Dyer suggests 4 ways of viewing representation: A selective re-presentation of reality: creating the illusion of a transparent window on the world Media often use stereotypes to typify particular social groups as a form of shorthand The process of speaking on behalf of or as a representative of a particular position. Whose views are being put forward in particular messages? The meanings which media messages represent for audiences. What do readers bring to messages which affects how they interpret them? What actual sense is made when particular messages are understood?