very likely to change their opinions of the people in their group. For example, a group of 3 people (A, B, and C) where A and B have a positive relationship, B and C have a positive relationship, but C and A have a negative relationship is an unbalanced cycle. This group is very likely to morph into a balanced cycle, such as one where B only has a good relationship with A, and both A and B have a negative relationship with C. By using the concept of balances and unbalanced cycles, the evolution of signed social network graphs can be predicted. One study has found that happiness tends to be correlated in social networks. When a person is happy, nearby friends have a 25 percent higher chance of being happy themselves. Furthermore, people at the center of a social network tend to become happier in the future than those at the periphery. Clusters of happy and unhappy people were discerned within the studied networks, with a reach of three degrees of separation: a persons happiness was associated with the level of happiness of their friends friends friends.[16] (See also Emotional contagion.) Some researchers have suggested that human social networks may have a genetic basis.[17] Using a sample of twins from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, they found that in-degree (the number of times a person is named as a friend), transitivity (the probability that two friends are friends with one another), and betweenness centrality (the number of paths in the network that pass through a given person) are all significantly heritable. Existing models of network formation cannot account for this intrinsic node variation, so the researchers propose an alternative "Attract and Introduce" model that can explain heritability and many other features of human social
  • 8. Social network 6 networks.[18] Metrics (measures) in social network analysis Betweenness The extent to which a node lies between other nodes in the network. This measure takes into account the connectivity of the nodes neighbors, giving a higher value for nodes which bridge clusters. The measure reflects the number of people who a person is connecting indirectly through their direct links.[19] Bridge An edge is said to be a bridge if deleting it would cause its endpoints to lie in different components of a graph. Centrality This measure gives a rough indication of the social power of a node based on how well they "connect" the network. "Betweenness," "Closeness," and "Degree" are all measures of centrality. Centralization The difference between the number of links for each node divided by maximum possible sum of differences. A centralized network will have many of its links dispersed around one or a few nodes, while a decentralized network is one in which there is little variation between the number of links each node possesses. Closeness The degree an individual is near all other individuals in a network (directly or indirectly). It reflects the ability to access information through the "grapevine" of network members. Thus, closeness is the inverse of the sum of the shortest distances between each individual and every other person in the network. (See also: Proxemics) The shortest path may also be known as the "geodesic distance." Clustering coefficient A measure of the likelihood that two associates of a node are associates themselves. A higher clustering coefficient indicates a greater cliquishness. Cohesion The degree to which actors are connected directly to each other by cohesive bonds. Groups are identified as ‘cliques’ if every individual is directly tied to every other individual, ‘social circles’ if there is less stringency of direct contact, which is imprecise, or as structurally cohesive blocks if precision is wanted.[20] Degree The count of the number of ties to other actors in the network. See also degree (graph theory). (Individual-level) Density The degree a respondents ties know one another/ proportion of ties among an individuals nominees. Network or global-level density is the proportion of ties in a network relative to the total number possible (sparse versus dense networks). Efficient immunization strategy The acquaintance immunization strategy, propose to immunize friends of randomly selected nodes. It is found to be very efficient compared to random immunization.[21] Flow betweenness centrality The degree that a node contributes to sum of maximum flow between all pairs of nodes (not that node). Eigenvector centrality A measure of the importance of a node in a network. It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the principle that connections to nodes having a high score contribute more to the score of the node
  • 9. Social network 7 in question. Human interaction Links in social networks are formed through human interactions. Scaling laws in human interaction activity were found by Rybski et al.[22] Influential Spreaders A method to identify influential spreaders is described by Kitsak et al.[23] Local bridge An edge is a local bridge if its endpoints share no common neighbors. Unlike a bridge, a local bridge is contained in a cycle. Path length The distances between pairs of nodes in the network. Average path-length is the average of these distances between all pairs of nodes. Prestige In a directed graph prestige is the term used to describe a nodes centrality. "Degree Prestige," "Proximity Prestige," and "Status Prestige" are measures of Prestige. See also degree (graph theory). Radiality Degree an individual’s network reaches out into the network and provides novel information and influence. Reach The degree any member of a network can reach other members of the network. Second order centrality It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the observation that important nodes see a random walk (running on the network) "more regularly" than other nodes.[24] Structural cohesion The minimum number of members who, if removed from a group, would disconnect the group.[25] The relation between fragmentation (Structural cohesion) and percolation theory is discussed by Li et al.[26] Structural equivalence Refers to the extent to which nodes have a common set of linkages to other nodes in the system. The nodes don’t need to have any ties to each other to be structurally equivalent. Structural hole Static holes that can be strategically filled by connecting one or more links to link together other points. Linked to ideas of social capital: if you link to two people who are not linked you can control their communication. Network analytic software Network analytic tools are used to represent the nodes (agents) and edges (relationships) in a network, and to analyze the network data. Like other software tools, the data can be saved in external files. Additional information comparing the various data input formats used by network analysis software packages is available at NetWiki. Network analysis tools allow researchers to investigate large networks like the Internet, disease transmission, etc. These tools provide mathematical functions that can be applied to the network model.
  • 10. Social network 8 Visualization of networks Visual representation of social networks is important to understand the network data and convey the result of the analysis [27]. Many of the analytic software have modules for network visualization. Exploration of the data is done through displaying nodes and ties in various layouts, and attributing colors, size and other advanced properties to nodes. Visual representations of networks may be a powerful method for conveying complex information, but care should be taken in interpreting node and graph properties from visual displays alone, as they may misrepresent structural properties better captured through quantitative analyses.[28] Typical representation of the network data are graphs in network layout (nodes and ties). These are not very easy-to-read and do not allow an intuitive interpretation. Various new methods have been developed in order to display network data in more intuitive format (e.g. Sociomapping). Especially when using social network analysis as a tool for facilitating change, different approaches of participatory network mapping have proven useful. Here participants / interviewers provide network data by actually mapping out the network (with pen and paper or digitally) during the data collection session. One benefit of this approach is that it allows researchers to collect qualitative data and ask clarifying questions while the network data is collected.[29] Examples of network mapping techniques are Net-Map (pen-and-paper based) and VennMaker [30] (digital). Patents There has been rapid growth in the number of US patent applications that cover new technologies related to social networking. The number of published applications has been growing at about 250% per year over the past five years. There are now over 2000 published applications.[32] Only about 100 of these applications have issued as patents, however, largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents. References Number of US social network patent applications [31] [1] Linton Freeman, The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: published per year and patents issued per year Empirical Press, 2006. [2] Wellman, Barry and S.D. Berkowitz, eds., 1988. Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [3] Hansen, William B. and Reese, Eric L. 2009. Network Genie User Manual (https:/ / secure. networkgenie. com/ admin/ documentation/ Network_Genie_Manual. pdf). Greensboro, NC: Tanglewood Research. [4] Freeman, Linton. 2006. The Development of Social Network Analysis. Vancouver: Empirical Pres, 2006; Wellman, Barry and S.D. Berkowitz, eds., 1988. Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [5] Scott, John. 1991. Social Network Analysis. London: Sage. [6] Wasserman, Stanley, and Faust, Katherine. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [7] The Development of Social Network Analysis Vancouver: Empirical Press. [8] A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, "On Social Structure," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute: 70 (1940): 1–12. [9] Nadel, SF. 1957. The Theory of Social Structure. London: Cohen and West. [10] The Networked Individual: A Profile of Barry Wellman (http:/ / www. semioticon. com/ semiotix/ semiotix14/ sem-14-05. html) [11] Mullins, Nicholas. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology. New York: Harper and Row, 1973; Tilly, Charles, ed. An Urban World. Boston: Little Brown, 1974; Mark Granovetter, "Introduction for the French Reader," Sociologica 2 (2007): 1–8; Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [12] Mark Granovetter, "Introduction for the French Reader," Sociologica 2 (2007): 1–8; Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (see also Scott, 2000 and Freeman, 2004). [13] Barry Wellman, Wenhong Chen and Dong Weizhen. “Networking Guanxi." Pp. 221–41 in Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, edited by Thomas Gold, Douglas Guthrie and David Wank. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • 11. Social network 9 [14] Could It Be A Big World After All? (http:/ / www. judithkleinfeld. com/ ar_bigworld. html): Judith Kleinfeld article. [15] Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, Duncan Watts. [16] James H. Fowler and Nicholas A. Christakis. 2008. " Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. (http:/ / www. bmj. com/ cgi/ content/ full/ 337/ dec04_2/ a2338)" British Medical Journal. December 4, 2008: doi:10.1136/bmj.a2338. Media account for those who cannot retrieve the original: Happiness: It Really is Contagious (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=) Retrieved December 5, 2008. [17] Shishkin, Philip (January 27, 2009). "Genes and the Friends You Make" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB123302040874118079. html). Wall Street Journal. . [18] Fowler, J. H.; Dawes, CT; Christakis, NA (10 February 2009). "Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks" (http:/ / jhfowler. ucsd. edu/ genes_and_social_networks. pdf) (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (6): 1720–1724. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806746106. PMC 2644104. PMID 19171900. . [19] The most comprehensive reference is: Wasserman, Stanley, & Faust, Katherine. (1994). Social Networks Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A short, clear basic summary is in Krebs, Valdis. (2000). "The Social Life of Routers." Internet Protocol Journal, 3 (December): 14–25. [20] Cohesive.blocking (http:/ / intersci. ss. uci. edu/ wiki/ index. php/ Cohesive_blocking) is the R program for computing structural cohesion according to the Moody-White (2003) algorithm. This wiki site provides numerous examples and a tutorial for use with R. [21] R. Cohen, S. Havlin, D. ben-Avraham (2003). "Efficient immunization strategies for computer networks and populations" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Efficient+ immunization+ strategies+ for+ computer+ networks+ and+ populations+ + & year=*& match=all). Phys. Rev. Lett 91: 247901. . [22] D. Rybski, S. V. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, F. Liljeros, H. A. Makse (2009). "Scaling laws of human interaction activity" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Scaling+ laws+ of+ human+ interaction+ activity+ + & year=*& match=all). PNAS 106: 12640. . [23] M. Kitsak, L. K. Gallos, S. Havlin, F. Liljeros, L. Muchnik, H. E. Stanley, H.A. Makse (2010). "Identification of influential spreaders in complex networks" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Identification+ of+ influential+ spreaders+ in+ complex+ networks+ + & year=*& match=all). Nature Physics 6: 888. doi:10.1038/nphys1746. . [24] Second order centrality: Distributed assessment of nodes criticity in complex networks, Computer Communications, Volume 34, Issue 5, 15 April 2011, Pages 619-628 [25] Moody, James, and Douglas R. White (2003). "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups." American Sociological Review 68(1):103–127. Online (http:/ / www2. asanet. org/ journals/ ASRFeb03MoodyWhite. pdf): (PDF file). [26] Y. Chen,G. Paul, R. Cohen, S. Havlin, S. P. Borgatti, F. Liljeros, H. E. Stanley (2007). "Percolation theory applied to measures of fragmentation in social networks" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Percolation+ theory+ applied+ to+ measures+ of+ fragmentation+ in+ social+ networks+ + & year=*& match=all). Phys. Rev. E 75: 046107. . [27] http:/ / www. cmu. edu/ joss/ content/ articles/ volume1/ Freeman. html [28] McGrath, Blythe and Krackhardt. 1997. "The effect of spatial arrangement on judgements and errors in interpreting graphs”. Social Networks 19: 223-242. [29] Bernie Hogan, Juan-Antonio Carrasco and Barry Wellman, "Visualizing Personal Networks: Working with Participant-Aided Sociograms," Field Methods 19 (2), May 2007: 116-144. [30] http:/ / www. vennmaker. com/ en/ [31] Mark Nowotarski, "Dont Steal My Avatar! Challenges of Social Network Patents, IP Watchdog, January 23, 2011. (http:/ / ipwatchdog. com/ 2011/ 01/ 23/ don’t-steal-my-avatar-challenges-of-social-networking-patents/ id=14531/ ) [32] USPTO search on published patent applications mentioning “social network” (http:/ / appft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ search-adv. html& r=0& p=1& f=S& l=50& Query=spec/ "social+ network"& d=PG01) Further reading • Barnes, J. A. "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish", Human Relations 7:39–58 • Berkowitz, Stephen D. 1982. An Introduction to Structural Analysis: The Network Approach to Social Research. Toronto: Butterworth. ISBN 0-409-81362-1 • Brandes, Ulrik, and Thomas Erlebach (Eds.). 2005. Network Analysis: Methodological Foundations (http:// Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. • Breiger, Ronald L. 2004. "The Analysis of Social Networks." Pp. 505–526 in Handbook of Data Analysis, edited by Melissa Hardy and Alan Bryman. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-6652-8 Excerpts in pdf format ( • Burt, Ronald S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-84372-X • (Italian) Casaleggio, Davide (2008). TU SEI RETE. La Rivoluzione del business, del marketing e della politica attraverso le reti sociali. ISBN 88-901826-5-2
  • 12. Social network 10 • Carrington, Peter J., John Scott and Stanley Wasserman (Eds.). 2005. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80959-7 • Christakis, Nicholas and James H. Fowler "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years," New England Journal of Medicine 357 (4): 370–379 (26 July 2007) • Reuven Cohen and Shlomo Havlin (2010). Complex Networks: Structure, Robustness and Function (http:// Havlin books_com_net.php). Cambridge University Press. • Doreian, Patrick, Vladimir Batagelj, and Anuška Ferligoj. (2005). Generalized Blockmodeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84085-6 • Freeman, Linton C. (2004) The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver: Empirical Press. ISBN 1-59457-714-5 • Hill, R. and Dunbar, R. 2002. "Social Network Size in Humans." ( and Dunbar 2003.pdf) Human Nature, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 53–72. • Jackson, Matthew O. (2003). "A Strategic Model of Social and Economic Networks". Journal of Economic Theory 71: 44–74. doi:10.1006/jeth.1996.0108. pdf ( Artículos del curso/Jackson-Wolinsky-JET.pdf) • Huisman, M. and Van Duijn, M. A. J. (2005). Software for Social Network Analysis. In P J. Carrington, J. Scott, & S. Wasserman (Editors), Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (pp. 270–316). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80959-7 • Krebs, Valdis (2006) Social Network Analysis, A Brief Introduction. (Includes a list of recent SNA applications Web Reference ( • Ligon, Ethan; Schechter, Laura, "The Value of Social Networks in rural Paraguay" ( seminars/network value.pdf), University of California, Berkeley, Seminar, March 25, 2009, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley • Lima, Francisco W. S., Hadzibeganovic, Tarik, and Dietrich Stauffer (2009). Evolution of ethnocentrism on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert networks. Physica A, 388(24), 4999–5004. • Lin, Nan, Ronald S. Burt and Karen Cook, eds. (2001). Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. ISBN 0-202-30643-7 • Mullins, Nicholas. 1973. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-044649-8 • Müller-Prothmann, Tobias (2006): Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation. Framework, Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development, Frankfurt a. M. et al.: Peter Lang, ISBN 0-8204-9889-0. • Manski, Charles F. (2000). "Economic Analysis of Social Interactions". Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (3): 115–36. doi:10.1257/jep.14.3.115. (<115:EAOSI>2.0. CO;2-I&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage) via JSTOR • Moody, James, and Douglas R. White (2003). "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups." American Sociological Review 68(1):103–127. ( ASRFeb03MoodyWhite.pdf) • Newman, Mark (2003). "The Structure and Function of Complex Networks". SIAM Review 56 (2): 167–256. doi:10.1137/S003614450342480. pdf ( Newman2003SIAM.pdf) • Nohria, Nitin and Robert Eccles (1992). Networks in Organizations. second ed. Boston: Harvard Business Press. ISBN 0-87584-324-7 • Nooy, Wouter d., A. Mrvar and Vladimir Batagelj. (2005). Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84173-9 • Scott, John. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. 2nd Ed. Newberry Park, CA: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-6338-3
  • 13. Social network 11 • Sethi, Arjun. (2008). Valuation of Social Networking ( socialnetworkvaluation.pdf) • Tilly, Charles. (2005). Identities, Boundaries, and Social Ties. Boulder, CO: Paradigm press. ISBN 1-59451-131-4 • Valente, Thomas W. (1995). Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovations. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. ISBN 1-881303-21-7 • Wasserman, Stanley, & Faust, Katherine. (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38269-6 • Watkins, Susan Cott. (2003). "Social Networks." Pp. 909–910 in Encyclopedia of Population. rev. ed. Edited by Paul George Demeny and Geoffrey McNicoll. New York: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 0-02-865677-6 • Watts, Duncan J. (2003). Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11704-7 • Watts, Duncan J. (2004). Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32542-3 • Wellman, Barry (1998). Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1150-0 • Wellman, Barry. 2001. "Physical Place and Cyber-Place: Changing Portals and the Rise of Networked Individualism." International Journal for Urban and Regional Research 25 (2): 227–52. • Wellman, Barry and Berkowitz, Stephen D. (1988). Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24441-2 • Weng, M. (2007). A Multimedia Social-Networking Community for Mobile Devices Interactive Telecommunications Program, Tisch School of the Arts/ New York University • White, Harrison, Scott Boorman and Ronald Breiger. 1976. "Social Structure from Multiple Networks: I Blockmodels of Roles and Positions." American Journal of Sociology 81: 730–80. External links • Introduction to Stochastic Actor-Based Models for Network Dynamics - Snijder et al. (http://stat.gamma.rug. nl/SnijdersSteglichVdBunt2009.pdf) • Social Networking ( Social_Networking/) at the Open Directory Project • The International Network for Social Network Analysis ( (INSNA) – professional society of social network analysts, with more than 1,000 members • Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems (CASOS) at Carnegie Mellon (http:// • NetLab at the University of Toronto, studies the intersection of social, communication, information and computing networks ( • Netwiki ( (wiki page devoted to social networks; maintained at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) • Building networks for learning ( – A guide to on-line resources on strengthening social networking. • Program on Networked Governance ( – Program on Networked Governance, Harvard University • The International Workshop on Social Network Analysis and Mining ( (SNAKDD) - An annual workshop on social network analysis and mining, with participants from computer science, social science, and related disciplines. • Historical Dynamics in a time of Crisis: Late Byzantium, 1204–1453 (a discussion of social network analysis from the point of view of historical studies) (
