Panama & Los Angeles: The Waterworks That Made America the West Andrew Lelja History 141 71154
Panama Canal <ul><li>In 1534, King Charles V of Spain surveyed a route through Panama to make it easier for trips to travel from Spain to Peru. </li></ul><ul><li>The French had began construction on the Gaillard Cut in 1881 but they underestimate the massive project, and financial and hygienic difficulties eventually halted the project in 1889. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1904, Roosevelt bought out the French’s involvement in the project for 40 million dollars. </li></ul>
Panama Canal <ul><li>The United States learned from France’s mistakes and made accommodations for all the workers and were prepared to take on one of the most monumental tasks in human history. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. construction on the canal began in 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>This was one of the most difficult and complex projects that had ever been attempted. </li></ul>
Panama Canal <ul><li>27,000 workers died in the construction of the canal, but only 5,600 died under the U.S. phase of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in hygiene decreased the death rate compared to that of the French construction. </li></ul><ul><li>John Frank Stevens was the chief engineer, and he made living conditions re </li></ul><ul><li>He left the project in 1907, and George Washington Golphos came in to head and finish the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellicott Dredges built a special cutter dredge for the canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Golphos finish the project ahead of schedule, and The Panama Canal was complete in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>The completion of the canal made the time cut in half for a ship traveling from New York to San Francisco. </li></ul>
Panama Canal <ul><li>The total cost was 352 million dollars on the U.S side, and 639 million dollars for the French. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the canal was finished, the annual traffic was 1,000 ships, but in 2008 the annual traffic rate exceeded 14,000 ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1999, Panama has held control of the canal, but the U.S. still protects it militarily. </li></ul>
Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>William Mulholland was a self-made engineer and became the director of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland designed the Los Angeles Aqueduct which delivers water from the Owens River in the Easter Sierra Nevada’s to Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland and the LA Mayor tricked land owners and farmers into selling their rights to the water to LA by making them think they were supporting local irrigation project. </li></ul>
Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>Construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct began in 1908 with a budget of 24.5 million dollars with over 5,000 workers. </li></ul><ul><li>The project consisted of 223 miles of steel pipe, 120 miles of railroad tracks, 2 hydroelectric plants, 170 miles of power lines, 240 miles of telephone line, an 500 miles of roads. </li></ul><ul><li>LA was now growing 11 times faster per year than New York, and its rapid growth attracted people and immigrants from all over. </li></ul>
Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>One of the main reasons LA needed water was for farming, but before long the land was being cheaply sold to build residential communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Movie productions brought even more fame and money to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>LA became known as the “Water Vampire” and protests broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>Land owners and farmers in the Owens Valley had their land destroyed because of the aqueduct, and it changed the landscape of the valley forever. </li></ul><ul><li>After a short time, the Owens Valley wasn’t providing enough water for LA, so they looked further north to Mono Lake, and east to the Colorado River. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland constructed the St. Francis Dam and reservoir, which was a success as first but eventually failed and broke becoming the worst manmade disaster in California history. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulholland resigned from his position after this. </li></ul>
Los Angeles Aqueduct <ul><li>Once Mulholland was gone, more efficient and responsible planning were used to secure additional water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of environmental damage had been done to the Owens Valley and Mono Lake. </li></ul><ul><li>Careful management of California water sources is a must to keep LA and southern California afloat in the future. </li></ul>
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