Monuments

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A chronicle of several famous monuments in Europe.

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Monuments

  1. 1. By Me!! (That is, by Srikar Baireddy)
  2. 2. Monuments Relevant to monuments is architecture. Everything around us is architecture. The house you live in, the buildings you see…… they are all perfect examples. Europe, since the ancient days, has been well known for its brilliant monuments. Its examples range from the Roman Coliseum (Background), built in 72 AD, to the ultra-modern Parliament in Brussels (right).
  3. 3. England England, England, England. Home to the first country to conquer others, and also home to the first cannibals, England has got a large history behind it. The celebrities among English buildings are:  The Big Ben,  The Palace of Westminster,  Westminster Abbey  The London Eye,  Tower Bridge
  4. 4. The Big Ben (actually, the Clock Tower) It is interesting to note a common misconception: The "Big Ben" is not the Clock or the Clock Tower; it is actually the bell that chimes. It weighs 14 tons and was cast in Whitechapel. It is named after Sir Benjamin Hall, the Chief Commissioner of the works when the Clock Tower was finally completed in 1858. Actually, The Big Ben is the second bell for the Clock Tower: the original broke during a tests ringing. The Clock Tower, along with the Palace of Westminster, is an excellent example of Neo-Gothic Architecture.
  5. 5. The Palace of Westminster Work on the Palace began in 1042, but the devastating fire of 1834 destroyed a large part of the original building. It was rebuilt from 1834 – 1868. It was during this time the Clock Tower was introduced. The Palace of Westminster is a brilliant example of Neo-Gothic architecture in London. It now serves as the House of Parliament.
  6. 6. Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey is one of the most impressive buildings in Europe. Pictured is its west façade, and the background of the slide is its interior. It acts as a memorial for noteworthy individuals such as Oscar Wilde.
  7. 7. The London Eye Ah…some break from endless ancient engineering. The London Eye, is, in fact, and oversized Ferris Wheel. The entire structure is 135 metres (443 ft) tall and the wheel has a diameter of 120 metres (394 ft). It is the most popular paid tourist attraction in the UK, receiving 3.5 million visitors per year.
  8. 8. The Tower Bridge The Tower Bridge gets its name from the London Tower nearby. It became functional in 1894. It has become an iconic symbol of London. It is a combined bascule and suspension bridge that connects two sides of the Thames.
  9. 9. France Closely competing with Great Britain was France. Sworn enemies, they were always at each others necks, trying to crush the other. In the end, they both ended up with finely engineered structures – once again, stuck at a tie. Notable ones are:  La Tour Eiffel (The Eiffel Tower)  L’Arc de Triomphe (The Arc of Triumph)  Château de Versailles(The Palace of Versailles)  Le Panthéon (The French Pantheon)
  10. 10. La Tour Eiffel Something that is world-famous today…could it actually have been hated, once upon a time? The Eiffel Tower, the most famous symbol of France, was originally despised by many brilliant minds, including Alexandre Dumas, who believed it was like a “blotch” on Paris. Nevertheless, Gustave Eiffel’s puddle-iron masterpiece persevered and remains to this day, the first modern structure and one of the most beautiful structures in the world.
  11. 11. L’Arc de Triomphe The arc of triumph was built by the notoriously dwarfish, yet cunning general Napoleon Bonaparte after their victory at Austerlitz. The Arc is the second largest arc in the world. In fact, it is so large, that after the end of hostilities of the World War 1, Charles Godefroy flew his biplane through it.
  12. 12. Château de Versailles When the palace was built, Versailles was a village in France; now, it is one of the largest suburbs of Paris. The Palace, which was originally thought of by Louis the XIV, is famed for its gardens. On the right is the layout of the palace in 1746. It is in this palace that the famed Hall of Mirrors is found.
  13. 13. Le Panthéon The Panthéon was originally a church, then it became a mausoleum, later a church, next a church, and finally a mausoleum. It provides a brilliant example of French architecture in the 1700s. The picture on the right and below is the interior of the Panthéon, while the background is its exterior. There is a statue of the famous philosopher, Voltaire, in the Panthéon.
  14. 14. Italy Ah…Italy! Marco Polo, Pizzas, Pastas, and…more monuments. Of course the first that that comes to your mind will be the Coliseum, but there are many others…  The Arch of Constantine  Pantheon (Roman)  Pompeii  Ca Brüta
  15. 15. The Roman Coliseum Blood, sweat, and tears! Italy is the home to one of the bloodiest arenas in the world, where people (termed as gladiators) were forced or chose to fight. The construction of the amphitheater was started by emperor Vespasian of the Flavian dynasty in 72 AD and was finished by his son Titus in 80 AD. During the Coliseum’s opening ceremonies, spectacles were held for 100 days in which 5,000 of animals and 2,000 gladiators were killed. The Coliseum was capable of holding 50,000 spectators.