  • 14. 12 ServiseSocial networking serviceA social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and reflecting of socialnetworks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or activities. A social networkservice essentially consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety ofadditional services. Most social network services are web based and provide means for users to interact over theInternet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a socialnetwork service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered servicewhereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities,events, and interests within their individual networks.The main types of social networking services are those which contain category places (such as former school year orclassmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages) and a recommendation systemlinked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with Facebook and Twitter widely used worldwide,Nexopia (mostly in Canada);[1] Bebo,[2] VKontakte, Hi5, Hyves (mostly in The Netherlands), (mostlyin Latvia), StudiVZ (mostly in Germany), iWiW (mostly in Hungary), Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Nasza-Klasa(mostly in Poland), Decayenne, Tagged, XING,[3] Badoo[4] and Skyrock in parts of Europe;[5] Orkut and Hi5 inSouth America and Central America;[6] and Mixi, Multiply, Orkut, Wretch, renren and Cyworld in Asia and thePacific Islands and LinkedIn and Orkut are very popular in India.There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests(see the FOAF standard and the Open Source Initiative). A 2011 survey found that 47% of American adults used asocial network.[7]HistoryThe potential for computer networking to facilitate new forms of computer-mediated social interaction wassuggested early on.[8] Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in manyearly online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, and bulletin board services (BBS). Manyprototypical features of social networking sites were also present in online services such as America Online, Prodigy,and CompuServe. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized onlinecommunities such as (1995),[9] Geocities (1994) and (1995). Many of these earlycommunities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms, and encouragedusers to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy-to-use publishing tools andfree or inexpensive webspace. Some communities - such as - took a different approach by simplyhaving people link to each other via email addresses. In the late 1990s, user profiles became a central feature ofsocial networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of "friends" and search for other users with similar interests.New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s, and many sites began to develop moreadvanced features for users to find and manage friends.[10] This newer generation of social networking sites began toflourish with the emergence of in 1997,[11] followed by Makeoutclub in 2000,[12] [13] Friendster in2002,[14] and soon became part of the Internet mainstream. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn ayear later, and finally, Bebo. Attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites popularity, by 2005, MySpacewas reportedly getting more page views than Google. Facebook,[15] launched in 2004, has since become the largestsocial networking site in the world.[16] Today, it is estimated that there are now over 200 active sites using a wide
  • 15. Social networking service 13 variety of social networking models. May 2011: Based on TNS research, the global average of who access daily the social networking sites accounts is 46 percent.[17] Social impacts Web based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders.[18] Through e-mail and instant messaging, online communities are created where a gift economy and reciprocal altruism are encouraged through cooperation. Information is particularly suited to gift economy, as information is a nonrival good and can be gifted at practically no cost.[19] [20] Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the object of scholarly research. Scholars in many fields have begun to investigate the impact of social networking sites, investigating how such sites may play into issues of identity, privacy,[21] social capital, youth culture, and education.[22] Several websites are beginning to tap into the power of the social networking model for philanthropy. Such models provide a means for connecting otherwise fragmented industries and small organizations without the resources to reach a broader audience with interested users.[23] Social networks are providing a different way for individuals to communicate digitally. These communities of hypertexts allow for the sharing of information and ideas, an old concept placed in a digital environment. In 2011, HCL Technologies conducted research which showed that 50% of British employers had banned the use of social networking sites/services during office hours.[24] [25] Typical structure Basics Social networking sites share some conventional features. Most often, individual users are encouraged to create profiles containing various information about themselves. Users can often upload pictures of themselves to their profiles, post blog entries for others to read, search for other users with similar interests, and compile and share lists of contacts. In addition, user profiles often have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. To protect user privacy, social networks usually have controls that allow users to choose who can view their profile, contact them, add them to their list of contacts, and so on. In recent years, it has also become common for a wide variety of organizations to create profiles to advertise products and services. Additional features Some social networks have additional features, such as the ability to create groups that share common interests or affiliations, upload or stream live videos, and hold discussions in forums. Geosocial networking co-opts Internet mapping services to organize user participation around geographic features and their attributes. There is also a trend for more interoperability between social networks led by technologies such as OpenID and OpenSocial. Lately, mobile social networking has become popular. In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles, make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share photos and videos, and share blogs by using their mobile phone. Some companies provide wireless services which allow their customers to build their own mobile community and brand it, but one of the most popular wireless services for social networking in North America is Facebook Mobile.
  • 16. Social networking service 14 Emerging trends in social networking As the increase in popularity of social networking is on a constant rise,[26] new uses for the technology are constantly being observed. At the forefront of emerging trends in social networking sites is the concept of "real-time web" and "location based." Real time allows users to contribute content, which is then broadcasted as it is being uploaded - the concept is analogous to live radio and television broadcasts. Twitter set the trend for "real time" services, where users can broadcast to the world what they are doing, or what is on their minds within a 140 character limit. Facebook followed suit with their "Live Feed" where users activities are streamed as soon as it happens. While Twitter focuses on words, Clixtr, another real time service, focuses on group photo sharing where users can update their photo streams with photos while at an event. Facebook, however, remains easily the greatest photo sharing site - Facebook application and photo aggregator Pixable estimates that Facebook will have 100 billion photos by Summer 2011.[27] Companies have begun to merge business technologies and solutions, such as cloud computing, with social networking concepts. Instead of connecting individuals based on social interest, companies are developing interactive communities that connect individuals based off shared business needs or experiences. Many provide specialized networking tools and applications that can be accessed via their websites, such as LinkedIn. Others companies, such as, have been steadily developing a more "socialized" feel to their career center sites to harness some of the power of social networking sites. These more business related sites have their own nomenclature for the most part but the most common naming conventions are "Vocational Networking Sites" or "Vocational Media Networks", with the former more closely tied to individual networking relationships based on social networking principles. Foursquare gained popularity as it allowed for users to "check-in" to places that they are frequenting at that moment. Gowalla is another such service which functions in much the same way that Foursquare does, leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location-based user experience. Clixtr, though in the real time space, is also a location based social networking site since events created by users are automatically geotagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iPhone app. Recently, Yelp announced its entrance into the location based social networking space through check-ins with their mobile app; whether or not this becomes detrimental to Foursquare or Gowalla is yet to be seen as it is still considered a new space in the Internet technology industry.[28] One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses. Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are great ways to build their brand image. According to Jody Nimetz, author of Marketing Jive,[29] there are five major uses for businesses and social media: to create brand awareness, as an online reputation management tool, for recruiting, to learn about new technologies and competitors, and as a lead generation tool to intercept potential prospects.[29] These companies are able to drive traffic to their own online sites while encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve or change products or services. Social networks and science One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities. Julia Porter Liebeskind et al. have published a study on how new biotechnology firms are using social networking sites to share exchanges in scientific knowledge.[30] They state in their study that by sharing information and knowledge with one another, they are able to "increase both their learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained hierarchical organization." Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become "isolated and irrelevant".
  • 17. Social networking service 15 Social networks and education Social networks are also being used by teachers and students as a communication tool. Because many students are already using a wide-range of social networking sites, teachers have begun to familiarize themselves with this trend and are now using it to their advantage. Teachers and professors are doing everything from creating chat-room forums and groups to extend classroom discussion to posting assignments, tests and quizzes, to assisting with homework outside of the classroom setting. Social networks are also being used to foster teacher-parent communication. These sites make it possible and more convenient for parents to ask questions and voice concerns without having to meet face-to-face. The advent of social networking platforms may also be impacting the way(s) in which learners engage with technology in general. For a number of years, Prenskys (2001) dichotomy of Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of different ages--particularly those born before and after 1980--use technology. Prenskys theory has largely been disproved not least on account of the burgeoning popularity of social networking sites and other metaphors such as White and Le Cornus Visitors and Residents (2011) are gaining greater currency. The use of online social networks by libraries is also an increasingly prevalent and growing tool that is being used to communicate with more potential library users, as well as extending the services provided by individual libraries. Social networks and grassroots organizing Social networks are being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. Extensive use of an array of social networking sites enabled organizers of the 2009 National Equality March to mobilize an estimated 200,000 participants to march on Washington with a cost savings of up to 85% per participant over previous methods.[31] The August 2011 England riots were similarly considered to have escalated and been fuelled by this type of grassroots organization. Social networks and employment A final rise in social network use is being driven by college students using the services to network with professionals for internship and job opportunities. Many studies have been done on the effectiveness of networking online in a college setting, and one notable one is by Phipps Arabie and Yoram Wind published in Advances in Social Network Analysis.[32] Social network hosting service A social network hosting service is a web hosting service that specifically hosts the user creation of web-based social networking services, alongside related applications. Such services are also known as vertical social networks due to the creation of SNSes which cater to specific user interests and niches; like larger, interest-agnostic SNSes, such niche networking services may also possess the ability to create increasingly niche groups of users. An example for this would be Ning. Business model Few social networks currently charge money for membership. In part, this may be because social networking is a relatively new service, and the value of using them has not been firmly established in customers minds. Companies such as MySpace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site. Their business model is based upon large membership count, and charging for membership would be counterproductive.[33] Some believe that the deeper information that the sites have on each user will allow much better targeted advertising than any other site can currently provide.[34] Social networks operate under an autonomous business model, in which a social networks members serve dual roles as both the suppliers and the consumers of content. This is in contrast to a traditional business model, where the
  • 18. Social networking service 16 suppliers and consumers are distinct agents. Revenue is typically gained in the autonomous business model via advertisements, but subscription-based revenue is possible when membership and content levels are sufficiently high.[35] Issues Privacy Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns amongst users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. Users of these services also need to be aware of data theft or viruses. However, large services, such as MySpace and Netlog, often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. In addition, there is a perceived privacy threat in relation to placing too much personal information in the hands of large corporations or governmental bodies, allowing a profile to be produced on an individuals behavior on which decisions, detrimental to an individual, may be taken. Furthermore, there is an issue over the control of data—information that was altered or removed by the user may in fact be retained and/or passed to third parties. This danger was highlighted when the controversial social networking site Quechup harvested e-mail addresses from users e-mail accounts for use in a spamming operation.[36] In medical and scientific research, asking subjects for information about their behaviors is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards, for example, to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent. It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites. These sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to obtain via traditional means. Even though the data are public, republishing it in a research paper might be considered invasion of privacy.[37] Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors. For example, users may disclose personal information, sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy, and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes. "For the Net generation, social networking sites have become the preferred forum for social interactions, from posturing and role playing to simply sounding off. However, because such forums are relatively easy to access, posted content can be reviewed by anyone with an interest in the users personal information".[38] [39] [40] Following plans by the UK government to monitor traffic on social networks[41] schemes similar to E-mail jamming have been proposed for networks such as Twitter and Facebook. These would involve "friending" and "following" large numbers of random people to thwart attempts at network analysis. Data mining Through data mining, companies are able to improve their sales and profitability. With this data, companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behavior. A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of “network analysis software”. This software is able to sort out through the influx of social networking data for any specific company.[42] Facebook has been especially important to marketing strategists. Facebook’s controversial and new “Social Ads” program gives companies access to the millions of profiles in order to tailor their ads to a Facebook user’s own interests and hobbies. However, rather than sell actual user information, Facebook sells tracked “social actions”. That is, they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called “Facebook Beacon”.[43]
  • 19. Social networking service 17 Notifications on websites There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only positive notifications to users. For example sites such as Bebo, Facebook, and Myspace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a persons friends list. Similarly Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another users friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list. This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without confrontation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list. It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships. Access to information Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This prevents unauthorized user(s) from accessing their information.[44] Parents who want to access their childs MySpace or Facebook account have become a big problem for teenagers who do not want their profile seen by their parents. By making their profile private, teens can select who may see their page, allowing only people added as "friends" to view their profile and preventing unwanted viewing of the profile by parents. Most teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents.[45] To edit information on a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require you to login or provide a password. This prevents unauthorized user(s) from adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, and/or other data. Potential for misuse The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. In October 2006, a fake Myspace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier.[46] The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes In July 2008, a Briton, Grant Raphael, was ordered to pay a total of GBP £22,000 (about USD $44,000) for libel and breach of privacy. Raphael had posted a fake page on Facebook purporting to be that of a former schoolfriend Matthew Firsht, with whom Raphael had fallen out in 2000. The page falsely claimed that Firsht was homosexual and that he was dishonest. At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services misuse. In September 2008, the profile of Australian Facebook user Elmo Keep was banned by the sites administrators on the grounds that it violated the sites terms of use. Keep is one of several users of Facebook who were banned from the site on the presumption that their names arent real, as they bear resemblance the names of characters like Sesame Streets Elmo.[47] Risk for child safety Citizens and governments have been concerned by a misuse by child and teenagers of social networking services, particularly in relation to online sexual predators. A certain number of actions have been engaged by governments to better understand the problem and find some solutions. A 2008 panel concluded that technological fixes such as age verification and scans are relatively ineffective means of apprehending online predators.[48] In May 2010, a child pornography social networking site with hundreds of members was dismantled by law enforcement. It was deemed "the largest crimes against children case brought anywhere by anyone."[49]
