Islamic Contributions (Edited)


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Original slide by Bashar A. Shala, edited for a school project on Medicine.

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Islamic Contributions (Edited)

  1. 1. Contributions of Islam to Medicine Bashar A. Shala March 14, 2004
  2. 2. Human Civilization Greek Chinese Western Islamic Indian Roman Byzantine Persian
  3. 3. MEDICINE <ul><li>Muslims had many achievements in this field including: </li></ul><ul><li>1) The use of anesthesia in surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The cauterizing of wounds . </li></ul><ul><li>3) The discovery that epidemics arise from contagion through touch and air. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MEDICINE <ul><li>Al-Razi “Rhazes” (c. 865-c. 930), : was the first to diagnose smallpox and measles, to associate these diseases and others with human contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>His extensive medical treatise in nine volumes, &quot;Hawi&quot; was used as a textbook in the Sorbonne as late as 1395. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted psychotherapy and warned patient of changing doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed importance of a balanced diet for good health. Built a hospital in Baghdad. </li></ul>
  5. 5. MEDICINE <ul><li>Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980-1037 </li></ul><ul><li>- Wrote a famous medical encyclopedia in Arabic (Canon) described every known disease: Al-Kanun became the basic medical text in the west for five centuries </li></ul><ul><li>- Mastered the natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy and law. </li></ul><ul><li>- His major work includes both philosophy and medicine, and were fundamental contributions to the renaissance in Europe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MEDICINE <ul><li>Az-Zahrawi “Albucasis” (died 1013) </li></ul><ul><li>- Born in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>- Known in Europe as Chief of all surgeons. </li></ul><ul><li>- His books on medicine was used in Europe till 16th century. </li></ul><ul><li>- His writings illustrate the use of surgical instruments. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quotations <ul><li>&quot; I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Qur'an which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napolean Bonaparte </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Napoleonic Code was based on Maliki School) </li></ul><ul><li>Napolean Bonaparte as Quoted in Christian Cherfils, ‘Bonaparte et Islam,’ Pedone Ed., Paris, France, 1914, pp. 105, 125. Original References: &quot;Correspondence de Napoléon Ier Tome V pièce n° 4287 du 17/07/1799...&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 8. Quotations <ul><li>&quot;From India to Spain, the brilliant civilization of Islam flourished. What was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilization, but quite the contrary... </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;To us it seems that West-European civilization is civilization, but this is a narrow view.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Bertrand Russel in ‘History of Western Philosophy,’ London, 1948, p. 419. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quotations <ul><li>&quot;The Islamic teachings have left great traditions for equitable and gentle dealings and behavior, and inspire people with nobility and tolerance. These are human teachings of the highest order and at the same time practicable. These teachings brought into existence a society in which hard-heartedness and collective oppression and injustice were the least as compared with all other societies preceding it....Islam is replete with gentleness, courtesy, and fraternity.“ </li></ul><ul><li>H.G. Wells </li></ul>
  10. 10. Quotations <ul><li>&quot;If any religion had the chance of ruling over England, nay Europe within the next hundred years, it could be Islam.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Sir George Bernard Shaw in 'The Genuine Islam,' Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Summary <ul><li>Islamic culture played an important and undeniable role in advancing world civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim carried the civilization torch during the “Dark Ages”; preserved and advanced the treasure of culture and knowledge for humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>In all aspects of our daily lives, then – in our homes, offices and universities; in religion, philosophy, science and the arts – we are indebted to Muslim creativity, insight and scientific perseverance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Contribution of Islam to Civilization, Bashar A. Shala, </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown author, http:// / </li></ul>
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