Effects of an Online Teacher Training Course             Entailing Examples of Practice on Video             ECER 2012    ...
Table of Content                   Context and issues                   Theoretical framework                   Objectives...
ISSUES    CONTEXT AND PROBLEMjeudi 20 septembre 12
Context of Change                            Programs of study reform (2001)                              Competency-based...
Problem                   Emergence of training platforms                   using examples of practice on                 ...
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK    CONCEPTS & MODELSjeudi 20 septembre 12
Training Needs               Engage in a process of professional development               Professional competency: exploi...
Professional competency 4                   «Creates conditions in which students can engage in                   meaningf...
Online learning platform incorporating           examples of practice on video               Zoom sur l’expertise pédagogi...
Training course                   A training course is a series of steps that teachers                   must follow to gr...
Situation of continuing training                                   Analysis model                        (inspired by B. C...
Situation of continuing training                                   Analysis model                        (inspired by B. C...
Teacher learning                    The learning relate to knowledge that will allow a teacher to                    impro...
Teaching practice change                Change involving modifications        Factors promoting change                of (C...
Teacher self-efficacy                  Belief that a teacher has in his/her ability to perform tasks                       ...
OBJECTIVES    RESEARCH QUESTIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
First objective                   Describe learning regarding the competency "Pilot" of                   teachers who hav...
Second objective                   Describe the intentions to change practice                   regarding the competency "...
Third objective                   Provide possible answers to the question: How                   to improve the technolog...
METHODOLOGY    APPROACH AND OBJECTSjeudi 20 septembre 12
Research approach              Interpretive paradigm where reality is a subjective construct              dependent on the...
A specific training course               Title : « To pilot teaching/learning situations to               foster the develo...
jeudi 20 septembre 12
Data collection                              SAMPLING: 6 TEACHERS (5 WOMEN AND 1 MAN).                                  AL...
Data analysis                   Deductive approach and systematic analysis                   starting from the analysis mo...
RESULTS    ACCORDING TO EACH OF THE DIMENSIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 1a: Understandingjeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 1a: Understandingjeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 1b:                   Capacity to exemplifyjeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 2a:                   Level of confidencejeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 2b:                   Validation of practice                  Participants question their practice after observi...
Dimension 3a                   Appreciation of the videosjeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 3a (suite)                  Appreciation of the learning coursejeudi 20 septembre 12
Dimension 3b                   Feeling of having learnedjeudi 20 septembre 12
DISCUSSION    POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO THE THREE RESEARCH QUESTIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
Learning                   Learning is related to the observation of videos                   whose content was accompanie...
Intentions to change practice                All have expressed intentions of change :                     inspired by tea...
To keep in the platform                  Examples of teachers close to the realities of                  participants: pos...
To improve                Credibility of videos                    Suggestion: make descriptions more specific and contextu...
CONCLUSION     RECENT RESEARCHjeudi 20 septembre 12
Opening       A training course incorporating examples of practice on video and made in a training       platform such as ...
Recent research                   About the use of examples of practice on video in a                   modeling strategy ...
Recent research (2)                   About video clubs                     In a distance mode                     (Liu, 2...
Recent research (3)               About video editing as a learning strategy                        In a distance mode    ...
Recent research (4)                   About the use of scenarized videos as case studies                     In a distance...
Thank you very much for                  your attention !jeudi 20 septembre 12
HTTP://ZOOM.ANIMARE.ORG   FLORIAN.MEYER@USHERBROOKE.CA                              R.DAVID@UMONTREAL.CA                  ...