  • 20. Social networking service 18 Trolling A common misuse of social networking sites such as Facebook is that it is occasionally used to emotionally abuse individuals. Such actions are often referred to as trolling. It is not rare for confrontations in the real world to be translated online. Trolling can occur in many different forms, such as (but not limited to) defacement of deceased person(s) tribute pages, name calling, playing online pranks on volatile individuals and controversial comments with the intention to cause anger and cause arguments. Trolling is not to be confused with cyber-bullying. Online bullying Online bullying, also called cyber-bullying, is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim. Depending on the networking outlet, up to 39% of users admit to being “cyber-bullied”.[50] Danah Boyd, a researcher of social networks quotes a teenager in her article, Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites. The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like MySpace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress.[51] There are not many limitations as to what individuals can post when online. Inherently individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual. Interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. "Benniger (1987) describes how mass media has gradually replaced interpersonal communication as a socializing force. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore themselves, relationships, and share cultural artifacts". A Privacy Paradox [52] Many teens and social networking users may be harming their interpersonal communication by using sites such as Facebook and MySpace. Stated by Baroness Greenfield, an Oxford University Neuroscientist, "My fear is that these technologies are infantilizing the brain into the state of small children who are attracted by buzzing noises and bright lights, who have a small attention span and who live for the moment."[53] The convenience which social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication. Sherry Turkle, the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self, stated, “Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone. And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed--and only for the parts we find useful, comforting, or amusing (Turkle 154).”[54] Furthermore, social network sites can create insincere friendships, Turkle also noted, “They nurture friendships on social-networking sites and then wonder if they are among friends. They become confused about companionship (Turkle 17).”[55] Psychological effects of social networking As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years, people have been spending an excess amount of time on social networking sites and on the Internet in general. The excessive amount of time that people spend on social networking sites has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder.[56] Social networking can also affect the extent to which a person feels lonely. In a Newsweek article, Johannah Cornblatt explains “Social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace may provide people with a false sense of connection that ultimately increases loneliness in people who feel alone.” John T. Cacioppo, a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago, claims that social networking can foster feelings of sensitivity to disconnection, which can lead to loneliness.[57]
  • 21. Social networking service 19 Patents There has been rapid growth in the number of US patent applications that cover new technologies related to social networking. The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since 2003. There are now over 3500 published applications. As many as 7000 applications may be currently on file including those that havent been published yet.[58] Only about 400[59] of these applications have issued as patents, however, largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents and the difficulty in getting these patent applications allowed.[60] Number of US social network patent applications It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the published per year and patents issued per year establishment of new start-up companies.[61] It has also been reported, however, that social networking patents inhibit innovation.[62] On June 15, 2010, the United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded a patent for a "Social Networking System" based on its ownership of PlanetAll.[63] The patent describes a Social Networking System as A networked computer system provides various services for assisting users in locating, and establishing contact relationships with, other users. For example, in one embodiment, users can identify other users based on their affiliations with particular schools or other organizations. The system also provides a mechanism for a user to selectively establish contact relationships or connections with other users, and to grant permissions for such other users to view personal information of the user. The system may also include features for enabling users to identify contacts of their respective contacts. In addition, the system may automatically notify users of personal information updates made by their respective contacts.[64] The patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking site Facebook.[65] Investigations Social networking services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as MySpace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic profiling), probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. In some situations, content posted on MySpace has been used in court.[66] Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. The site, the number one online destination for college students, allows users to create profile pages with personal details. These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school which often include resident assistants and campus police who have signed up for the service.[67] One UK police force has sifted pictures from Facebook and arrested some people who had been photographed in a public place holding a weapon such as a knife (having a weapon in a public place is illegal).[68] Application domains Government applications Social networking is more recently being used by various government agencies. Social networking tools serve as a quick and easy way for the government to get the opinion of the public and to keep the public updated on their activity. The Centers for Disease Control demonstrated the importance of vaccinations on the popular childrens site Whyville and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a virtual island on Second Life where people can explore underground caves or explore the effects of global warming.[69] Similarly, NASA has taken advantage of a few social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr. They are using these tools to aid the
  • 22. Social networking service 20 Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee, whose goal it is to ensure that the nation is on a vigorous and sustainable path to achieving its boldest aspirations in space.[70] Business applications The use of social networking services in an enterprise context presents the potential of having a major impact on the world of business and work (Fraser & Dutta 2008). Social networks connect people at low cost; this can be beneficial for entrepreneurs and small businesses looking to expand their contact bases. These networks often act as a customer relationship management tool for companies selling products and services. Companies can also use social networks for advertising in the form of banners and text ads. Since businesses operate globally, social networks can make it easier to keep in touch with contacts around the world. One example of social networking being used for business purposes is, which aims to interconnect professionals. LinkedIn has over 100 million users in over 200 countries.[71] Another is the use of physical spaces available to members of a social network such as Hub Culture, an invitation only social network for entrepreneurs, and other business influentials, with Pavilions in major cities such as London, UK. Having a physical presence allows members to network in the real world, as well as the virtual, adding extra business value. Applications for social networking sites have extended toward businesses and brands are creating their own, high functioning sites, a sector known as brand networking. It is the idea a brand can build its consumer relationship by connecting their consumers to the brand image on a platform that provides them relative content, elements of participation, and a ranking or score system. Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool. Dating applications Many social networks provide an online environment for people to communicate and exchange personal information for dating purposes. Intentions can vary from looking for a one time date, short-term relationships, and long-term relationships.[72] Most of these social networks, just like online dating services, require users to give out certain pieces of information. This usually includes a users age, gender, location, interests, and perhaps a picture. Releasing very personal information is usually discouraged for safety reasons.[73] This allows other users to search or be searched by some sort of criteria, but at the same time people can maintain a degree of anonymity similar to most online dating services. Online dating sites are similar to social networks in the sense that users create profiles to meet and communicate with others, but their activities on such sites are for the sole purpose of finding a person of interest to date. Social networks do not necessarily have to be for dating; many users simply use it for keeping in touch with friends, and colleagues.[74] However, an important difference between social networks and online dating services is the fact that online dating sites usually require a fee, where social networks are free.[75] This difference is one of the reasons the online dating industry is seeing a massive decrease in revenue due to many users opting to use social networking services instead. Many popular online dating services such as, Yahoo Personals, and are seeing a decrease in users, where social networks like MySpace and Facebook are experiencing an increase in users.[76] The number of Internet users in the U.S. that visit online dating sites has fallen from a peak of 21% in 2003 to 10% in 2006.[77] Whether its the cost of the services, the variety of users with different intentions, or any other reason, it is undeniable that social networking sites are quickly becoming the new way to find dates online.
  • 23. Social networking service 21 Educational applications The National School Boards Association reports that almost 60 percent of students who use social networking talk about education topics online and, surprisingly, more than 50 percent talk specifically about schoolwork. Yet the vast majority of school districts have stringent rules against nearly all forms of social networking during the school day — even though students and parents report few problem behaviors online. Social networks focused on supporting relationships between teachers and their students are now used for learning, educator professional development, and content sharing. Ning for teachers, TermWiki, Learn Central,[78] TeachStreet and other sites are being built to foster relationships that include educational blogs, eportfolios, formal and ad hoc communities, as well as communication such as chats, discussion threads, and synchronous forums. These sites also have content sharing and rating features. Social networks are also emerging as online yearbooks, both public and private. One such service is MyYearbook which allows anyone from the general public to register and connect. A new trend emerging are private label yearbooks only accessible by students, parents and teachers of a particular school similar to Facebook beginning within Harvard. Finance applications The use of virtual currency systems inside social networks create new opportunities for global finance. Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales[79] and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.[80] [81] In May 2010, Carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven. The introduction of carbon to the calculation price of the currency made Ven the first and only currency that is linked to the environment.[82] Medical applications Social networks are beginning to be adopted by healthcare professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions. The advantage of using a dedicated medical social networking site is that all the members are screened against the state licensing board list of practitioners.[83] The role of social networks is especially of interest to pharmaceutical companies who spend approximately "32 percent of their marketing dollars" attempting to influence the opinion leaders of social networks.[84] A new trend is emerging with social networks created to help its members with various physical and mental ailments.[85] For people suffering from life altering diseases, PatientsLikeMe offers its members the chance to connect with others dealing with similar issues and research patient data related to their condition. For alcoholics and addicts, SoberCircle gives people in recovery the ability to communicate with one another and strengthen their recovery through the encouragement of others who can relate to their situation. DailyStrength is also a website that offers support groups for a wide array of topics and conditions, including the support topics offered by PatientsLikeMe and SoberCircle. SparkPeople offers community and social networking tools for peer support during weight loss. Social and political applications Social networking sites have recently showed a value in social and political movements. In the Egyptian revolution, Facebook and Twitter both played a pivotal role in keeping people connected to the revolt. Egyptian activist have credited social networking sites with providing a platform for planning protest and sharing news from Tahrir Square in real time. By presenting a platform for thousands of people to instantaneously share videos of mainly events featuring brutality, social networking proves to be a vital tool in revolutions.[86]
  • 24. Social networking service 22 Open source software There are a number of projects that aim to develop free and open source software to use for social networking services. The projects include Anahita Social Networking Engine,[87] Diaspora, Appleseed Project[88] , OneSocialWeb[89] and StatusNet. These technologies are often referred to as Social engine or Social networking engine software. In the media • In December 2010, Time Magazine named Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg as person of the year. • The Social Network - a 2010 drama biographical film about the origin of Facebook. References • Boyd, Danah; Ellison, Nicole (2007). "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship" [90]. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (1). • Boyd, Danah (2006). "Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites" [91]. First Monday 11 (12). • Ellison, Nicole B.; Steinfield, Charles; Lampe, Cliff (2007). "The benefits of Facebook "friends": Exploring the relationship between college students use of online social networks and social capital" [92]. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12 (4). • Fraser, Matthew; Dutta, Soumitra (2008). Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World [93]. Wiley. ISBN 978-0470740149. • Mazer, J. P.; Murphy, R. E.; Simonds, C. J. (2007). "Ill See You On "Facebook": The Effects of Computer-Mediated Teacher Self-Disclosure on Student Motivation, Affective Learning, and Classroom Climate" [94] . Communication Education 56 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1080/03634520601009710. • Prensky, Marc (2001). "Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants" [95]. On the Horizon 9 (5). • White, D.S.; Le Cornu, A. (2011). "Visitors and Residents: A New Typology for Online Engagement" [96]. First Monday 16 (9). Notes [1] "Nexopia stats on" (http:/ / www. alexa. com/ data/ details/ traffic_details/ nexopia. com). . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [2] Bebo (http:/ / www. techcrunch. com/ 2007/ 08/ 20/ windows-live-messaging-coming-to-bebo/ ) - most popular of its kind in UK,(August 2007): TechCrunch website. Retrieved on January 15, 2008. [3] German Xing Plans Invasion of LinkedIn Turf (http:/ / www. marketingvox. com/ german-xing-plans-invasion-of-linkedin-turf-030727/ ): article from the MarketingVox website. [4] Elevator Pitch: Why Badoo wants to be the next word in social networking (http:/ / blogs. guardian. co. uk/ digitalcontent/ 2008/ 03/ elevator_pitch_why_badoo_wants. html), Mark Sweney , The Guardian, December 24, 2007 , Accessed March 2008. [5] Hi5 popular in Europe (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2007/ 06/ try_try_againorkut_friendster. html): article from the PBS MediaShift website. Retrieved on January 18, 2008. [6] "Why Users Love Orkut" (http:/ / usability. about. com/ od/ websiteaudiences/ a/ Orkut. htm) - 55% of users are Brazilian: website. Retrieved on January 15, 2008, [7] (http:/ / finance. yahoo. com/ family-home/ article/ 112952/ family-that-tweets-wsj?mod=family-kids_parents) [8] The Network Nation 2 by S. Roxanne Hiltz and Murray Turoff (Addison-Wesley, 1978, 1993) [9] Cotriss, David (2008-05-29). "Where are they now:" (http:/ / www. thestandard. com/ news/ 2008/ 05/ 29/ where-are-they-now-theglobe-com). The Industry Standard. . [10] Romm-Livermore, C. & Setzekorn, K. (2008). Social Networking Communities and E-Dating Services: Concepts and Implications. IGI Global. p.271 [11] (http:/ / jcmc. indiana. edu/ vol13/ issue1/ boyd. ellison. html) [12] (http:/ / www. longislandpress. com/ 2010/ 09/ 30/ from-friendster-to-myspace-to-facebook-the-evolution-and-deaths-of-social-networks/ ) [13] (http:/ / www. bnet. com/ videos/ gibby-miller-inventing-the-social-network/ 239462) [14] Knapp, E. (2006). A Parents Guide to Myspace. DayDream Publishers. ISBN 1-4196-4146-8
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[64] US Patent and Trademark Office (http:/ / patft. uspto. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1& Sect2=HITOFF& d=PALL& p=1& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ srchnum. htm& r=1& f=G& l=50& s1=7,739,139. PN. & OS=PN/ 7,739,139& RS=PN/ 7,739,139) Patent number 7,739,139 [65] "Network World" (http:/ / www. networkworld. com/ news/ 2010/ 061710-amazon-social-network-patent. html). Network World. . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [66] "MySpace exposes sex predators" (http:/ / www. news. com. au/ heraldsun/ story/ 0,21985,,00. html), use of its content in the courtroom: Herald and Weekly Times (Australia) website. Retrieved on January 19, 2008. [67] "Getting booked by Facebook" (http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ story/ index. aspx?id=670380), courtesy of campus police: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel website. Retrieved on January 19, 2008. [68] "Police use Facebook to identify weapon carriers" (http:/ / www. journal-online. co. uk/ article/ 5410-police-use-facebook-to-identify-weapon-carriers) The Journal (Edinburgh) website. 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  • 27. Social networking service 25 [70] "OSTP Press Release Announcing Review (pdf, 50k)" (http:/ / www. nasa. gov/ pdf/ 358006main_OSTP Press Release. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [71] "Latest LinkedIn Facts" (http:/ / press. linkedin. com/ about). . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [72] MySpace, Facebook Add Opportunity for Love, Trouble to Online Dating (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,396461,00. html), website. [73] MySpace Adds a Security Monitor (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=5336688), website. [74] Online Dating: Can Social Networks Cut In? (http:/ / www. internetnews. com/ ec-news/ article. php/ 3659911), website. [75] "Online Dating vs. Social Networking – Which Will Emerge as Premier Matchmaker?" (http:/ / localtechwire. com/ business/ local_tech_wire/ opinion/ story/ 2449164/ ). . [76] Social networks vs. dating sites Commentary: Fragmenting may save online dating sites (http:/ / www. marketwatch. com/ news/ story/ story. aspx?guid={4640E6FF-17B8-40D5-901C-098EE74B03DD}), website. [77] Seeking Love Around The Web (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2007/ 12/ 20/ online-dating-love-tech-personal-cx_wt_1221dating. html), website. [78] [79] Wall street journal blog article about Ven (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ economics/ 2009/ 09/ 09/ the-currency-revolution/ ) [80] (http:/ / www. finextra. com/ news/ fullstory. aspx?newsitemid=22475) [81] (http:/ / blog. americancarbonregistry. org/ redd/ american-carbon-registry-offsets-retired-ven-carbon-transaction/ ) [82] (http:/ / www. hubculture. com/ groups/ 237/ news/ 486/ ) [83] "Social Networking: Now Professionally Ready" (http:/ / www. primarypsychiatry. com/ aspx/ articledetail. aspx?articleid=975). . [84] "Social Networks Impact the Drugs Physicians Prescribe According to Stanford Business School Research" (http:/ / www. medadnews. com/ News/ index. cfm?articleid=424455). . [85] Comprehensive listing of medical applications using social networking (http:/ / www. doseofdigital. com/ healthcare-pharma-social-media-wiki/ ) via Dose of Digital [86] Sutter, John D. (21 Feb 2011). "The faces of Egypts Revolution 2.0" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2011/ TECH/ innovation/ 02/ 21/ egypt. internet. revolution/ index. html). . Retrieved 13 May 2011. [87] Anahita Project. "The Anahita Social Networking Engine" (http:/ / www. anahitapolis. com). . Retrieved 2011-01-18. [88] The Appleseed Project. "The Appleseed Project - Open Source Social Networking" (http:/ / opensource. appleseedproject. org). . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [89] "Creating a free, open, and decentralized social networking platform" (http:/ / onesocialweb. org/ ). OneSocialWeb. . Retrieved 2011-03-13. [90] http:/ / jcmc. indiana. edu/ vol13/ issue1/ boyd. ellison. html [91] http:/ / www. firstmonday. org/ issues/ issue11_12/ boyd/ index. html [92] http:/ / jcmc. indiana. edu/ vol12/ issue4/ ellison. html [93] http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=SP92NwAACAAJ [94] http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ ftinterface~content=a769651179~fulltext=713240930 [95] http:/ / www. marcprensky. com/ writing/ Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1. pdf [96] http:/ / firstmonday. org/ Further reading • Alemán, Ana M. Martínez; Wartman, Katherine Lynk, "Online social networking on campus: understanding what matters in student culture" (, New York and London : Routledge, 1st edition, 2009. ISBN 0-415-99019-X • Barham, Nick, Disconnected: Why our kids are turning their backs on everything we thought we knew, 1st ed., Ebury Press, 2004. ISBN 0-09-189586-3 • Baron, Naomi S., Always on : language in an online and mobile world ( books?id=X8-gaJM6NUIC&printsec=frontcover), Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-531305-5 • Cockrell, Cathy, "Plumbing the mysterious practices of digital youth: In first public report from a seminal study, UC Berkeley scholars shed light on kids use of Web 2.0 tools" ( releases/2008/04/28_digitalyouth.shtml), UC Berkeley News, University of California, Berkeley, NewsCenter, 28 April 2008 • Kelsey, Todd (2010), Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between (http:// Networking Spaces:
