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Hist 141 panama & los angeles

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  • 1. Panama & Los Angeles: The Waterworks That Made America the West Andrew Lelja History 141 71154
  • 2. Panama Canal
    • In 1534, King Charles V of Spain surveyed a route through Panama to make it easier for trips to travel from Spain to Peru.
    • The French had began construction on the Gaillard Cut in 1881 but they underestimate the massive project, and financial and hygienic difficulties eventually halted the project in 1889.
    • In 1904, Roosevelt bought out the French’s involvement in the project for 40 million dollars.
  • 3. Panama Canal
    • The United States learned from France’s mistakes and made accommodations for all the workers and were prepared to take on one of the most monumental tasks in human history.
    • U.S. construction on the canal began in 1904.
    • This was one of the most difficult and complex projects that had ever been attempted.
  • 4. Panama Canal
    • 27,000 workers died in the construction of the canal, but only 5,600 died under the U.S. phase of the project.
    • Advances in hygiene decreased the death rate compared to that of the French construction.
    • John Frank Stevens was the chief engineer, and he made living conditions re
    • He left the project in 1907, and George Washington Golphos came in to head and finish the job.
    • Ellicott Dredges built a special cutter dredge for the canal.
    • Golphos finish the project ahead of schedule, and The Panama Canal was complete in 1914.
    • The completion of the canal made the time cut in half for a ship traveling from New York to San Francisco.
  • 5. Panama Canal
    • The total cost was 352 million dollars on the U.S side, and 639 million dollars for the French.
    • Once the canal was finished, the annual traffic was 1,000 ships, but in 2008 the annual traffic rate exceeded 14,000 ships.
    • Since 1999, Panama has held control of the canal, but the U.S. still protects it militarily.
  • 6. Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • William Mulholland was a self-made engineer and became the director of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP)
    • Mulholland designed the Los Angeles Aqueduct which delivers water from the Owens River in the Easter Sierra Nevada’s to Los Angeles.
    • Mulholland and the LA Mayor tricked land owners and farmers into selling their rights to the water to LA by making them think they were supporting local irrigation project.
  • 7. Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • Construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct began in 1908 with a budget of 24.5 million dollars with over 5,000 workers.
    • The project consisted of 223 miles of steel pipe, 120 miles of railroad tracks, 2 hydroelectric plants, 170 miles of power lines, 240 miles of telephone line, an 500 miles of roads.
    • LA was now growing 11 times faster per year than New York, and its rapid growth attracted people and immigrants from all over.
  • 8. Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • One of the main reasons LA needed water was for farming, but before long the land was being cheaply sold to build residential communities.
    • Movie productions brought even more fame and money to the city.
    • LA became known as the “Water Vampire” and protests broke out.
    • Land owners and farmers in the Owens Valley had their land destroyed because of the aqueduct, and it changed the landscape of the valley forever.
    • After a short time, the Owens Valley wasn’t providing enough water for LA, so they looked further north to Mono Lake, and east to the Colorado River.
    • Mulholland constructed the St. Francis Dam and reservoir, which was a success as first but eventually failed and broke becoming the worst manmade disaster in California history.
    • Mulholland resigned from his position after this.
  • 9. Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • Once Mulholland was gone, more efficient and responsible planning were used to secure additional water sources.
    • A lot of environmental damage had been done to the Owens Valley and Mono Lake.
    • Careful management of California water sources is a must to keep LA and southern California afloat in the future.