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Effects of an Online Teacher Training Course Entailing Examples of Practice on Video

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Effects of an Online Teacher Training Course Entailing Examples of Practice on Video

  1. 1. Effects of an Online Teacher Training Course Entailing Examples of Practice on Video ECER 2012 Symposium : «How ICT can Improve Teacher Education and Professionalisation ?» Florian Meyer, Université de Sherbrooke Robert David, Université de Montréal Michel Aubé, Université de Sherbrookejeudi 20 septembre 12
  2. 2. Table of Content Context and issues Theoretical framework Objectives and research questions Methodology Results & Discussion Conclusionjeudi 20 septembre 12
  3. 3. ISSUES CONTEXT AND PROBLEMjeudi 20 septembre 12
  4. 4. Context of Change Programs of study reform (2001) Competency-based programs General learning domains Teachers as conveyor of culture Pedagogical renewal Transformation of practice New competencies Need to support teachers A long and complex process Need new training strategiesjeudi 20 septembre 12
  5. 5. Problem Emergence of training platforms using examples of practice on video These videos allow: to enrich the relationship between theory and practice to support modeling practices to offer new opportunities No assessment of the effects of such platforms on the professional development of teachersjeudi 20 septembre 12
  6. 6. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK CONCEPTS & MODELSjeudi 20 septembre 12
  7. 7. Training Needs Engage in a process of professional development Professional competency: exploitation of specific resources in order to achieve a result in a particular context, these resources are, among others, theoretical knowledge, action schemata or knowledge (Le Boterf,2000; Perrenoud, 1998) 12 competencies required by the Ministère de l’Éducation du Loisir et du Sport Competency 4 : «To pilot teaching/learning situations that are appropriate to the students concerned and to the subject content with a view to developing the competencies targeted in the programs of study.» (Martinet & al., 2001, p. 71)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  8. 8. Professional competency 4 «Creates conditions in which students can engage in meaningful problem situations, tasks or projects, based on their cognitive, emotional and social characteristics» (p. 80) «Guides students in selecting, interpreting and understanding the information provided in the various resources and in understanding the elements of a problem situation or the requirements of a task or project» (p. 81) «Provides students with the resources they need to take part in the learning situations» (p. 80) «Supports student learning by asking questions and providing frequent and relevant feedback to promote the integration and transfer of learning» (p. 81) «Encourages teamwork» (p. 81)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  9. 9. Online learning platform incorporating examples of practice on video Zoom sur l’expertise pédagogique (Version 2.3) http://zoom.animare.orgjeudi 20 septembre 12
  10. 10. Training course A training course is a series of steps that teachers must follow to gradually develop one or more targeted professional competencies Each step is represented by a web page with a title, a number, an introduction and different sections organizing the content of the step.jeudi 20 septembre 12
  11. 11. Situation of continuing training Analysis model (inspired by B. Charlier, 1998, p. 259)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  12. 12. Situation of continuing training Analysis model (inspired by B. Charlier, 1998, p. 259)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  13. 13. Teacher learning The learning relate to knowledge that will allow a teacher to improve or to change practice (Brown & Duguid, 1991) and to act effectively in the widest possible variety of professional situations (Le Boterf, 2000; Perrenoud, 1998). There is learning for a teacher when there is a change of his knowledge structures and construction of new knowledge (Bourgeois & Nizet, 1997; Legendre, 1998). Learning takes place through different cognitive processes that are influenced by the environment and the social context in which a person is, the practice of reference, observations that can be done, models that are proposed, mediation offered by an instructor or more experienced peer, teachers conceptions or expectations expressed (Cross, 1981; Bruner, 1996).jeudi 20 septembre 12
  14. 14. Teaching practice change Change involving modifications Factors promoting change of (Charlier, 1998) : (Cauterman, Demailly, Suffys & Bliez- planning decisions Sullerot, 1999a; Charlier, 1998) : schemes of action Conditions of practice knowledge implemented The functioning of the institution actions implemented The institutions values reflection on the action Characteristics of the teacher : Type 1 : «a little bit more of the relationship to knowledge same» vs type 2 : «a change in knowledge and know-how vision, a his sense of self-efficacy reframing» (Watzlawick, Weakland & Fisch, 1975; personal history Charlier, 1998; Bourgeois & involvement Nizet, 1997) time organizationjeudi 20 septembre 12