  • 28. Social networking service 26 From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 9781430225966 • Davis, Donald Carrington, "MySpace Isnt Your Space: Expanding the Fair Credit Reporting Act to Ensure Accountability and Fairness in Employer Searches of Online Social Networking Services" ( edu/publications/journal/pdf/v16n2/davis.pdf), 16 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Poly 237 (2007). • Else, Liz; Turkle, Sherry. "Living online: Ill have to ask my friends" ( pdfsforstwebpage/ST_Living Online.pdf), New Scientist, issue 2569, 20 September 2006. (interview) • Glaser, Mark, Your Guide to Social Networking Online ( digging_deeperyour_guide_to_so_1.html)," PBS MediaShift, August 2007 • Powers, William, Hamlet’s Blackberry : a practical philosophy for building a good life in the digital age, 1st ed., New York : Harper, 2010. ISBN 978-0-06-168716-7 • Video on the History of social networks by WikiLecture (
  • 29. Facebook 27 Facebook Facebook, Inc. Type Private Founded [1] Cambridge, Massachusetts (2004) Founder • Mark Zuckerberg • Eduardo Saverin • Dustin Moskovitz • Chris Hughes Headquarters Palo Alto, California, U.S., currently being moved to Menlo Park, California, U.S. Area served Worldwide Key people • Mark Zuckerberg (CEO) • Chris Cox (VP of Product) • Sheryl Sandberg (COO) • Donald E. Graham (Chairman) Revenue [2] US$2 billion (2010 est.) Net income N/A Employees [3] 2000+ (2010) Website [4] IPv6 support [5] Alexa rank [6] 2 (September 2011) Type of site Social networking service Advertising Banner ads, referral marketing, casual games Registration Required Users [7] 750 million (active in July 2011) Available in Multilingual Launched February 4, 2004 Current status Active Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc.[1] As of July 2011, Facebook has more than 750 million active users.[8] [9] Users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Facebook users must register before using the site. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists, e.g. "People From Work", or "Really Good Friends". The name of the service stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other. Facebook allows any users who declare themselves to be at
  • 30. Facebook 28 least 13 years old to become registered users of the website. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.[10] The websites membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over. However, based on on May 2011, there are 7.5 million children under 13 with accounts, violating the sites terms.[11] A January 2009 study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users, followed by MySpace.[12] Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"[13] Quantcast estimates Facebook has 138.9 million monthly unique U.S. visitors in May 2011.[14] According to Social Media Today, in April 2010 an estimated 41.6% of the U.S. population had a Facebook account.[15] Nevertheless, Facebooks market growth started to stall in some regions, with the site losing 7 million active users in the United States and Canada in May 2011.[16] History Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash, the predecessor to Facebook, on October 28, 2003, while attending Harvard as a sophomore. According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not, and "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the hotter person".[17] [18] To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into the protected areas of Harvards computer network and copied the houses private dormitory ID images. Harvard at that time did not have a student "facebook" (a directory with photos and basic information). Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online.[17] [19] The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy, and faced expulsion. Ultimately, however, the charges were dropped.[20] Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final, by uploading 500 Augustan Mark Zuckerberg co-created images to a website, with one image per page along with a comment section.[19] Facebook in his Harvard dorm room. He opened the site up to his classmates, and people started sharing their notes. The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004. He was inspired, he said, by an editorial in The Harvard Crimson about the Facemash incident.[21] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at[22] Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would
  • 31. Facebook 29 help them build a social network called, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product.[23] The three complained to the Harvard Crimson, and the newspaper began an investigation. The three later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling.[24] Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, and within the first month, more than half the undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service.[25] Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia, and Yale.[26] It soon opened to the other Ivy League schools, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States.[27] [28] Chris Hughes Facebook incorporated in the summer of 2004, and the entrepreneur Sean Parker, who had been informally advising Zuckerberg, became the companys president.[29] In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto, California.[26] It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel.[30] The company dropped The from its name after purchasing the domain name in 2005 for $200,000.[31] Dustin Moskovitz Sean Parker
  • 32. Facebook 30 Cameron Winklevoss Date Users Days later [32] Monthly growth (in millions) August 26, 2008 [33] 1665 178.38% 100 April 8, 2009 [34] 225 13.33% 200 September 15, 2009 300[35] 160 9.38% February 5, 2010 [36] 143 6.99% 400 July 21, 2010 [37] 166 4.52% 500 January 5, 2011 [38] [39] 168 3.57% 600 July 6, 2011 [40] 182 2.54% 750 |+ Total active users[41] Facebook launched a high-school version in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step.[42] At that time, high-school networks required an invitation to join.[43] Facebook later expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.[44] Facebook was then opened on September 26, 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address.[45] [46] On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion.[47] Microsofts purchase included rights to place international ads on Facebook.[48] In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.[49] In September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash-flow positive for the first time.[50] In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc., an exchange for shares of privately held companies, Facebooks value was $41 billion (slightly surpassing eBays) and it became the third largest US web company after Google and Amazon.[51] Facebook has been identified as a possible candidate for an IPO by 2013.[52] Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. More people visited Facebook than Google for the week ending March 13, 2010.[53] In March 2011 it was reported that Facebook removes approximately 20,000 profiles from the site every day for various infractions, including spam, inappropriate content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.[54] In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California.[55] [56]
  • 33. Facebook 31 Release of statistics by DoubleClick showed that Facebook reached one trillion pageviews in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website in the world.[57] It should however be noted that Google and some of its selected websites are not counted in the DoubleClick rankings. Company Ownership Mark Zuckerberg owns 24% of the company, Accel Partners owns 10%, Digital Sky Technologies owns 10%,[58] Dustin Moskovitz owns 6%, Eduardo Saverin owns 5%, Sean Parker owns 4%, Peter Thiel owns 3%, Greylock Partners and Meritech Capital Partners own between 1 to 2% each, Microsoft owns 1.3%, Li Ka-shing owns 0.75%, the Interpublic Group owns less than 0.5%, a small group of current and former employees and celebrities own less than 1% each, including Matt Cohler, Jeff Rothschild, Adam DAngelo, Chris Entrance to Facebooks current headquarters in Hughes, and Owen Van Natta, while Reid Hoffman and Mark Pincus the Stanford Research Park, Palo Alto, California. have sizable holdings of the company, and the remaining 30% or so are owned by employees, an undisclosed number of celebrities, and [59] outside investors. Adam DAngelo, chief technology officer and friend of Zuckerberg, resigned in May 2008. Reports claimed that he and Zuckerberg began quarreling, and that he was no longer interested in partial ownership of the company.[60] Management Key management personnel comprise Chris Cox (VP of Product), Sheryl Sandberg (COO), and Donald E. Graham (Chairman). As of April 2011, Facebook has over 2,000 employees, and offices in 15 countries.[61] Revenue Most of Facebooks revenue comes from advertising. Microsoft is Facebooks exclusive partner for serving banner advertising,[62] and therefore Facebook serves only advertisements that exist in Microsofts advertisement inventory. Year Revenue Growth 2006 [63] — $52 2007 [64] 188% $150 2008 [65] 87% $280 2009 [66] 177% $775 2010 [2] 158% $2000 |+ Revenues (estimated, in millions US$) Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major websites. Banner advertisements on Facebook have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole.[67] This means that a smaller percentage of Facebooks users click on advertisements than many other large websites. For example, while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the
  • 34. Facebook 32 time (80,000 clicks for every one million searches),[68] Facebooks users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages).[69] Sarah Smith, who was Facebooks Online Sales Operations Manager, confirmed that successful advertising campaigns can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and that CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks.[70] Competing social network MySpaces CTR, in comparison, is about 0.1%, 2.5 times better than Facebooks but still low compared to many other websites. Explanations for Facebooks low CTR include the fact that Facebooks users are more technologically savvy and therefore use ad blocking software to hide advertisements, that users are younger and therefore better at ignoring advertising messages, and that MySpace users spend more time browsing through content, while Facebook users spend their time communicating with friends and therefore have their attention diverted away from advertisements.[71] On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts.[72] Involver, a social marketing platform, announced in July 2008 that it managed to attain a CTR of 0.7% on Facebook (over 10 times the typical CTR for Facebook ad campaigns) for its first client, Serena Software, managing to convert 1.1 million views into 8,000 visitors to their website.[73] A study found that, for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads.[74] Mergers and acquisitions On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of one of the ten highest domain sales in history.[75] Operations A custom-built data center with substantially reduced ("38% less") power consumption compared to existing Facebook data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville, Oregon.[76] Website Users can create profiles with photos, lists of personal interests, contact information, and other personal information. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat feature. They can also create and join interest groups and "like pages" (called "fan pages" until April 19, 2010), some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising.[77] To allay concerns about privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy Facebooks homepage features a login form on the top right for existing users, settings and choose who can see specific parts of and a registration form directly underneath for new visitors. their profile.[78] The website is free to users, and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads.[79] Facebook requires a users name and profile picture (if applicable) to be
  • 35. Facebook 33 accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings.[80] The media often compare Facebook to MySpace, but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization.[81] Another difference is Facebooks requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make.[82] MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook Profile shown on Facebook in 2011 allows only plain text.[83] Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall, a space on every users profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see;[84] Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification then tells a user that they have been poked);[85] Photos, where users can upload albums and photos;[86] and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions.[87] Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a users profile can also view that users Wall. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only.[84] Facebook profile shown in 2007
  • 36. Facebook 34 Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005 On September 6, 2006, a News Feed was announced, which appears on every users homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the users friends.[88] This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause.[89] Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users).[90] In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the sites failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.[91] On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a Facebook mobile graphical user interface patent[92] on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user.[93] The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may potentially include websites such as Twitter.[94] One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos.[95] Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. During the first years, Facebook users were limited to 60 photos per album. As of May 2009, this limit has been
  • 37. Facebook 35 increased to 200 photos per album.[96] [97] [98] [99] Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the users friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag", or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a users friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo.[100] Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Users were later able to import blogs from Xanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services.[45] During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook released a Comet-based[101] instant messaging application called "Chat" to several networks,[102] which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers. Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipients profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to each gift.[103] [104] On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched Marketplace, which lets users post free classified ads.[105] Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET, which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are seen only by users in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone.[106] On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look.[107] After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version beginning in September 2008.[108] On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.[109] On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs such as http:/ / www. facebook. com/ facebook [110] as opposed to http:/ / www. facebook. com/ profile. php?id=20531316728 [111].[112] Many new smartphones offer access to Facebook services through either their web-browsers or applications. An official Facebook application is available for the iPhone OS, the Android OS, and the WebOS. Nokia and Research In Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. More than 150 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries. On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced a new "Facebook Messages" service. In a media event that day, CEO Mark Zuckerberg said, "Its true that people will be able to have an email addresses, but its not email". The launch of such a feature had been anticipated for some time before the announcement, with some calling it a "Gmail killer". The system, to be available to all of the websites users, combines text messaging, instant messaging, emails, and regular messages, and will include privacy settings similar to those of other Facebook services. Codenamed "Project Titan", Facebook Messages took 15 months to develop.[113] [114] In February 2011, Facebook began to use the hCalendar microformat to mark up events, and the hCard microformat for the events venues, enabling the extraction of details to users own calendar or mapping applications.[115] Since April 2011 Facebook users have had the ability to make live voice calls via Facebook Chat, allowing users to chat with others from all over the world. This feature, which is provided free through T-Mobiles new Bobsled service, lets the user add voice to the current Facebook Chat as well as leave voice messages on Facebook.[116] On July 6, 2011, Facebook launched its video calling services using Skype as its technology partner. It allows one to one calling using a Skype Rest API.[117] For a brief period of time earlier that day, the URL "" led to a Swedish website that was hosted through Google Sites. On July 14 Facebook wouldnt allow access. As of 3 September 2011, Facebooks operations employed the following ranges of IPv4 addresses [118] : •
  • 38. Facebook 36 • • • • • • • • • • • Reception According to comScore, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008.[119] ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 130 million unique visitors in May 2010, an increase of 8.6 million people.[120] According to Alexa, the websites ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and is currently 2nd.[121] Quantcast ranks the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic,[122] and ranks it 2nd in the U.S.[123] The website is the most popular for uploading photos, with Facebook popularity. Active users of Facebook increased from just a million in 50 billion uploaded cumulatively.[124] In 2004 to over 750 million in 2011. 2010, Sophoss "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms, 60% of which responded that they believed that Facebook was the social network that posed the biggest threat to security, well ahead of MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn.[125] Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada,[126] the United Kingdom,[127] and the United States.[128] [129] [130] [131] In regional Internet markets, Facebook penetration is highest in North America (69 percent), followed by Middle Facebook - Users by Age. East-Africa (67 percent), Latin America (58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia-Pacific (17 percent).[132]
  • 39. Facebook 37 The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007,[133] and winning the "Peoples Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.[134] In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a New Jersey-based company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod.[135] On March 2010, Judge Richard Seeborg issued an order approving the class settlement in Lane v. Facebook, Inc., the class action lawsuit arising out of Facebooks Beacon program. In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" for the third year in a row[136] and was recognized as one of the "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" by Lead411.[137] However, in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index, Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it in the bottom 5% of all private-sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system, airlines, and cable companies. The reasons why Facebook scored so poorly include privacy problems, frequent changes to the websites interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and spam.[138] In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the worlds first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook as legally binding.[139] In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Gendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook.[140] [141] Employers (such as Virgin Atlantic Airways) have also used Facebook as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.[142] By 2005, the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others profiles or updating ones own.[143] In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year.[144] In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a friend on a social networking site such as Facebook. As in, I decided to unfriend my roommate on Facebook after we had a fight."[145] In April 2010, according to The New York Times, countries with the most Facebook users were the United States, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia.[146] Indonesia has become the country with the second largest number of Facebook users, after the United States, with 24 million users, or 10% of Indonesias population.[147] Also in early 2010, Openbook was established, an avowed parody (and privacy advocacy) website[148] that enables text-based searches of those Wall posts that are available to "Everyone", i.e. to everyone on the Internet. Writers for The Wall Street Journal found in 2010 that Facebook apps were transmitting identifying information to "dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". The apps used an HTTP referrer which exposed the users identity and sometimes their friends. Facebook said, "We have taken immediate action to disable all applications that violate our terms".[149] Privacy According to comScore, an internet marketing research company, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo!.[150] In 2010, the security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users privacy[125] , but privacy concerns remain. On November 6, 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Beacon, which was an ultimately failed attempt to advertise to friends of users using the knowledge of what purchases friends made.