  16. 16. The Arch of Constantine Built in 315 AD as a commemoration of the victory of Constantine I over Maxentius at Milvian Bridge in AD 312. It is located in the valley of the Coliseum and marks an important part of traditional proceedings.
  17. 17. Roman Pantheon In Rome, we meet another Pantheon. It is a Roman temple built in 126 AD by Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Even 2000 years after it was built, today, the dome of the Pantheon is the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. It is not secular, unlike its French counterpart. Since the 7th Century, it has been used as a Catholic Church dedicated to St. Mary and the Martyrs.
  18. 18. Pompeii The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 changed the lives of the people. Most were immediately buried alive by the ash that formed a shell around their bodies (see left). It is for such a terrible thing that Pompeii finally received attention. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  19. 19. Ca Brüta Yet another then-hated, by now-loved monument. This was designed in 1919-1923 by the Studio Barelli-Colonnese, where the young Muzio also worked. The name means “The Ugly House”. The strange name is due to the critical reactions that the building received after completion. However, now it is considered to be an Italian masterpiece of the 20th Century.
  20. 20. Greece Η Ελλάδα είναι μια πολύ – Sorry, Greece is a very interesting place, filled to the brim with significant and beautiful monuments.  Athenian Acropolis  Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus  Hadrians Arch  Hellenic Parliament  Ramnous
  21. 21. Athenian Acropolis The most important of the archaeological remains on the Acropolis is without question the Parthenon, completed in 432 BC and dedicated to Athena, the Greek goddess of courage, inspiration and wisdom. Further significant Acropolis attractions include the  Erechtheion Temple,  the Odeon of Herodes Atticus,  the Old Temple of Athena,  the Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus,  the Temple of Athena Nike, and the  Propylaea.
  22. 22. Theatre of DionysusEleuthereus Dating back to the 5th century, the theatre this giant amphitheatre began its life as a more modest wooden structure, before being constructed in stone during the 6th century. It can contain about 20,000 spectators.
  23. 23. Hadrian’s Arch Measuring in at some 18 metres / 59 feet high by just over 13 metres / 43 feet wide, the famous Arch of Hadrian was constructed to function as the gate to the city, connecting Athens with the Roman quarters. The archway was built from marble during the early part of the 2nd century AD, in order to celebrate the arrival of renowned Roman Emperor Hadrian (76 to 138 AD).
  24. 24. Hellenic Parliament The Hellenic Parliament building, completed in the early 1840s, began its life as a royal palace. However, it was not long before a great fire in 1909 destroyed it and it had to be reconstructed. In the early 1920s, when Greek monarchy was abolished, it first became a hospital, and later a museum. In 1929, the government decreed that the former palace would become the official home of parliament, and whilst the monarchy was restored in 1935 (being later abolished again in 1973), this landmark has remained as the Hellenic Parliament building ever since.
  25. 25. Ramnous The archaeological site of Ramnous comes with some very important preserved ruins, as well as two old harbours connecting the Aegean Sea (named after the king who cmmitted suicide in the sea). There are a number of important temples from the 5th and 6th century, particularly around the Sanctuary of Nemesis, along with various fortifications, remains of ancient walls and interconnecting pathways, appearing rather like a giant maze.
  26. 26. Belgium Overshadowed by the Big Four (England, France, Italy, and Greece) Belgium barely gets noticed. I am mentioning it in this presentation for a single reason that you will find out, soon enough….  The EU Parliament  The Atomium  Anglo-Belgian Memorial  “Le Manneken-Pis”
  27. 27. EU Parliament In stark contrast with the sober, historical structures flaunted by this presentation, the EU Parliament in Brussels is one of the most modern buildings in the world. One glance at its beautiful design is sure to leave you amazed.
  28. 28. The Atomium This unique monument is just as modern as the Parliament. Built for the Universal Exhibition of 1958, it represents a molecule of 9 atoms joined together.
  29. 29. Anglo-Belgian Memorial It was built and unveiled by the Prince of Wales. It was officially unveiled in 1923. It is a commemoration to the support given by the Belgian People to British Prisoners of War in World War 1.
  30. 30. Le Manneken Pis Ah…this is the reason I put Belgium in! Want to know what “Le Manneken Pis” means? Little Man Pee. At the Grand-Place in Brussels, there is a boy peeing. There are several legends revolving around it, some having a boy peeing on explosives and others containing him peeing on enemy soldiers. What’s more, the Belgian people dress him up for special occasions! (see right) The top left is him as usual – without clothes.
  31. 31. Thank You!I hope you learned something (or rather more than just something)REMEMBER: This was made by Srikar and Srikar only…

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