  15. 15. Teacher self-efficacy Belief that a teacher has in his/her ability to perform tasks with a satisfying level of performance Multidimensional model of teacher self-efficacy (based on Tschannen-Moran & al., 1998, p. 228)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  16. 16. OBJECTIVES RESEARCH QUESTIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
  17. 17. First objective Describe learning regarding the competency "Pilot" of teachers who have completed a training course targeting this competency and integrating examples of practice on video. What were the effects of the training on knowledge relating to components of the competency «To pilot teaching/learning situations that are appropriate to the students concerned and to the subject content with a view to developing the competencies targeted in the programs of study» among teachers who have followed it?jeudi 20 septembre 12
  18. 18. Second objective Describe the intentions to change practice regarding the competency "pilot" of teachers who have completed a training course targeting this competency and integrating examples of practice on video. What were the effects of the training on the intentions of changing practice of teachers who have followed it ?jeudi 20 septembre 12
  19. 19. Third objective Provide possible answers to the question: How to improve the technological training platform incorporating examples of practice on video, to better support the professional development of teachers?jeudi 20 septembre 12
  20. 20. METHODOLOGY APPROACH AND OBJECTSjeudi 20 septembre 12
  21. 21. Research approach Interpretive paradigm where reality is a subjective construct dependent on the representations of the participants and the researcher (Lessard-Hébert, Goyette & Boutin, 1990) : consideration of the evolution of each individual concerned according to their point of view and their representations delimitation of training situations to evaluate integrating multiple interrelated elements Deferred evaluation approach (Gabrielli, 1989) : centered on persons who have undergone training considers the process of learning and change of these people integrates the "before" the "during" and the "after" the trainingjeudi 20 septembre 12
  22. 22. A specific training course Title : « To pilot teaching/learning situations to foster the development of competencies » 22 steps and a logbook to fill during the trainingjeudi 20 septembre 12
  23. 23. jeudi 20 septembre 12
  24. 24. Data collection SAMPLING: 6 TEACHERS (5 WOMEN AND 1 MAN). ALL TEACHING AT THE ELEMENTARY Semi-structured interview before Semi-structured interview before training training Part 1: Personal Information Part 1: Part 2 Interview 1 ditto Part 2: description, examples and and feeling of having learned and perceived ability for each capacity development component and for the Part 2: representation of learning competency Part 3: assessment of the Part 3: expectations, concerns platform and the training and intentions regarding the Part 4: comments training DIARY COMPLETED BY EACH PERSON WRITTEN ANSWERS TO SOME QUESTIONS ASKED IN THE COURSEjeudi 20 septembre 12
  25. 25. Data analysis Deductive approach and systematic analysis starting from the analysis model proposed and from the definition of the competency and its components. DIMENSION 2 DIMENSION 1 INTENTIONS TO LEARNING CHANGE PRATICE DIMENSION 3 TRAINING COURSEjeudi 20 septembre 12
  26. 26. RESULTS ACCORDING TO EACH OF THE DIMENSIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
  27. 27. Dimension 1a: Understandingjeudi 20 septembre 12
  28. 28. Dimension 1a: Understandingjeudi 20 septembre 12
  29. 29. Dimension 1b: Capacity to exemplifyjeudi 20 septembre 12
  30. 30. Dimension 2a: Level of confidencejeudi 20 septembre 12
  31. 31. Dimension 2b: Validation of practice Participants question their practice after observing videos : Sylvie notes especially that she was inclined to provide answers and information to the students too quickly. She noted that she had a tendency to easily avoid feedback and strategies. France was happy to see that she was doing more relevant things than she thought. She also noted that she was not giving enough positive reinforcement. ...jeudi 20 septembre 12
  32. 32. Dimension 3a Appreciation of the videosjeudi 20 septembre 12
  33. 33. Dimension 3a (suite) Appreciation of the learning coursejeudi 20 septembre 12
  34. 34. Dimension 3b Feeling of having learnedjeudi 20 septembre 12
  35. 35. DISCUSSION POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO THE THREE RESEARCH QUESTIONSjeudi 20 septembre 12
  36. 36. Learning Learning is related to the observation of videos whose content was accompanied by : specific written definitions targeted questions on elements to be observed in videos additional explanations Learning was less systematic when none of these supplements were presentjeudi 20 septembre 12