  • 40. Facebook 38 Criticism Facebook has met with controversies. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the Peoples Republic of China,[151] Vietnam,[152] Iran,[153] Uzbekistan,[154] Pakistan,[155] Syria,[156] and Bangladesh on different bases. For example, it was banned in many countries of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti-Islamic and containing religious discrimination. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent employees wasting their time on the site.[157] The privacy of Facebook users has also been an issue, and the safety of user accounts has been compromised several times. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property.[158] In May 2011 emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making critical allegations about Googles privacy policies; however it was later discovered that the anti-Google campaign, conducted by PR giant Burson-Marsteller, was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called a "clumsy smear".[159] In July 2011 German authorities began to discuss the prohibition of events organized on Facebook. The decision is based on several cases of overcrowding by people not originally invited.[160] [161] 1600 "guests" attended the 16th birthday party of a Hamburg girl who incorrectly marked the event invitation as public. After reports of overcrowding, more than a hundred police were deployed for crowd control. A policeman was injured and eleven participants were arrested for assault, property damage and resistance to authorities.[162] In another unexpected event with overcrowding, 41 young people were arrested and at least 16 injured.[163] In May 2011, HCL Technologies announced that approximately 50% of British employers had banned Facebook from the work place.[164] Media impact In April 2011, Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook.[165] The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebooks top executives at an "influencers summit" in February 2010. Facebook has now been involved in campaigns for True Blood, American Idol, and Top Gear.[166] Social impact Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. It can reunite lost family members and friends. One such reunion was between John Watson and the daughter he had been searching for 20 years. They met after Watson found her facebook profile.[167] Another father-daughter reunion was between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson, who had not seen each other for nearly 48 years.[168] Some studies have named Facebook as a source of problems in relationships. Several news stories have suggested that using Facebook causes divorce and infidelity, but the claims have been questioned and refuted by other commentators.[169] [170]
  • 41. Facebook 39 Political impact Facebooks role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary, when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates.[171] [172] [173] Charles Gibson moderated both debates, held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College. Facebook users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote, and message questions.[174] The stage at the Facebook – Saint Anselm College debates in 2008. Over a million people installed the Facebook application US politics in order to take part, and the application measured users responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.[175] This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook was a popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. An article by Michelle Sullivan of illustrates how the "facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates, support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.[176] In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, better known as the FARC (from the groups Spanish name).[177] In August 2010, one of North Koreas official government websites and the official news agency of the country, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.[178] In 2010 an English director of public health, whose staff was researching syphilis, linked and attributed a rise in cases of the disease in areas of Britain to Facebook. The reports of this research were rebuked by Facebook as "ignoring the difference between correlation and causation".[179] In 2011 a controvesial ruling by French government to uphold a 1992 decree which stipulates that commercial enterprises should not be promoted on news programs. President Nicolas Sarkozys colleagues have agreed has said that it will enforce a law so that the words Facebook will not be allowed to be spoken on the television or on the radio.[180] Media • At age 102, Ivy Bean of Bradford, England joined Facebook in 2008, making her one of the oldest people ever on Facebook. An inspiration to other residents of the care home in which she lived,[181] she quickly became more widely known and several fan pages were made in her honor. She visited Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife, Sarah, in Downing Street early in 2010.[182] Some time after creating her Facebook page, Bean joined Twitter, when she passed the maximum number of friends allowed by Facebook. She became the oldest person to ever use the Twitter website. At the time of her death in July 2010, she had 4,962 friends on Facebook and more than 56,000 followers on Twitter. Her death was widely reported in the media and she received tributes from several notable media personalities.[183] • "FriendFace", a December 2008 episode of the British sitcom, The IT Crowd, parodied Facebook and social networking sites in general.[184] • American author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Mark Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal.[185] • In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the ban of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was created, called MillatFacebook.[186]
  • 42. Facebook 40 • "You Have 0 Friends", an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series, South Park, parodied Facebook.[187] • The Social Network, a drama film directed by David Fincher about the founding of Facebook, was released October 1, 2010.[188] The film features an ensemble cast consisting of Jesse Eisenberg as Mark Zuckerberg, Andrew Garfield as Eduardo Saverin, Justin Timberlake as Sean Parker, and Armie Hammer as Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss. The film was written by Aaron Sorkin and adapted from Ben Mezrichs 2009 book. The film was distributed by Columbia Pictures. No staff members of Facebook, including Zuckerberg, were involved with the project. However, one of Facebooks co-founders, Eduardo Saverin, was a consultant for Mezrichs book. Mark Zuckerberg has said that The Social Network is inaccurate.[189] • On February 22, 2011, an Egyptian baby was named "Facebook" to commemorate the vital role Facebook and other social media played in Egypts revolution.[190] • On May 16, 2011, an Israeli couple named their daughter after the Facebook "like" feature. They explained that it wasnt to advertise for Facebook, but because they fancied the meaning behind the word.[191] [192] Notes [1] Eldon, Eric (December 18, 2008). "2008 Growth Puts Facebook In Better Position to Make Money" (http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18/ 2008-growth-puts-facebook-in-better-position-to-make-money/ ). VentureBeat (San Francisco). . Retrieved December 19, 2008. [2] Womack, Brian (December 16, 2010). "Facebook 2010 Sales Said Likely to Reach $2 Billion, More Than Estimated" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/ 2010-12-16/ facebook-sales-said-likely-to-reach-2-billion-this-year-beating-target. html). Bloomberg (New York). . Retrieved January 5, 2011. [3] "Press Info" (http:/ / www. facebook. com/ press/ info. php), Facebook. Retrieved May 27, 2010. [4] https:/ / www. facebook. com [5] http:/ / www. v6. facebook. com/ [6] " Site Info" (http:/ / www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ facebook. com). Alexa Internet. . Retrieved 2011-09-01. [7] Facebook says membership has grown to 750 million - (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ tech/ news/ 2011-07-06-facebook-skype-growth_n. htm) [8] "Goldman to clients: Facebook has 600 million users" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 40929239/ ns/ technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/ ). MSNBC. January 5, 2011. . Retrieved July January 15, 2011. [9] "Facebook Has More Than 600 Million Users, Goldman Tells Clients" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. com/ facebook-has-more-than-600-million-users-goldman-tells-clients-2011-1). Business Insider. January 5, 2011. . Retrieved January 15, 2011. [10] Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "At Last – The Full Story Of How Facebook Was Founded" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. com/ how-facebook-was-founded-2010-3#we-can-talk-about-that-after-i-get-all-the-basic-functionality-up-tomorrow-night-1). Business Insider. . [11] "Five million Facebook users are 10 or younger" (http:/ / news. consumerreports. org/ electronics/ 2011/ 05/ five-million-facebook-users-are-10-or-younger. html). May 10, 2011. . Retrieved May 15, 2011. [12] Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs" (http:/ / blog. compete. com/ 2009/ 02/ 09/ facebook-myspace-twitter-social-network/ ). Compete Pulse blog. . Retrieved February 17, 2009. [13] Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam; et al. (December 11, 2009). "THE 100 Greatest Movies, TV Shows, Albums, Books, Characters, Scenes, Episodes, Songs, Dresses, Music Videos, and Trends that entertained us over the 10 Years". Entertainment Weekly (New York) ((1079/1080):74-84). [14] " – Quantcast Audience Profile" (http:/ / www. quantcast. com/ facebook. com). April 29, 2011. . Retrieved May 15, 2011. [15] Wells, Roy (August 8, 2010). "41.6% of the U.S. Population has a Facebook account" (http:/ / www. socialmediatoday. com/ roywells1/ 158020/ 416-us-population-has-facebook-account). Social Media Today. . Retrieved January 6, 2011. [16] "Is Facebook growth stalling in North America?" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2011/ TECH/ social. media/ 06/ 13/ facebook. dropping. america/ index. html). CNN. . Retrieved 2011-06-21. [17] Locke, Laura (July 17, 2007). "The Future of Facebook" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ business/ article/ 0,8599,1644040,00. html). Time (New York). . Retrieved November 13, 2009. [18] Tabak, Alan J. (February 9, 2004). "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050403215543/ http:/ / www. thecrimson. com/ article. aspx?ref=357292). 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  • 43. Facebook 41 [21] Hoffman, Claire (June 28, 2008). "The Battle for Facebook" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080703220456/ http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ news/ story/ 21129674/ the_battle_for_facebook/ ). Rolling Stone (New York). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ news/ story/ 21129674/ the_battle_for_facebook/ ) on July 3, 2008. . Retrieved February 5, 2009. [22] Seward, Zachary M. (July 25, 2007). "Judge Expresses Skepticism About Facebook Lawsuit" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB118539991204578084. html?mod=googlenews_wsj). The Wall Street Journal (New York). . Retrieved April 30, 2008. [23] Carlson, Nicolas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook Users Private Email Account" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. com/ how-mark-zuckerberg-hacked-into-the-harvard-crimson-2010-3). Business Insider. . Retrieved March 5, 2010. [24] Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). 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"Israeli newborn named Like in tribute to Facebook" (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes. com/ technology/ 2011/ 05/ israeli-couple-names-daughter-like-in-tribute-to-facebook. html). Los Angeles Times. .
  • 49. Facebook 47 References Further reading • Kirkpatrick, David, "Why Facebook matters: Its not just for arranging dates. And its not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships" ( 2006/10/06/magazines/fortune/fastforward_facebook.fortune/index.htm), Fortune, October 6, 2006 • Miller, Daniel, Tales from Facebook, Polity 2011, ISBN 9780745652092 External links • Official website ( • Facebook (!/facebook) on Twitter • Facebook ( collected news and commentary at The Guardian • Collected news and commentary ( index.html) at The New York Times • Facebook news and reviews ( at The Daily Telegraph (London) • Hits chart between Facebook and Google ( 67e89ae8-30f7-11df-b057-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1BfiyklYU) • Facebook Founder Finds He Wants Some Privacy ( 03facebook.html?ref=business), in The New York Times, December 3, 2007 • At Last -- The Full Story Of How Facebook Was Founded ( how-facebook-was-founded-2010-3), in Business Insider March 5, 2010. • Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know ( facebook-privacy-guide/), by Stan Schroeder, February 7, 2011
  • 50. Twitter 48 Twitter Twitter Type Private Founded San Francisco, California, United States Founder Jack Dorsey Noah Glass Evan Williams Biz Stone Headquarters 795 Folsom Street, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94107, United States[1] Area served Worldwide Key people Jack Dorsey (Executive Chairman) Dick Costolo (CEO) Evan Williams (Director) Biz Stone (Creative director) Revenue [2] US $140 million (projected 2010) Employees [3] [4] 600+ (2011) Slogan | Website [5] Alexa rank [6] 9 (September 2011) Type of site Mobile social-network service, microblogging Registration Required (to post, follow or be followed) Users [7] 200 million (March 2011) Available in Multilingual, including Dutch, English, French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Turkish Launched [8] July 15, 2006 Twitter is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based posts of up to 140 characters, informally known as "tweets." Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched in July of that year. Twitter rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with 200 million users as of 2011,[7] generating over 200 million tweets and handling over 1.6 billion search queries per day.[3] [9] [10] It is sometimes described as the "SMS of the Internet."[11] Twitter Inc., the company that operates the service and associated website, is based in San Francisco, California, with additional servers and offices in San Antonio, Texas, Boston, Massachusetts, and New York, New York.
