Educational PsychologyName and describe Eriksons theory ofpsychosocial development. Notebehaviors associated with each stage andthe implications of the theory forclassroom practice. Evaluate the theoryand compare/contrast it with Bingham &Stryker’s theory of socioemotionaldevelopment for girls.Developed by W. Huitt, 1999
Erikson’s TheoryErik Erikson was a follower of SigmundFreud who broke with his teacher over thefundamental point of what motivates ordrives human behavior.For Freud it was biology or more specificallythe biological instincts of life and aggression.
Erikson’s TheoryFor Erikson, who was not trained in biologyand/or the medical sciences (unlike Freudand many of his contemporaries), the mostimportant force driving human behavior andthe development of personality was socialinteraction.
Erikson’s TheoryErikson left his native Germany in the 1930sand immigrated to America where he studiedNative American traditions of humandevelopment and continued his work as apsychoanalyst.His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages ofMan" was unique in that it covered the entirelifespan rather than childhood and adolescentdevelopment.
Erikson’s TheoryErikson’s view was that the socialenvironment combined with biologicalmaturation provides each individual with aset of “crises” that must be resolved.The individual is provided with a "sensitiveperiod" in which to successfully resolve eachcrisis before a new crisis is presented.
Erikson’s TheoryThe results of the resolution, whethersuccessful or not, are carried forward to thenext crisis and provide the foundation for itsresolution.
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child develops a belief that the environment canTrust vs. Infancy be counted on toMistrust meet his or her basic physiological and social needs.
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns what he/she can controlAutonomy and develops avs. Shame Toddlerhood sense of free will & Doubt and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to begin action, toInitiative Early explore, tovs. Guilt Childhood imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions.
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to do Industry things well or vs. Middle correctly inInferiority Childhood comparison to a standard or to others
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense ofIdentity vs. self in relationship to Role Adolescence others and to ownConfusion internal thoughts and desires • social identity • personal identity
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops ability toIntimacy give and receive vs. Young love; begins to makeIsolation Adulthood long-term commitment to relationships
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops interestGenerativity in guiding the vs. Middle development ofStagnation Adulthood the next generation
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of Ego- acceptance of life asintegrity Later it was lived and the vs. Adulthood importance of the Despair people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan
Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryA major criticism of Erikson’s theory is thatit is based primarily on work done with boysand men.Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest thatdevelopment of identity, intimacy andgenerativity may receive different emphasesthroughout adulthood for men and women.Bingham, M., & Stryker, S. (1995). Things will be different for my daughter: A practicalguide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. New York: Penguin Books.
Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryBingham and Stiker propose five stages ofsocioemotional development for girls andwomen that parallels those proposed byErikson, but places different emphases atimportant sensitive time periods.
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feel in control ofDeveloping own life, committed the Through to specific activities, Hardy age 8 look forward toPersonality challenge and opportunity for growth
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Develop steady, Form durable core of self asIdentity Age 9-12 person who is capable as an of accomplishment inAchiever a variety of areas (e.g., intellectual, physical, social, potential career)
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feeling of being Skill worthy, deserving,Building Age 13-16 entitled to assertfor Self- needs and wants; Esteem confidence in ability to cope with life
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Strategies Sense of responsibility for Self- for taking care ofSufficiency Age 17-22 herself and, perhaps,(Emotional a family; based on a-Financial) sense of autonomy
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Contentedness inSatisfaction personal in Work Adulthood accomplishments and and Love social/personal relationships
A Hardy PersonalitySuzanne Kobasa Ouellette, a professor at theCity University of New York suggests that ahardy personality is based on three Cs: • control, • commitment, and • challenge.
A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developedthrough the acquisition of eight specific skills: • Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway; • Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality; • Set goals and establish priorities;
A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developedthrough the acquisition of eight specific skills: • Project into the future and understand how todays choices affect the future; • Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values; • Set boundaries and limits;
A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developedthrough the acquisition of eight specific skills: • Ask assertively for wants and desires; • Trust self and own perceptions.
Theories ComparedThe competencies for developing a “hardypersonality” seem to be very similar to the tothe “outcomes of a satisfactory resolution” ofthe first three crises proposed by Erikson: • Trust vs. Mistrust • Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt • Initiative vs. Guilt
Theories ComparedWhat may be different is that these are not thetraditional desired outcomes of infancy andearly childhood for girls.Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girlsto be more acquiescent and dependent, which isto their detriment in terms of furtherdevelopment.
Theories ComparedErikson’s stage of “Industry vs. Inferiority”seems to be essentially equivalent to Binghamand Stryker’s “Form Identity as an Achiever.”For boys, there may be more of an opportunity toaddress the issue of any deficiencies in a sense ofaccomplishment within the stage of identityformation.
Theories ComparedHowever, it is likely that if girls have notsuccessfully developed a sense of accomplishmentduring middle and late childhood, it may be adecade or more before there is an opportunity toagain tackle this issue.This is because as girls attend to the issue ofidentity, their natural attention to relationshipsproduces a different pathway for identitydevelopment .
Self-EsteemAnother issue is the drop in self-esteem thatoccurs naturally as a part of adolescence inmodern society.The importance of self-esteem for girls in theadolescent years cannot be overemphasized.
Self-EsteemA study by the American Association ofUniversity Women (AAUW, 1991) showed thatgirls had a precipitous drop in self-esteembetween elementary and high school.While boys also showed a decline it was notnearly as dramatic.
Self-EsteemPercentage Responding Positively to the statement"I am happy the way I am" High % Elementary School DecreaseBoys 67 46 19White Girls 60 29 31African-American Girls 65 58 7Hispanic Girls 68 30 38
Theories ComparedA major difference between the Erikson andBingham-Stryker models occurs in thestages of adulthood. • In Eriksons model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. • In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.
Theories ComparedThe difference may lie in gender expectations.Men are expected to become self-sufficient;the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy.Women are expected to establishrelationships; the female crisis is autonomy interms of taking care of themselves emotionallyand financially.
Theories ComparedSimilar differences exist in middle and olderadulthood. • Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity. • Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love