  37. 37. Intentions to change practice All have expressed intentions of change : inspired by teaching strategies observed inspired by catches of awareness of gaps in their practice formalized thanks to the questions and logbook Positive vicarious effect if : identification to the observed teacher identification of the feasibility of what they observe (amplified by the written supplements) The videos have validated some aspects of these teachers practice: willingness to further progress willingness to change their practice Some consider to be less competent and to have much to change better understanding of what is this competency risk of discouragement: the course must prepare for this awarenessjeudi 20 septembre 12
  38. 38. To keep in the platform Examples of teachers close to the realities of participants: positive vicarious effect Written content with anchor points: to analyze and exploit videos Written mediating role of the virtual trainer to support the modeling and enriching the vicarious experience Rich and comforting logbook Questions leading teachers to identify possible improvements: rich and developed descriptions Questions designed so they help define listening intentions Light tone, simple and precise vocabularyjeudi 20 septembre 12
  39. 39. To improve Credibility of videos Suggestion: make descriptions more specific and contextualized Suggestion: provide access to resources and documents presented in the videos. But will this promote reflective practice encouraged in the logbook? How? Which ressources ? With what explanations? The course seemed too long Have participants been victim of some cognitive overload? How many steps should contain a course? Better support engagement in a situation of online training: what is the best way? Reduce the cognitive challenge and insecurity. The observation of practice is a complex skill that develops gradually and is not immediately developped by all teachers. What is the best form of mediation? Reduce the technical constraints: bandwith, applications to install... Increase quality of videos: sound, image...jeudi 20 septembre 12
  40. 40. CONCLUSION RECENT RESEARCHjeudi 20 septembre 12
  41. 41. Opening A training course incorporating examples of practice on video and made in a training platform such as "Zoom" has a positive effect on the professional development of teachers. Some avenues and questions for further research: Define the effects of this type of training and the conditions under which they occur. But how precisely measure the effect? (EdCentric, 2005) To what extent these intentions result in meaningful change and what can be modified in the course to support this ? (Charlier, Deschryver & Peraya, 2006) Identify the best ways to use videos depending on the context of teachers. How to further increase the vicarious effect? (Colestock & Sherin, 2009; Santagata, 2009) How to choose judiciously videos to use? Difficult to predict what people will perceive and interpret. (Miller & Zhou, 2007). Derry (2007) suggests working to develop standards that would better document and enhance the videos made. Would it be more efficient to follow such a course individually or in a group? Why? What would be learnings according to one or the other of these forms? (Sherin & van Es, 2009; Borko & al., 2008)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  42. 42. Recent research About the use of examples of practice on video in a modeling strategy In a distance mode : (Baecher & Kung, 2011); (Fang, 2010); (Lee, Ginsburg & Preston, 2009); (Llinares & Valls, 2010); (Ria & Leblanc, 2011); (Towers & Rapke, 2011) In a hybrid mode : (Marsh, Mitchell & Adamczyk, 2010); (Ria, 2010); (Santagata & Guarino, 2011); (Dieker & al., 2009); (Galvis & Nemirovsky, 2003); (Santagata, 2009); (Santagata, Zannoni & Stigler, 2007);jeudi 20 septembre 12
  43. 43. Recent research (2) About video clubs In a distance mode (Liu, 2012); (So, Pow & Hung, 2009); (Wu & Kao, 2008) In a presence mode (Borko & al., 2008); (Brantlinger, Sherin, Linsenmeier, 2011); (Sherin & van ES, 2009); (van Es & Sherin, 2008); (van Es & Sherin, 2006); (van Es, 2009); (van Es, 2012); In a hybrid mode (Krammer & al., 2006); (Sherin & Van Es, 2005)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  44. 44. Recent research (3) About video editing as a learning strategy In a distance mode Beardsley, Cogan-Drew & Olivero, 2007); (Calandra & al., 2008); (Heintz & al., 2010); (Kong, 2010); (Lee, Ginsburg & Preston, 2009); (Olofsson, Lindberg & Stodberg, 2011); (Rich & Hannafin, 2009); (Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen & Terpstra, 2008); (Rosaen, Lundeberg, Terpstra, Cooper, Fu & Niu, 2010); (Saxena & Stevens, 2007); (Wu & Kao, 2008) In a presence mode (Brantley-Dias & al., 2008); (Fadde, Aud & Gilbert, 2009); (Zhang, Lundeberg, Koehler & Eberhardt, 2011) In a hybrid mode (Yiong-Hwee & Churchill, 2007); (Bueno de Mesquita & al., 2010); (Yerrick & al., 2005)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  45. 45. Recent research (4) About the use of scenarized videos as case studies In a distance mode (Chieu, Herbst, Weiss, 2011); (Rosaen, Lundeberg, Terpstra, Cooper, Fu & Niu, 2010); (Schwartz & Hartman, 2007); (Tan,Tan & Wettasinghe, 2011) In a presence mode (Burden & al., 2010); (Zhang, Lundeberg, Koehler & Eberhardt, 2011)jeudi 20 septembre 12
  46. 46. Thank you very much for your attention !jeudi 20 septembre 12
  47. 47. HTTP://ZOOM.ANIMARE.ORG FLORIAN.MEYER@USHERBROOKE.CA R.DAVID@UMONTREAL.CA MICHEL.AUBE@USHERBROOKE.CAjeudi 20 septembre 12

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