  • 51. Twitter 49 History Creation Twitters origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Dorsey introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.[12] The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass,[13] inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability."[14] Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 PM Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr".[15] "...we came across the word twitter, and it was just perfect. The A blueprint sketch, circa 2006, by definition was a short burst of inconsequential information, and Jack Dorsey, envisioning an chirps from birds. And thats exactly what the product was." – Jack SMS-based social network. Dorsey[16] The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.[8] In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo and all of its assets–including and–from the investors and shareholders.[17] Williams fired Glass who was silent about his part in Twitters startup until 2011.[18] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[19] Reaction The tipping point for Twitters popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest (SXSW) festival. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[20] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweeks Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."[21] Reaction at the festival was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter "absolutely rul[ed]" SXSW. Social software researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter "own[ed]" the festival.[22] Twitter staff received the festivals Web Award prize with the remark "wed like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!"[23] The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010.[24] By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts communal account, Previous Twitter logo, used until September 14, @NASA_Astronauts. See also NASA Tweetup. 2010. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain as President of Revenue from News Corp.s Fox Audience Network.[25] On September 14, 2010, Twitter launched a redesigned site including a new logo.[26]
  • 52. Twitter 50 Leadership As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.[27] On October 16, 2008,[28] Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board.[29] On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitters chief operating officer, became CEO. According to a Twitter blog, dated October 4, 2010, Williams was to stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy."[30] According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away.[31] According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He is focused on developing a new startup, but he became a member of Twitters board of directors, and promised to "help in any way I can". Stone is still with Twitter but is working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy".[32] Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. His time is split with Square where he is CEO, and whose offices are within walking distance of Twitters in San Francisco.[31] Growth The company experienced rapid growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day.[33] By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications.[34] As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter.[35] As noted on, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.[36] Twitters usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14, 2010. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, 2010,[37] and then again at the close of Japans victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second.[38] The current record was set during the 2011 FIFA Womens World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published.[39] When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour.[40] Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.[41] From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube, Flickr, as well as a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as @mentions and Retweets above the Twitter stream, while Messages and Log Out became accessible via a black bar at the very top of As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage, as well as phased out the "Old Twitter."[42] However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved.[43] On April 20, 2011, the new homepage was reintroduced, though the "Switch to Old Twitter" option is still available to users.[44]
  • 53. Twitter 51 Features Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.[45] Tweets are publicly visible by default; however, senders can restrict message delivery to just their followers. Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries.[46] While the service is free, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees. Users may subscribe to other users tweets – this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers[47] or tweeps (Twitter + peeps).[48] Twitter allows users the ability to update their profile by using their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones / tablets.[49] In a 2009 Time essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple":[50] As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that users tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, youll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education. In June 2008, Twitter launched a verification program, allowing celebrities to get their accounts verified.[51] Originally intended to help users verify which celebrity accounts were created by the celebrities themselves (and therefore are not fake), they have since been used to verify accounts of businesses and accounts for public figures who may not actually tweet but still wish to maintain control over the account that bears their name - for example, the Dalai Lama. Messages Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a "#" sign. Similarly, the "@" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.[52] To repost a message from another Twitter user, and share it with ones own followers, the retweet function is symbolized by "RT" in the message. In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow (as well as mention and reply to) ad-hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.[47] [53] Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2[54] and Orange[55] networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel,[56] an alternative platform called smsTweet[57] was set up by a user to work on all networks.[58] A similar platform called GladlyCast[59] exists for mobile phone users in Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. The messages were initially set to 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit has also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as,, and, and content-hosting services, such as Twitpic, and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Twitter uses for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its website.[60]
  • 54. Twitter 52 Tweet contents San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the US and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 AM to 5:00 PM (CST) and separated them into six categories:[61] • Pointless babble – 40% • Conversational – 38% • Pass-along value – 9% • Self-promotion – 6% • Spam – 4% • News – 4%[61] Social networking researcher Danah Boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" and/or "peripheral awareness" (which she explains as persons "want[ing] Content of Tweets according to Pear Analytics.Kelly, Ryan, ed (August 12, 2009). "Twitter Study – August 2009" (PDF format; to know what the people around them are thinking and Adobe Reader required). Twitter Study Reveals Interesting Results doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn’t About Usage. San Antonio, Texas: Pear Analytics. . Retrieved Jun 3, viable").[62] 2010  News  Spam  Self-promotion  Pointless babble  Conversational  Pass-along value Rankings Twitter is ranked as one of the ten-most-visited websites worldwide by Alexas web traffic analysis.[63] Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[64] In March 2009, a blog ranked Twitter as the fastest-growing website in the Member Communities category for February 2009. Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. It was followed by Zimbio with a 240 percent increase, and Facebook with a 228 percent increase.[65] However, Twitter has a user retention rate of forty percent.[66] Adding and following content There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Tweetdeck,, HootSuite, and Twitterfeed.[67] Less than half of tweets are posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).[68] Authentication As of August 31, 2010, third-party Twitter applications are required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. Previously, the OAuth authentication method was optional, it is now compulsory and the user-name/password authentication method has been made redundant and is no longer functional. Twitter stated that the move to OAuth will mean "increased security and a better experience."[69]
  • 55. Twitter 53 Demographics [70] [71] Top5 Global Markets by Reach (%) COUNTRY Percent Indonesia Jun-2010 20.8% Indonesia Dec-2010 19.0% Brazil Jun-2010 20.5% Brazil Dec-2010 21.8% Venezuela Jun-2010 19.0% Venezuela Dec-2010 21.1% Netherlands Jun-2010 17.7% Netherlands Dec-2010 22.3% Japan Jun-2010 16.8% Japan Dec-2010 20.0% Note: Visitor Age 15+ Home and Work Locations. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs. Twitter is mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years," he said.[72] According to comScore only eleven percent of Twitters users are aged twelve to seventeen.[72] comScore attributes this to Twitters "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore as of late, has stated that Twitter has begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati."[73] According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men — fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent. It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity, and that New York has the most Twitter users.[74] According to Quancast, twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009. Sixty-three percent of Twitter users are less than thirty-five years old; sixty percent of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American (sixteen percent) and Hispanic (eleven percent); fifty-eight percent of Twitter users have a total household income of at least $60,000.[75]
  • 56. Twitter 54 Finances Funding Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact numbers are not publicly disclosed. Twitters first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between $1 million and $5 million.[76] Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for $22 million[77] and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for $35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital and Insight Venture Partners.[76] Twitter is backed by Union Square Twitters San Francisco headquarters located at 795 Folsom St. Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[78] In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitters long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.[79] Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.[80] The company raised $200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately $3.7 billion.[81] In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for $34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of $7.8 billion.[82] In August, 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment lead by Digital Sky Technology that, at $800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.[83] Twitter has been identified as a possible candidate for an initial public offering by 2013.[84] Revenue sources In July 2009, some of Twitters revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. The documents projected 2009 revenues of $400,000 in the third quarter and $4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were $1.54 billion in revenue, $111 million in net earnings, and 1 billion users.[2] No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.[85] On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords advertising model. As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks.[86] [87] The company generated $45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year. The company operated at a loss through most of 2010. Revenues were forecast for $100 million to $110 million in 2011.[81] Users photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, with an agreement with WENN being announced in May 2011.[88] In June 2011, Twitter announced it would offer small businesses a self serve advertising system.[89]
  • 57. Twitter 55 Technology Implementation The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework,[90] deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.[91] From the spring of 2007 until 2008 the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling,[92] but since 2009 implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.[93] The services application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.[94] [95] Interface On April 30, 2009, Twitter adjusted its web interface, adding a search bar and a sidebar of "trending topics" — the most common phrases appearing in messages. Biz Stone explains that all messages are instantly indexed and that "with this newly launched feature, Twitter has become something unexpectedly important — a discovery engine for finding out what is happening right now."[96] Outages When Twitter experiences an outage, users see the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu,[97] illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."[98] Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime).[99] The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as The Twitter fail whale error message. the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address.[100] [101] • May 2008 – Twitters new engineering team made architectural changes to deal with the scale of growth. Stability issues resulted in down time or temporary feature removal. • August 2008 – Twitter withdrew free SMS services from users in the United Kingdom[102] and for approximately five months instant messaging support via a XMPP bot was listed as being "temporarily unavailable".[103] • October 10, 2008 – Twitters status blog announced that instant messaging (IM) service was no longer a temporary outage and needed to be revamped. It was announced that Twitter aims to return its IM service pending necessary major work.[104] • June 12, 2009 – In what was called a potential "Twitpocalypse", the unique numerical identifier associated with each tweet exceeded the limit of 32-bit signed integers (2,147,483,647 total messages).[105] While Twitter itself was not affected, some third-party clients could no longer access recent tweets. Patches were quickly released, though some iPhone applications had to wait for approval from the App Store.[106] • June 25, 2009 – Twitter crashed at least once and ran very slowly for some time after It recorded over 50,000 tweets about Michael Jackson’s death in just one hour.[107] Michael Jackson was ranked on seven of the top ten trending topics. • September 22, 2009 – The identifier exceeded the limit for 32-bit unsigned integers (4,294,967,296 total messages) again breaking some third-party clients.[108] • August 6, 2009 – Twitter and Facebook suffered from a denial-of-service attack, causing the Twitter website to go offline for several hours.[109] It was later confirmed that the attacks were directed at one pro-Georgian user around the anniversary of the 2008 South Ossetia War, rather than the sites themselves.[110]
  • 58. Twitter 56 • December 17, 2009 – A hacking attack replaced the websites welcoming screen with an image of a green flag and the caption "This site has been hacked by Iranian Cyber Army" for nearly an hour. No connection between the hackers and Iran has been established.[111] • June-July 2010 – Twitter has a very high service rejection rate (10%-20%) during 2010 FIFA World Cup period, also, the response latency increased a lot.[112] • November 2010 – A number of accounts encountered a fault that resulted in them seeing the "fail whale" when they tried to login to their accounts. The accounts themselves were not locked out as account holders could still see their "mentions" page and post from there. But the timeline and a number of other features were unavailable during this outage. Privacy and security Twitter messages are public but users can also send private messages.[113] Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties. The service reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.[114] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads[115] directed specifically to the user. A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone elses status page by using SMS spoofing.[116] The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victims account. Within a few weeks of this discovery Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.[117] On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrators password was guessed by a dictionary attack.[118] Falsified tweets — including sexually explicit and drug-related messages — were sent from these accounts.[119] Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing famous or notable people to announce their Twitter account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.[120] In May 2010, a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük users that allowed Twitter users to force others to follow them without the other users consent or knowledge. For example, comedian Conan OBriens account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions.[121] In response to Twitters security breaches, the Federal Trade Commission brought charges against the service which were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.[122] On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.[123] Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, "...its our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so".[113] A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, 2010, when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. When an account user held the mouse cursor over blacked out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the readers account.[124] The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. The origin is unclear but Pearce H. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified the exploit of a user, possibly Masato Kinugawa, who was using it to create coloured Tweets.[125] Kinugawa, a Japanese developer, reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account RainbowTwtr and used it to post coloured messages.[125] Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver",[125] and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself.[124]
  • 59. Twitter 57 Security firm Sophos reported the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games", but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals.[124] Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched".[124] [126] Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed.[127] In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" (subsequently identified as Ryan Giggs) in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc., Persons Unknown took legal action at the High Court of Justice in London against Twitter.,[128] requesting that Twitter release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about Giggs private life, causing conflict relating to privacy injunctions.[129] [130] On May 29, 2011, it was reported that South Tyneside council in England had successfully taken legal action against Twitter in a court in California, which forced Twitter to reveal the details of five user accounts. The council was trying to discover the identity of a blogger called "Mr Monkey"[131] who allegedly posted libellous statements about three local councillors.[132] Open source Twitter released several open source projects developed while overcoming technical challenges of their service.[133] Notable projects are the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores and the distributed graph database FlockDB. URL shortener is a URL shortening service created by Twitter.[134] It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use.[134] Eventually all links posted to Twitter will use a wrapper.[135] Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites,[134] and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.[134] [136] Having previously used the services of third parties TinyURL and,[137] Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for direct messages in March 2010 using the domain,[135] before it purchased the domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi.[135] On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.[138] Integrated photo-sharing service On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from[139] Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitters search by adding hashtags to the tweet.[140] Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.[140] Decentralized architecture The traditional centralized client-server architecture has not scaled with user demand, leading to server overload and significant loss of availability. There is some decentralized architecture to enhance the scalability of Twitter including Fethr[141] and Cuckoo. [112]
  • 60. Twitter 58 Uses Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many different industries and scenarios. For example, it has been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions" and which include the 2011 Egyptian protests, 2010–2011 Tunisian protests, 2009–2010 Iranian election protests, and 2009 Moldova civil unrest.[143] The service has also been used in emergencies and political campaigning. It is also used for direct communication among social groups and Dorsey (left) said after a Twitter Town Hall held organizations, with the use of "hashtags." For instance, #edchat, used at in July 2011, that Twitter received over 110,000 [142] the end of a tweet, means that the communication will be viewed by all #AskObama tweets. users who follow the topic which refers to an ongoing chat among educators. Twitter is also increasingly used for making TV more interactive and social.[144] This effect is sometimes referred to as the "virtual watercooler" or social television. Twitter has been used successfully to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super Bowl[145] and the MTV Video Music Awards; this strategy has however proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows.[146] Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising.[147] Reception In 2006, when Twitter launched under the name "Twttr", Michael Arrington of TechCrunch commented that although he liked the service, he also noted that he felt uncomfortable with the fact that every users Twitter page is available to the public.[148] Change of focus Twitter emphasized its news and information-network strategy in November 2009 by changing the question asked to users for status updates from "What are you doing?" to "Whats happening?"[149] [150] Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Limiting yourself to 140 characters—the maximum for messages on this diabolically addictive social-networking tool—is easy."[151] On November 22, 2010, Biz Stone, a cofounder of the company, expressed for the first time the idea of a Twitter news network,[152] a The mobile version of concept of wire-like news service he has been working on for years.[153]
  • 61. Twitter 59 Criticism In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel too connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what theyre having for dinner."[154] "Using Twitter for literate communication is about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad", said tech writer Bruce Sterling.[155] "For many people, the idea of describing your blow-by-blow activities in such detail is absurd," hypothesized writer Clive Thompson in September 2008. "Why would you subject your friends to your daily minutiae? And conversely, how much of their trivia can you absorb? The growth of ambient intimacy can seem like modern narcissism taken to a new, supermetabolic extreme—the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the world."[156] On the other hand Steve Dotto opined that part of Twitters appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in tight constraints.[157] "The qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful," says Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School.[158] In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter has a user retention rate of forty percent. Many people stop using the service after a month therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users.[159] In 2009, Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award.[160] [161] During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radios Weekend Edition, the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.[162] In an episode of The Daily Show on February 26, 2009, guest Brian Williams, a journalist, described tweets as only referring to the condition of the author. Williams implied that he would never use Twitter because nothing he did was interesting enough to publish in Twitter format.[163] During another episode of The Daily Show on March 2, 2009, host Jon Stewart negatively portrayed members of Congress who chose to "tweet" during President Obamas address to Congress (on February 24, 2009) rather than pay attention to the content of the speech. The shows Samantha Bee satirized media coverage of the service saying "theres no surprise young people love it – according to reports of young people by middle-aged people."[164] Time magazine acknowledged growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100 most influential people. To determine the influence of people it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher. The formula was (Twitter followers) x 2 + (Facebook connections) divided by 2.[165] In March 2009, the comic strip Doonesbury began to satirize Twitter. Many characters highlighted the triviality of tweets although one defended the need to keep up with the constant-update trend.[166] SuperNews! similarly satirized Twitter as an addiction to "constant self-affirmation" and said tweets were nothing more than "shouts into the darkness hoping someone is listening".[167] In May 2011 concerns have risen about Twitter restricting the reuse of its data by researchers.[168]
  • 62. Twitter 60 Social impact Data from over 800,000 users of OkCupid show that, across all ages, daily posters to Twitter had shorter relationships than everyone else.[169] A recent study also shows that 13% of the Americans on the web used Twitter making it one of the most popular services in the United States.[170] Censorship Censorship of Twitter Censorship of Twitter has occurred in Iran,[171] China, Egypt,[172] and South Korea. Alleged censorship of WikiLeaks by Twitter In December 2010, allegations were made by several IT-news websites and other media reporting that Twitter appeared to engage in censorship activities by impeding WikiLeaks related tweets from becoming trending topics, despite high numbers of tweets concerning WikiLeaks due to activities such as the United States diplomatic cables leak.[173] [174] [175] However, Twitter has denied any involvement with altering Trend results explaining that "WikiLeaks and cablegate have trended worldwide or in specific locations."[176] References [1] "Contact Us" (http:/ / twitter. com/ about/ contact). . [2] Staff writer (July 15, 2009). "Hacker Exposes Private Twitter Documents" (http:/ / bits. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 15/ hacker-exposes-private-twitter-documents/ ?hpw. ). Bits (blog of The New York Times). . Retrieved February 23, 2011. [3] "Your world, more connected" (http:/ / blog. twitter. com/ 2011/ 08/ your-world-more-connected. html). Twitter. 1 August 2011. . Retrieved 1 August 2011. [4] Shiels, Maggie (March 28, 2011). "Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey rejoins company" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ business-12889048). BBC News. . Retrieved March 28, 2011. [5] https:/ / www. twitter. com/ [6] " Site Info" (http:/ / www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ twitter. com). Alexa Internet. . Retrieved 2011-09-01. [7] "" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ business-12889048). BBC. March 28, 2011. . Retrieved 28 March 2011. [8] Arrington, Michael (July 15, 2006). "Odeo Releases Twttr" (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2006/ 07/ 15/ is-twttr-interesting/ ). TechCrunch. . Retrieved September 18, 2010. [9] Twitter Search Team (2011-05-31). "The Engineering Behind Twitter’s New Search Experience" (http:/ / engineering. twitter. com/ 2011/ 05/ engineering-behind-twitters-new-search. html). Twitter Engineering Blog (blog of Twitter Engineering Division). . Retrieved 2011-06-10. [10] http:/ / old. news. yahoo. com/ s/ mashable/ 20110716/ tc_mashable/ reaching_200_million_accounts_twitters_explosive_growth_infographic [11] DMonte, Leslie (April 29, 2009). "Swine Flus Tweet Tweet Causes Online Flutter" (http:/ / www. business-standard. com/ india/ news/ swine-flus-tweet-tweet-causes-online-flutter/ 356604/ ). Business Standard. . Retrieved February 4, 2011. "Also known as the SMS of the internet, Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service" [12] (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 30, 2010). "Why Twitters C.E.O. Demoted Himself" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 10/ 31/ technology/ 31ev. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved October 31, 2010. [13] Williams, Evan (April 13, 2011). "Its true..." (https:/ / twitter. com/ #!/ ev/ status/ 58275072011542529). Twitter. . Retrieved April 26, 2011. [14] Sagolla, Dom (January 30, 2009). "How Twitter Was Born" (http:/ / www. 140characters. com/ 2009/ 01/ 30/ how-twitter-was-born/ ). 140 Characters – A Style Guide for the Short Form. 140 Characters. . Retrieved February 4, 2011. [15] Dorsey, Jack (March 21, 2006). "just setting up my twttr" (http:/ / twitter. com/ jack/ status/ 20). Twitter. . Retrieved February 4, 2011. [16] Sano, David (February 18, 2009). "Twitter Creator Jack Dorsey Illuminates the Sites Founding Document" (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes. com/ technology/ 2009/ 02/ twitter-creator. html). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved June 18, 2009. [17] Malik, Om (October 25, 2006). "Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp" (http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2006/ 10/ 25/ odeo-rip-hello-obvious-corp/ ). GigaOM. . Retrieved June 20, 2009. [18] Madrigal, Alexis (April 14, 2011). "Twitters Fifth Beatle Tells His Side of the Story" (http:/ / www. theatlantic. com/ technology/ archive/ 2011/ 04/ twitters-fifth-beatle-tells-his-side-of-the-story/ 237326/ ). The Atlantic. . Retrieved April 26, 2011. [19] Lennon, Andrew. "A Conversation with Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey" (http:/ / www. thedailyanchor. com/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ a-conversation-with-twitter-co-founder-jack-dorsey/ ). The Daily Anchor. . Retrieved February 12, 2009. [20] Douglas, Nick (March 12, 2007). "Twitter Blows Up at SXSW Conference" (http:/ / gawker. com/ tech/ next-big-thing/ twitter-blows-up-at-sxsw-conference-243634. php). Gawker. . Retrieved February 21, 2011.
