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Hist 141 chile

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  • 1. Chile Andrew Lelja History 141 71154
  • 2. Geography
    • Chile is one of only two South American countries that does not border Brazil
    • It is the longest North to South country in the world, being about 2,880 miles long, and on average 109 miles wide.
    • The country is situated between the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Andes Mountains to the east.
    • Chile controls Easter Island, Sala y Gomez Island, Robinson Crusoe Island and the eastern most Polynesian Islands.
    • Chile also claims 480,000 square miles of Antarctica, but has suspended it under the Antarctic Treaty.
  • 3. Geography
    • Chile has a wide range of climates because it covers 38 degrees in latitude, and features at least 7 major climatic zones.
      • The Desert in the North
      • Alpine Tundra's and Glaciers in the East and South East
      • Humid Subtropics on Easter Island
      • Oceanic in the South
      • Mediterranean in Central Chile
    • Because Chile covers so many different latitudes, the country experiences all four seasons.
    • The Andes is the worlds longest continental mountain range, with the southern portion of the range splitting Chile and Argentina.
  • 4. Geography
    • Baker River is the largest river in Chile in terms of the volume of water it caries
      • It is fed by the Bertrand Lake, which feeds from General Carrera Lake
    • Chile has been relatively geographically isolated from all other S. American countries
      • Main mammals are the Puma, Llama like Guanaco, and fox like Chilla
      • In the forest, some marsupials, and small deer
      • Whaled are abundant, 6 types of seals, and even penguins
    • Northeast and Central Chile are mostly desert
    • The slopes of the Andes features grass, while the Central Valley has multiple species of cacti.
    • South of the Biobio River in S. Chile, heavy precipitation has produced dense forests and grasslands in Patagonia.
  • 5. People of Chile
    • As of July 2011, Chile’s population was roughly 16,880,760 with around 89% of the people living in urban areas.
      • Currently, 4.6% of the population consider themselves indigenous.
    • Chile’s population is multi-ethnic with the majority 52.7% being Euro-origin and 44% Mestizos.
      • Most Chileans are of Euro descent because of the Spanish settlers and explorers.
    • 40% of Chileans live in and around Greater Santiago.
  • 6. People of Chile
    • The majority of the people are descendents from Spain, with most of them being from the Basque country.
      • Other descendents mainly from Italy, Ireland, France, Greece, Germany, England, the Netherlands, Scotland, Croatia and the Middle East.
    • In 1848 the Chilean government sponsored the colonization of Southern Chile
      • Led to a strong German presents in Chilean people, with most of them in the Los Rios Region.
    • Around 5% of people are of Asian and Middle Eastern descent.
    • 3% of the population is Croatian
    • Around 1% of the people are Greek, making Chile on of the top 5 countries in the world with most Greek descendants.
    • Recently, people have been immigrating from Argentina, Bolivia and mainly Peru.
  • 7. People of Chile
    • The Constitution of Chile allows for Freedom of Religion and in 1999 church and state were officially separated.
      • 70% are Roman Catholic
      • 15.1% are Evangelical
      • 1.1% are Jehovah’s Witness
    • Spanish is the main language spoken.
      • Accents do not vary much throughout country because the population was largely formed in center of country then people migrated north and south.
    • English is the secondary language spoken and has become mandatory to be taught in school.
    • German is another common language mainly spoken in Southern Chile.
    • There are several indigenous languages still spoken: Mapudungun, Quechua, Aymara, and Rapa Nui.
  • 8. History
    • 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settle in the fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is now Chile.
      • The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche successfully fought them off.
      • The Battle of Maule was a bloody three day confrontation that ended at the Maule River with the Incas winning.
    • In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage while attempting to circumnavigate the ocean.
      • In 1535, the next Europeans to come were Diego de Almagro and his Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru seeking gold.
      • The conquest of Chile by the Spanish began in 1540, and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia.
    • The Spanish recognized Chiles agricultural potential, so they adopted it as part of the Spanish Empire.
  • 9. History
    • A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553, resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements.
      • A significant number of other major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655.
      • Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward.
    • Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America because it’s cut off by desert in the north, by the Mapuche in the south, the Andes Mountains to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
    • Chile had one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, making it one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions.
    • The first population numbers generated between 1777 and 1778 showed their were 259,646 people.
      • 73.5% of European descent, 7.9% mestizos, 8.6% Indians and 9.8% blacks.
  • 10. History
    • A national junta in the name of Ferdinand was formed on September 18, 1810.
      • The Government Junta of Chile proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy.
        • After these events, a movement for total independence, under the command of José Miguel Carrera and his two brothers Juan José and Luis Carrera, soon gained a wider following.
    • On February 12, 1818, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic.
      • The political revolt brought little social change.
    • Near the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of Araucanía
    • A treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan was signed in 1881.
      • As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.
  • 11. Sources
    • Wikipedia.org
    • Images.google.com