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  • 66. Twitter 64 [105] Siegler, MG (June 12, 2009). "Twitter Moves Up The Twitpocalypse. All Hell May Break Loose Today." (http:/ / www. techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 06/ 12/ all-hell-may-break-loose-on-twitter-in-2-hours/ ). TechCrunch. . Retrieved July 18, 2009. [106] OBrien, John (June 24, 2009). "MacChat: 2009 – The Age of the Twitpocalypse" (http:/ / blogs. news. com. au/ techblog/ index. php/ news/ comments/ macchat_2009_the_age_of_the_twitpocalypse/ 56653). Tech Blog (blog of . Retrieved February 23, 2011. [107] Google & Twitter crash at news of Jackson’s death (http:/ / news. icm. ac. uk/ technology/ google-twitter-crash-at-news-of-jackson’s-death/ 2322/ ) [108] Parr, Ben (September 21, 2009). "Twitpocalypse II: Twitter Apps Might Break Tomorrow" (http:/ / mashable. com/ 2009/ 09/ 21/ twitpocalypse-ii-update/ ). Mashable. . Retrieved February 23, 2011. [109] Claburn, Thomas (August 6, 2009). 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"Imogen footie rat in bid to gag Twitter site" (http:/ / www. thesun. co. uk/ sol/ homepage/ news/ 3593093/ Imogen-footie-rat-in-bid-to-gag-Twitter-site. html). London: The Sun. . Retrieved 2011-05-22. [131] "Mr Monkey" (http:/ / mrmonkeysblog. wordpress. com/ ) accessed 30 May 2011 [132] "South Tyneside Council takes Twitter to court in US" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-england-tyne-13588284). BBC News. 29 May 2011. . [133] "Twitter / OpenSource" (http:/ / twitter. com/ about/ opensource). . Retrieved June 1, 2010.
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  • 69. Skype 67 Skype Skype Skype 5.5 running on Windows 7 Developer(s) Skype Limited Initial release August 2003 Stable release (1 September 2011 (Windows) 1 September 2011 (Mac OS X) 29 February 2011 (iOS) 2 June 2011 (Linux) [1] 4 August 2011 (Android)) [ +/− ] Preview release [2] [ +/− ] Written in Embarcadero Delphi, Objective-C (iOS, Mac OS X), C++ with Qt4 (Linux) Operating system Cross-platform Available in Multilingual Type Voice over Internet Protocol, instant messaging, videoconferencing License Proprietary, some paid features Website [] Skype (  /ˈskaɪp/) is a software application that allows users to make voice and video calls and chats over the Internet. Calls to other users within the Skype service are free, while calls to both traditional landline telephones and mobile phones can be made for a fee using a debit-based user account system. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include instant messaging, file transfer, and videoconferencing. Skype has 929 million registered users as of September 2011. (According to the add a contact button.)[3] The network is operated by Skype Limited, which has its headquarters in Luxembourg. Most of the development team and 44% of the overall employees of Skype are situated in the offices of Tallinn and Tartu, Estonia.[4] [5] Unlike other VoIP services, Skype is a peer-to-peer system rather than a client–server system, and makes use of background processing on computers running Skype software; the original name proposed – Sky peer-to-peer – reflects this. Some network administrators have banned Skype on corporate,[6] government, home, and education networks,[7] citing reasons such as inappropriate usage of resources, excessive bandwidth usage,[8] and security concerns.[9]
  • 70. Skype 68 On 10 May 2011, Microsoft Corporation agreed to acquire Skype Communications, S.à r.l for US$8.5 billion.[10] The company is to be incorporated as a division of Microsoft, and Microsoft will acquire all of the companys technologies, including Skype, with the purchase.[10] Features Registered users of Skype are identified by a unique Skype Name, and may be listed in the Skype directory.[11] Skype allows these registered users to communicate through both instant messaging and voice chat. Voice chat allows telephone calls between pairs of users and conference calling, and uses a proprietary audio codec. Skypes text chat client allows group chats, emoticons, storing chat history, offline messaging (since version 5) and editing of previous messages. The usual features familiar to instant messaging users — user profiles, online status indicators, and so on — are also included. The Online Number, a.k.a. SkypeIn, service allows Skype users to receive calls on their computers dialled by conventional phone subscribers to a local Skype phone number; local numbers are available for Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[12] [13] A Skype user can have local numbers in any of these countries, with calls to the number charged at the same rate as calls to fixed lines in the country. Video conferencing between two users was introduced in January 2006 for the Windows and Mac OS X platform clients. Skype 2.0 for Linux, released on 13 March 2008, also features support for video conferencing.[14] Version 5 beta 1 for Windows, released 13 May 2010, offers free video conferencing with up to five people.[15] Skype for Windows, starting with version, supports "High Quality Video" with quality and features, e.g., full-screen and screen-in-screen modes, similar to those of mid-range videoconferencing systems.[16] Skype audio conferences currently support up to 25 people at a time, including the host. Skype does not provide the ability to call emergency numbers such as 911 in the United States and Canada, 999 in the United Kingdom and many other countries, 111 in New Zealand, 000 in Australia, or 112 in Europe.[17] The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has ruled that, for the purposes of section 255 of the Telecommunications Act, Skype is not an "interconnected VoIP provider".[18] As a result, the U.S. National Emergency Number Association recommends that all VoIP users have an analog line available as a backup.[19] In 2011, Skype partnered with Comcast to bring its video chat service to Comcast subscribers via their HDTV sets.[20] History Skype was founded in 2003 by Niklas Zennström from Sweden and Janus Friis from Denmark.[21] The Skype software was developed by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn, who were also behind the peer-to-peer file sharing software Kazaa.[22] In April 2003, and domain names were registered. In August 2003, the first public beta version was released. One of the initial names for the project was "Sky peer-to-peer", which was then abbreviated to "Skyper". However, some of the domain names associated with "Skyper" were already taken.[23] Dropping the final "r" left the current title "Skype", for which domain names were available.[24] In September 2005, SkypeOut was banned in China.[25] In October of the same year, eBay purchased Skype[26] for $2.6 billion.[27] (In 2011, the Ars Technica estimated the purchase price at $3.1 billion, not $2.6 billion.)[28] In December 2005, videotelephony was introduced.[29] In April 2006, the number of registered users reached 100 million. In October, Skype 2.0 for Mac was released, the first full release of Skype with video for Macintosh, and in December, Skype announced a new pricing structure,
  • 71. Skype 69 with connection fees for all SkypeOut calls.[30] Skype 3.0 for Windows was released.[31] In 2006, a now-discontinued feature called "Skypecasting" was introduced. It allowed recordings of Skype voice over IP voice calls and teleconferences to be used as podcasts. Skypecasting remained in beta until it was discontinued. Skypecasts hosted public conference calls for up to 100 people at a time. Unlike ordinary Skype p2p conference calls, Skypecasts supported moderation features suitable for panel discussions, lectures, and town hall forums. Skype operated a directory of public Skypecasts. Skypecasts was discontinued from 1 September 2008.[32] Throughout 2007, updates (3.1, 3.2 and 3.5) added new features including Skype Find, Skype Prime, Send Money (which allowed users to send money via PayPal from one Skype user to another), video in mood, inclusion of video content in chat, call transfer to another person or a group, and auto-redial. Skype (beta) for Mac OS X released adding availability of contacts in the Mac Address Book to the Skype contact list, auto redial, contact groups, public chat creation, and an in-window volume slider in the call window. During several days in August, Skype users were unable to connect to full Skype network in many countries[33] because of a Skype system-wide crash which was the result of exceptional number of logins after a Windows patch reboot ("Patch Tuesday").[34] And in November, there was controversy when it was announced that users having London (020) 7 numbers would lose them.[35] By early 2008, the tumultuous ownership relations between the Founders and eBay had resulted in significant leadership churn, with a succession of Skype presidents including Niklas Zennström, Rajiv Dutta, Alex Kazim, Niklas Zennström (again), and Henry Gomez, all holding that title at various points between 2005 and 2007. The business had failed to meet certain earn-out targets, growth was decelerating, product development had slowed significantly, and in October 2007 eBay took a $1.4 billion impairment on the value of Skype, admitting it had overpaid, and now valuing the company at about $2.7 billion.[36] In October 2008, analysis revealed TOM-skype — the Chinese version of Skype run by TOM Online — sends content of text messages and encryption keys to monitoring servers.[37] Two original founders depart and new CEO appointed For the six months after the departure of Niklas and Janus, Michael van Swaaij led the company as Interim CEO, until the appointment of Josh Silverman in February 2008.[38] Silverman was "widely viewed as bringing in stability to Skype after a tumultuous phase that followed the exit of the two Skype co-founders."[39] Under Silvermans 2.5 year tenure, the company focused its product efforts around video calling, ubiquity (gaining high penetration on smartphones, PCs, TVs, and consumer-electronic devices), building tailored offerings for enterprise customers, and diversifying revenue through subscriptions, premium accounts and advertising. In advancing this strategy, Skype released many new products, substantially revamping its flagship Windows software (3.8 ->4.0), and its Macintosh and Linux software; while introducing new software products for smartphones, and consumer electronics. In 2009, Skype 4.0 was released, featuring full-screen high-quality video calling.[40] the Linux client was updated, and an iPhone application was launched which topped the charts with over 1M downloads in its first two days.[41] Skype also announced the launch of its software for the Android platform.[42] Rounding out its ubiquity push, in 2010 Skype announced deep integration of Skype software into the IP-connected TVs from Panasonic, Samsung and Sony.[43] During this period Skype also discontinuing lesser-used services such as support for the "Skype Me" presence indicator, which meant that a user was interested in receiving Skype calls from a non-contact. Skype also discontinued its SkypeCast service without explanation and added internal monthly and daily usage caps on their SkypeOut subscriptions, which had been advertised as "unlimited". Skype also discontinued its "dragonfly" feature, a community-generated yellow-pages product, and other features which were deemed to be under-performing or a distraction to management. Many users and observers had commented on the high rate of dropped calls and the difficulty reconnecting dropped calls. Updates including versions for the Sony PSP hand-held gaming system, version 2.0 for Linux with support for video-conferencing.
  • 72. Skype 70 As part of its efforts to diversify revenues, Skype launched in April 2008 Skype for SIP, a service aimed at business users. At that time around 35 per cent of Skypes users were business users.[44] In targeted premium products to consumers, Skype launched new monthly premium subscriptions products in May 2010.[45] Marketing efforts were also re-vamped, with a particular focus on innovative partnerships with TV broadcasters to integrate Skype into their programming. The Oprah Winfrey Show began using Skype regularly to host video calls between Oprah and her viewers at home, culminating in a show dedicated exclusively to the wonders of Skype ("where the Skype are You", aired first in May 2009).[46] Skype also became commonly used by network news stations around the world, as a cost-effective replacement for sending satellite trucks, and enabling fast response from citizen journalists. Skype was also integrated into scripted TV programming, such as Californication; and in the seventh season of the U.S. syndicated version of the British game show Who Wants To Be a Millionaire in a new Ask the Expert video chat lifeline. These efforts led to dramatically accelerating growth of Skypes Connected Users and Paying Users in 2008 and 2009.[47] By 2009 Skype was adding about 380,000 new users each day;[48] and by 2010, Telegeography estimated that Skype accounted for 25 per cent of the worlds international calling minutes. According to their research, the overall international calling market grew a tepid 5 to 6 per cent annually in 2010. "Skype, however, has seen a huge uptick in growth, particularly in the last two years."[49] eBay sells 70% Building on the revitalization which had begun in 2008, eBay announced, in April 2009, plans to spin off Skype through an initial public offering in 2010.[50] In August, Joltid filed a motion with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, seeking to terminate a licensing agreement with eBay which allows eBay (and therefore Skype) to use the peer-to-peer communications technology on which Skype is based. If successful, this may have caused a shutdown of Skype in its current form, and made an IPO challenging to execute.[51] In September, eBay announced the sale of 65 per cent of Skype to a consortium of Index Ventures and Silver Lake Partners. Early in September, Skype shut down the Extras developer program.[52] In November Skype settled the Joltid litigation and acquired all Skype technology in exchange for equity in the company[53] and eBay completed the sale of 70% of Skype to a consortium comprising Silver Lake Partners, Joltid, CPPIB, and Andreessen Horowitz for approximately $2 billion, valuing the entire business at US$2.75 billion.[54] In January 2010, Josh Silverman was recognized for his accomplishments in revitalizing Skype by being named First Runner Up in the TechCrunch "Crunchies" award for "Best CEO", beaten only by Mark Pincus of Zynga.[55] In May, Skype 5.0 beta was released, with support of group video calls with up to four participants. Also in May, Skype released an updated client for the Apple iPhone which allowed Skype calls to be made over a 3G network. Originally, a 3G call subscription plan was to be instituted in 2011, but Skype eventually dropped the plan.[56] In June 2010, following the rapid departure of first Daniel Berg and then Madhu Yarlagadda as Chief Technology Officer and Chief Development Officer, Mark Gillett an operating executive at Silver Lake Partners assumed the role of Chief Development Officer following a period of several months working closely with Joshua Silverman to drive the transformation of the business and acceleration of cross platform and mobile product delivery. On 9 August 2010, Skype filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to raise up to $100 million in an initial public offering Sources reported the company in fact expected to raise at least $1 billion.[57] [58] In October 2010, Skype announced it had named Tony Bates as its CEO; Bates has been a senior VP at Cisco and responsible for its multi-billion-dollar enterprise, commercial and small business division.[59] On 14 October 2010, Skype 5.0 for Windows was released with a number of improvements and feature additions, including a Facebook tab to allow users to SMS, chat with, or call their Facebook friends via Skype from the News Feed.[60] This version dropped support for the "Search for Skype Users" option.[61]
  • 73. Skype 71 On 14 January 2011, Skype acquired Qik, a mobile video sharing platform.[62] In March 2011, Skype named Jonathan Chadwick as its Chief Financial Officer and confirmed that Mark Gillett would serve full time as Chief Development and Operating Officer following the departure of Chief Financial and Administrative Officer Adrian Dillon. Acquisition by Microsoft On 10 May 2011, Microsoft announced it had agreed to acquire Skype for $8.5 billion.[63] This marked a 300% increase in value for the company in the three years since the eBay write-down in October 2007. It will be Microsofts largest acquisition ever.[64] Skype will be a division within Microsoft, with Skypes former CEO Tony Bates —now its president —reporting to Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer.[65] The price Microsoft agreed to pay for the company is 32 times Skypes operating profits.[66] According to the Financial Times this raises fears of a new tech bubble.[66] Ars Technica and the BBC have questioned the value for Microsoft in the purchase.[67] [68] Usage and traffic Date SkypeOut Revenue Total user accounts Active users, daily Skype to Skype [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] minutes USD (millions) use minutes [76] [77] [68] [79] (billions) (millions) (millions) (billions) [78] Q4 2005 74.7 10.8 N/A N/A N/A Q1 2006 94.6 15.2 6.9 0.7 35 Q2 2006 113.1 16.6 7.1 0.8 44 Q3 2006 135.9 18.7 6.6 1.1 50 Q4 2006 171.2 21.2 7.6 1.5 66 Q1 2007 195.5 23.2 7.7 1.3 79 Q2 2007 219.6 23.9 7.1 1.3 90 Q3 2007 245.7 24.2 6.1 1.4 98 Q4 2007 276.3 27.0 11.9 1.6 115 Q1 2008 309.3 31.3 14.2 1.7 126 Q2 2008 338.2 32.0 14.8 1.9 136 Q3 2008 370 33.7 16.0 2.2 143 Q4 2008 405 36.5 20.5 2.6 145 Q1 2009 443 42.2 23.6 2.9 153 Q2 2009 483 ? 25.5 3.0 170 Q3 2009 521 ? 27.7 3.1 185 Q4 2009 ? ? 36.1 ? ? 2010 (full ? ? 190 12.8 860 year) Users may have more than one account; it is not possible to count users, only accounts. The volume of international traffic routed via Skype is significant. It has become the largest international voice carrier (by minutes of calls).[80]
  • 74. Skype 72 Year International call market share 2005 [81] 2.9% 2006 [81] 4.4% 2008 [80] 8% 2010 [82] 13% In January 2011, after the release of video calling on the Skype client for iPhone, Skype reached a record 27 million simultaneous online users.[83] This record was broken with 29 million simultaneous online users on 21 February 2011,[84] and again on 28 March 2011 with 30 million online users.[85] Client applications and devices Skype runs on a number of platforms, and on 29 October 2007, Skype launched its own mobile phone under the brand name 3 Skypephone, which runs a BREW OS.[86] Other platforms officially supported include: • About 50 mobile phones, as of 2008[87] • The Nokia N800, N810 and N900 Internet Tablets, which use the Maemo environment • Both the Sony mylo COM-1 and COM-2 models • The PlayStation Portable Slim and Lite series, though the user needs to purchase a specially-designed microphone peripheral. The PSP-3000 has a built in microphone which allows communication without the Skype peripheral.[88] PSP Go has the ability to use Bluetooth connections with the Skype application, in addition to its built-in microphone.[89] • Mobile devices running Windows Mobile;[90] in February 2010, Skype announced its decision to discontinue development Skype for Windows Mobile.[91] In May 2010, Skype announced it would not develop a version of Skype for Windows Phone 7.[92] At MIX 11, It was announced that Skype is coming to Windows Phone 7 <>. • Symbian; Skype version 5.0 is the latest version for the Symbian platform[93] • The X-Series together with mobile operator 3. However this uses a regular mobile phone call and iSkoot[94] to a Skype gateway, rather than mobile Internet. Other companies produce dedicated Skype phones which connect via WiFi • iOS, using an official application released on 31 March 2009. As of version 2.x, the iPhone application is capable of placing voice calls over 3G and EDGE networks. Skype originally announced it will charge a monthly fee for this feature at the start of 2011, but that was eventually dropped.[56] On December 29, Skype updated their iOS app to version 3.0, allowing mobile video calling. On August 2 2011, Skype officially released an iPad app named Skype for iPad which allows the user to have video calls using iPad 2s front and back cameras. The original iPad is also allowed to make calls but only voice calls, The other person on the other side can make a video call if they have a camera, and the original iPad can only receive the video but not send. • A variety of BlackBerry and Android 3G Smartphones, through Verizon Wireless Skype mobile service. Customers can receive Skype calls, instant messages and see friends presence any time the phone is on. Skype usage isnt charged against customers’ monthly Verizon Wireless minute allowance when calling another Skype account (Skype-to-Skype). Customers in the U.S. use minutes from their calling plan when calling U.S. land lines or cell phones.[95] Some devices are made to work with Skype by talking to a desktop Skype client or by embedding Skype software into the device. These are usually either tethered to a PC, or have a built-in Wi-Fi client to allow calling from Wi-Fi hotspots like the Netgear SPH101 Skype Wi-Fi Phone, the SMC WSKP100 Skype Wi-Fi Phone, the Belkin F1PP000GN-SK Wi-Fi Skype Phone, the Panasonic KX-WP1050 Wi-Fi Phone for Skype Executive Travel Set, the
  • 75. Skype 73 IPEVO So-20 Wi-Fi Phone for Skype and the Linksys CIT200 Wi-Fi Phone. There are also embedded cordless Skype phones based on DECT, which do not need a PC either, like the DUALphone 3088 from RTX. Netgear and SMCs Wi-Fi phones are considered the two major competitors in the market, with reviews of the Wi-Fi phones giving them equal coverage. The Skype Wi-Fi Phone is a wireless mobile phone that allows users to make Skype calls, using a wireless Internet connection. The Skype Wi-Fi Phone has an on-screen menu that lets Skype users see who is online and available to talk, similar to what is seen on a PC. It can also be used to talk with non-Skype users. SkypeOut minutes can be used to call any phone for a low price and no monthly fee. The Skype Wi-Fi phone does not contain a web browser and so can not access hotspots, which require web-based login or authentication.[96] Third-party developers, such as Truphone, Nimbuzz_IM and Fring, have allowed Skype to run in parallel with several other competing VoIP/IM networks (Truphone and Nimbuzz provide truphoneOut and NimbuzzOut as a competing paid service) in any Symbian or Java environment. Nimbuzz has made Skype available to BlackBerry users. In July 2010, however, Fring disabled users from accessing Skype despite claiming that Skype themselves disabled the access;[97] Fring had provided mobile video calling over Skype as well as support for the Android platform. Nimbuzz discontinued support on request of Skype in October 2010.[98] Until November 2010, only certain Samsung and Panasonic TVs offered Skype video service.[99] System and software Protocol Skype uses a proprietary Internet telephony (VoIP) network called the Skype protocol. The protocol has not been made publicly available by Skype and official applications using the protocol are closed-source. Part of the Skype technology relies on the Global Index P2P protocol belonging to the Joltid Ltd. corporation. The main difference between Skype and standard VoIP clients is that Skype operates on a peer-to-peer model (originally based on the Kazaa software[100] ), rather than the more usual client–server model (note that the very popular SIP model of VoIP is also peer-to-peer, but implementation generally requires registration with a server, as does Skype). Protocol detection and control Many networking and security companies claim to detect and control Skypes protocol for enterprise and carrier applications. While the specific detection methods used by these companies are often private, Pearsons chi-square test and Naive Bayes classification are two approaches that were published in 2007.[101] Combining statistical measurements of payload properties (such as byte frequencies and initial byte sequences) as well as flow properties (like packet sizes and packet directions) has also shown to be an effective method for identifying Skypes TCP- and UDP-based protocols.[102] Audio codecs Skype uses an array of different audio compression methods including G.729 and SVOPC. Skype added a Skype-created codec called SILK to Skype 4.0 for Windows and other Skype clients. SILK is intended to be "lightweight and embeddable".[103] Video codecs VP7 is used for versions prior to Skype 5.5[104] [105] As of version 5.5 VP8 is used for both group and one on one video chat.[106] [107] [108]
  • 76. Skype 74 Client There are versions for Linux (includes Android, Maemo), iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch), Mac OS X (Intel, PPC), Symbian S60, Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP), Microsoft Windows (2000, XP, Vista, 7, Mobile), and for 2010 TV models from LG, Panasonic, and Samsung, but needs a special webcam built for those TVs.[109] Skype 2.1, running on a Linux desktop   Skype 2.7, running on Mac OS X Leopard
  • 77. Skype 75 Skype 5.1, running on Mac OS X Snow Leopard Skype, running on Mac OS X Snow Leopard Skype 1.0.2 running on iPhone Skype 2.2, running on a Windows Mobile 6 device  
  • 78. Skype 76 Skype 1.0 running on an Android 2.2 device   Skype Mobile on Verizon 1.6 running on an Android 2.2 device   Skype 4 in Default View running on Windows Vista
  • 79. Skype 77 Skype 4 in Default View running on Windows XP Skype in Default View on Windows 7 Security and privacy Skype is claimed to be a secure communication; encryption cannot be disabled, and is invisible to the user. Skype reportedly uses publicly-documented, widely trusted encryption techniques: RSA for key negotiation and the Advanced Encryption Standard to encrypt conversations.[110] However, it is impossible to verify that these algorithms are used correctly, completely and at all times as there is no public review possible without a protocol specification and/or the program source code. Skype provides an uncontrolled registration system for users with no proof of identity. Instead, a free choice of nicknames permits users to use the system without revealing their identity to other users. It is trivial to set up an account using any name; the displayed callers name is no guarantee of authenticity. A third party paper analyzing the security and methodology of Skype was presented at Black Hat Europe 2006. It analyzed Skype and found a number of security issues with the current security model.[111] Skype incorporates some features which tend to hide its traffic, but it is not specifically designed to thwart traffic analysis and therefore does not provide anonymous communication. Some researchers have been able to watermark the traffic so that it is identifiable even after passing through an anonymizing network.[112] In an interview Kurt Sauer, the Chief Security Officer of Skype, said, "We provide a safe communication option. I will not tell you whether we can listen or not."[113] Skypes client uses an undocumented and proprietary protocol. The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is concerned by user privacy issues arising from using proprietary software and protocols and has made a replacement for Skype one of their high priority projects.[114] Security researchers Biondi and Desclaux have speculated that Skype may have a back door, since Skype sends traffic even when it is turned off and because Skype has taken extreme measures to obfuscate their traffic and functioning of their program.[115] Several media sources reported that at a meeting about the "Lawful interception of IP based services" held on 25
  • 80. Skype 78 June 2008, high-ranking unnamed officials at the Austrian interior ministry said that they could listen in on Skype conversations without problems. Austrian public broadcasting service ORF, citing minutes from the meeting, reported that "the Austrian police are able to listen in on Skype connections". Skype declined to comment on the reports.[116] [117] The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has interpreted the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) as requiring digital phone networks to allow wiretapping if authorized by an FBI warrant, in the same way as other phone services. In February 2009 Skype said that, not being a telephone company owning phone lines, it is exempt from CALEA and similar laws which regulate US phone companies, and in fact it is not clear whether Skype could support wiretapping even if it wanted to.[118] According to the ACLU, the Act is inconsistent with the original intent of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution;[119] more recently, the ACLU has expressed the concern that the FCC interpretation of the Act is incorrect.[120] [121] On 20 February 2009 the European Unions Eurojust agency announced that the Italian Desk at Eurojust would "play a key role in the coordination and cooperation of the investigations on the use of internet telephony systems (VoIP), such as Skype. ... The purpose of Eurojust’s coordination role is to overcome the technical and judicial obstacles to the interception of internet telephony systems, taking into account the various data protection rules and civil rights"[122] Service in the Peoples Republic of China Since September 2007, users in China trying to download the Skype software client have been redirected to the site of TOM Online, a joint venture between a Chinese wireless operator and Skype, from which a modified Chinese version can be downloaded.[123] The TOM client participates in Chinas system of Internet censorship, monitoring text messages between Skype users in China as well as messages exchanged with users outside the country.[124] [125] Niklas Zennström, then chief executive of Skype, told reporters that TOM "had implemented a text filter, which is what everyone else in that market is doing. Those are the regulations." He also stated: "One thing that’s certain is that those things are in no way jeopardising the privacy or the security of any of the users."[126] In October 2008, it was reported that TOM had been saving the full message contents of some Skype text conversations on its servers, apparently focusing on conversations containing political issues such as Tibet, Falun Gong, Taiwan independence, and the Chinese Communist Party. The saved messages contain personally identifiable information about the messages senders and recipients, including IP addresses, usernames, land line phone numbers, and the entire content of the text messages, including the time and date of each message. Information about Skype users outside China who were communicating with a TOM-Skype user was also saved. A server misconfiguration made these log files accessible to the public for a time.[125] [127] [128] Customer service There have been complaints about Skypes customer support.[129] [130] As of May 2010, Skype does not provide any official means to contact customer support, apart from indirect assistance through its Web portal only and contact email addresses. There is no e-mail or phone number for complaints about billing errors. In January 2010 Skype rescinded their policy of seizing funds in Skype accounts that have been inactive (no paid call) for 180 days. This was in settlement to a class action lawsuit.[131] A settlement of up to US$4 was paid to persons who opted in to the action. Skypes refund policy states that they will provide refunds in full if a client has used less than 1 euro of their Skype Credit. "Upon a duly submitted request, Skype will refund you on a pro rata basis for the unused period of a Product".
  • 81. Skype 79 Use of Skype for educational purposes Although Skype is a commercial product, its free version is being used with increasing frequency among teachers and schools interested in global education projects.[132] Outages and downtime On 16 August 2007, Skype became unavailable to a majority of its users. Millions of users were requesting to log-in at the same time following a routine Windows update and this flooded the peer-to-peer system. The event lasted for about two days.[133] On 22 December 2010, it was reported that Skype experienced an outage estimated to represent 8 million foregone calls.[134] Skype administrators placed the following message on their Twitter page: "Some of you may have problems signing in to Skype -- were investigating, and were sorry for the disruption to your conversations...engineers and site operations are working non-stop to get things back to normal."[135] [136] The problem came down to the limited availability of "supernodes", affecting some versions of Skype.[137] Later in the day, Skypes CEO, Tony Bates, issued an apology. He said that the matter was being taken very seriously and was being thoroughly investigated. He said that malicious attack was not being ruled out as a problem cause and he put his estimate of the foregone calls at about 10 million.[138] On 23 December 2010, Skypes blog with Tony Bates issued another apology through a video posted on YouTube for the Skype outage.[139] The problem persisted across the North America, Latin America, Europe and Asia. It had started to subside by 8:30 pm UTC; however users were warned it might take several hours for the program to be fully operative again.[140] It was reported at 9:27 am 23 December UTC that most users were able to log in again although some still could not.[141] On the other hand into Thursday only about a third of the expected traffic was actually using Skype, relative to the time-period.[142] On 23 December 2010, Skype said on its blog that the system had stabilized, and a detailed explanation of the incident was published six days later.[143] Bates offered all Pay As You Go and Pre-Pay customers a free call to any landline as compensation.[144] Subscribers had their subscription extended by one week. Competitors and Rivals Instant Messengers Skype competes with other instant messaging networks and applications. Many instant messaging applications and other VoIP telephony software today include video conferencing as a feature. • AOL Instant Messenger • Google Talk • Google Voice • ICQ • iChat • IBM Lotus Sametime • Tencent QQ • Windows Live Messenger • Yahoo! Messenger See also: Instant messaging client, Comparison of instant messaging clients, Comparison of instant messaging protocols, Usage share of instant messaging clients
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  • 87. Article Sources and Contributors 85 Article Sources and Contributors Social network  Source:  Contributors: - Social networking service  Source:  Contributors: - Facebook  Source:  Contributors: - Twitter  Source:  Contributors: - Skype  Source:  Contributors: -
  • 88. Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 86 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors Image:Sna large.png  Source:  License: GNU General Public License  Contributors: Screenshot taken by User:DarwinPeacock File:Soc-net-paten-growth-chart.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Mark Nowotarski File:Facebook.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Facebook File:Increase2.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Sarang File:Steady.PNG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dodoïste File:MarkZuckerberg.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Elaine Chan and Priscilla Chan File:Chris Hughes.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: USV File:Dustin Moskovitz.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: David McClure from SF Bay Area, CA, United States File:Sean Parker.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Andrew Mager from San Francisco, CA, USA File:Cameron Winklevoss at the 2008 Beijing Olympics - 20080817.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Johnnyroee. File:1601californiaavelobby.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Original uploader was Coolcaesar at en.wikipedia File:Facebook log in.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Facebook2011.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Facebook2007.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Original-facebook.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Facebook mobile.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: File:Facebook popularity.PNG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: - File:Facebook users by age.PNG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: - File:Abc facebook debate saint anselm.JPG  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Ericci8996 File:Twitter 2010 logo.svg  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: - File:Twttr sketch-Dorsey-2006.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Jack Dorsey Image:Twitter logo.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was GageSkidmore at en.wikipedia File:Content of Tweets.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Content_of_tweets_pie_chart.png: Quillaja derivative work: Bryan Burgers (talk) File:Twitter headquarters, San Francisco.jpg  Source:,_San_Francisco.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: - File:Failwhale.png  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: - File:Twitter Town Hall-Dorsey Obama.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: - File:Newmobiletwitter.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Vencel File:Skype logo2.svg  Source:  License: Fair Use  Contributors: - File:Skype.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: - File:Skype-2-1-0-81beta-linux.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype MacOSX.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype 5.1 MacOSX.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Mac Skype Version  Source:  License: Copyrighted free use  Contributors: Skype INC, Jeremy Zhang File:Skype iPhone screenshot.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype for Windows Mobile.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype Android.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype Verizon.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype 4 Default View.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype-new-default.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: - File:Skype Default.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: -
  • 89. License 87 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/