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Kaizen

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This Slideshare presentation is a partial preview of the full business document. To view and download the full document, please go here: …

This Slideshare presentation is a partial preview of the full business document. To view and download the full document, please go here:
http://flevy.com/browse/business-document/Kaizen-153

Kaizen strategy is the single most important concept in Japanese management - the key to successful Japanese companies such as Toyota. Kaizen, which simply means continuous improvement, is the foundation for all Lean production improvements. Kaizen events are opportunities to make focused changes in the workplace.

Based on Masaaki Imai's teachings on 'Kaizen' and 'Gemba Kaizen', this training presentation is specially designed for managers and supervisors who are interested in developing a Kaizen culture in the workplace and facilitating Kaizen events as a mechanism to improve operational efficiency.
CONTENTS:

1. Introduction to Kaizen
2. Kaizen & Waste
3. Key Concepts of Kaizen
4. Kaizen Management
5. Kaizen Practices
6. Kaizen Implementation
7. Problem Solving Tools & Technique
8. Developing "Kaizen Eyes"
9. Role of Management
10. Critical Success Factors

Published in: Business

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  • 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen Plan DoCheck Act
  • 2. 4© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Introduction to Kaizen 2. Kaizen & Waste 3. Key Concepts of Kaizen 4. Kaizen Management 5. Kaizen Practices 6. Kaizen Implementation 7. Problem Solving Tools & Technique 8. Developing “Kaizen Eyes” 9. Role of Management 10.Critical Success Factors This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 3. 7© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. What is Kaizen? • Kaizen means improvement. Improvements without spending much money, involving everyone from managers to employees, and using much common sense. • The aspect of Kaizen is that it is on-going and never-ending improvement process. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 4. 10© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen & Lean Stability Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen Just-In-Time • Continuous flow • Takt time • Pull system • Flexible workforce Jidoka • Separate man & machine work • Abnormality Identification • Poka yoke • Visual Control Goals: highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Involvement This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 5. 13© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen Philosophy Implement good housekeeping and workplace organization. Identify and eliminate all activities that are waste. Implement standardization. Current State Future State Solve Problems Expose Problems “True North” Value Added Time = Lead Time Full of Waste, Variation, and Constraints This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 6. 16© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2. Waste Elimination • Any activity that does not add value is waste. • People in Gemba either add value or do not add value. This is also true for other resources, such as machines and materials. • Waste elimination can be the most cost-effective way of improving productivity and reducing operating costs.This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Session 2 Kaizen & Waste This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 8. 22© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. What is Waste? Typically >90% of Total Lead Time is Non-Value Added!!! Value Add Non Value Add: Incidental Waste Non Value Add: Pure Waste This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 9. 25© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Non-Value-Added Activities Examples: • Waiting / sorting • Recording • Moving • Obtaining approvals • Kitting / Staging • Testing • Counting • Reviewing • Inspecting • Copying • Checking • Filing • Reporting • Rework This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 10. 28© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Eight Types of Waste Over-production Producing more than what the customer needs Inventory Building and storing extra services/products the customer has not ordered Transportation Moving product from one place to another Rework Reprocessing, or correcting work Over-processing Adding excess value when the customer does not require it Motion Extra physical/mental motion that doesn’t add value Intellect Not using employees full intellectual contribution Waiting Employees waiting for another process or a machine/tool WasteWaste This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 11. 31© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen & Management • Has two major functions: Maintenance and Improvement. • Maintenance: current technological, managerial and operating standards. • Improvements: activities directed toward elevating current standards. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 12. 34© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Modern Perception of Kaizen & Job Functions Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Innovation Maintenance Kaizen This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 13. 37© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Following the PDCA / SDCA Cycles • ACT refers to performing and standardizing prevent recurrence of the original problem or to set goals for the new improvement. • The PDCA cycle revolves continuously. • Management must initiate PDCA by establishing continuously challenging goals. • Before working on PDCA, any current process must be stabilized. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 14. 40© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. SDCA / PDCA Cycle Kaizen Maintenance S DC A P DC A Kaizen Maintenance S DC A P DC A This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 15. 43© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. The Next Process Is The Customer • The next process should always be regarded as the customer. • Refers to two types of customers: internal and external. • When everyone in the organization practices this the external customer will receive a high quality product or service as a result. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 16. 46© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Speak with Data • Kaizen is a problem solving process. • The problem must be understood and recognized. • Solving a problem without data is not a very scientific or objective approach. • Collecting, verifying and analyzing data for improvement is vital.This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 17. 49© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Policy Deployment (Hoshin Kanri) • A planning tool that helps us identify the key focus points and strategies we will use to steer us towards our vision. • Enables everyone to ‘see’ where we’re going and our plans to get there • Build plan and strategies as a team • Shared responsibility for getting results Vision Key Result Areas Key Result Measures Key Strategies This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 18. 52© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Suggestion System • One of the cornerstones of Small Group Activities • Suggestions are job-oriented and implemented by the employee Process improvement Equipment reliability Safety, health and environment • A key measure of morale – number of suggestions per employee This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 19. 55© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen – The Practice Management- Oriented Kaizen Group-Oriented Kaizen Individual- Oriented Kaizen Achievements As many as management chooses 2-3 years Many Supporting system Line and staff project team Small-group activities QC Circles Suggestion system Suggestion system Implementation cost Sometimes requires small investment to implement the decision Mostly inexpensive Inexpensive Result New system & facility improvement Improved work procedure Revision of standard On-the-spot improvement This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 20. 58© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Gemba House ManMan MeasurementsMeasurements MethodsMethods MachinesMachines MaterialsMaterials Operational + Materials StandardsOperational + Materials Standards NVA = Muda + Mura + MuriNVA = Muda + Mura + Muri 5S = Housekeeping Discipline5S = Housekeeping Discipline QualityQuality DeliveryDelivery CostCost S DC A P DC A InputInput ProcessProcess OutputOutput This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 21. 61© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Group / Individual Kaizen Process 1. Employee identifies a problem, waste/loss, or an opportunity for improvement and writes it down. 2. Employee develops an improvement idea and discusses it with his or her supervisor. 3. Supervisor reviews the idea within 24 hours and encourages immediate action. 4. Employee implements the idea. If a larger improvement idea is approved, the employee should take leadership to implement the idea. 5. Idea is written up on a simple form in less than three minutes. 6. Supervisor posts the form to share with and stimulate others and recognizes the accomplishment. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 22. 64© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Rules of Kaizen 2 6. Do not spend money for Kaizen. 7. Wisdom is brought out when faced with hardship. 8. Ask “Why?” five times and seek the root cause. 9. Seek the wisdom of 10 people rather than the knowledge of one. 10.Remember the opportunities for Kaizen are infinite. Source: Gemba Kaizen by Masaaki Imai This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 23. 67© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Kaizen Event – How is it done? • Pre-event preparation • Kaizen event • Event follow-up This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 24. 70© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving • A systematic approach to problem solving • Provides the framework for a team to carry out improvement Plan DoCheck Act This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 25. 73© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Step 2: Plan the Schedule • Assess the complexity of the project and plan the schedule using a Gantt Chart Break down the schedule to include all the 8 steps of problem solving, and assign team members’ responsibilities (e.g. who does what and by when) Estimate the time required for each of the step • Discuss with the process owner to determine urgency of the project and deadline • Balance the need to carry out day-to-day work and executing the problem solving project This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 26. 76© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Why Get to the Root? “When we fail to grasp the systemic source of problems, we are left to ‘push on’ symptoms rather than eliminate underlying causes. - Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 27. 79© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Step 6: Implement Corrective Action 2 • Implement the solutions after getting management approval • Train people on the changes made This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 28. 82© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Step 8: Standardize & Follow Up 2 • Identify additional improvements that may be made for the future • Present the results to managers and other teams • Use the lessons learned to improve the improvement process itself • Celebrate the success • Plan for future projects This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 29. 85© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Problem Solving Tools • Seven basic tools Stratification Check Sheet Control chart (Run chart) Pareto Chart Cause & Effect Diagram Histogram Scatter Diagram This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 30. 88© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2. Check Sheet (a.k.a. Tally Sheet) • Purpose To manually collect data in a reliable, organized way • When to use For manual recording of data To ensure that data is recorded accurately and is easy to use later When recording involves counting, classifying, checking or locating To check each measurement as it is recordedThis document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 31. 91© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Example: Control Chart Phase 1 Phase 3Phase 2 Xbar Chart Data points outside the control limits suggest that there are special causes to the process deviation This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 32. 94© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4. Pareto Chart • Purpose To show relative importance of a set of measurements Also called the “80/20” rule • When to use To differentiate the ‘vital few’ from the ‘trivial many’ After improving a process, to show relative change in a measured item Sorting a set of measurements to emphasize their relative sizesThis document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 33. 97© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5. Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Diagram) • Purpose To identify and structure the causes of a given effect • When to use When investigating a problem, to identify and select key problem causes to address When effect of a problem is known, but possible causes are unclear To find other causal relationships, such as potential risks or causes of desired effects This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 34. 100© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6. Histogram • Purpose To show the frequency distribution of a set of measurements • When to use To investigate the distribution of a set of measurements To define reasonable specification limits for a process When you want to see the actual shape of the distributionThis document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 35. 103© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Example: Scatter Diagram This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 36. 106© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Why Use the A3 Storyboard Format? • Enhances logical thinking • Enhances decision-making • Provide standardized method of communication • Focuses on problem solving activities • Eliminates waste A3 storyboard ties to Lean Thinking initiatives This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 37. 109© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 A3 Storyboard Format This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 38. 112© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. What Are “Kaizen Eyes”? • Kaizen is continual improvement for the better. • "Kaizen Eyes" see opportunities to improve. These eyes are a skill that can be developed through technique and practice. • The following slides are ways (techniques) to be practiced. They will help to widen the ability to recognize opportunity that may not be in full view. This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 39. 115© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Ways to Develop “Kaizen Eyes” 3 • Put yourself in someone else's role • Visit other places • Take pictures • Draw the value stream map • Ask yourself what normal should look like • Measure Takt (rhythm of the process) • Audit standard work • Design a simulation • Do logic puzzlesThis document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 40. 118© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Management’s Role in Kaizen Implementation • Communicate the need to change • Demonstrate personal commitment to process improvement • Educate and train staff in Kaizen • Plan and manage the improvement process This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 41. 121© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Being A Good Leader “A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves.” - Lao Tzu This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 42. 124© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Keys To Success • As a team – be open minded and supportive • Understand Kaizen concepts • Effectively use Kaizen methodologies and tools • Keep it simple • Becoming truly Lean is a journey and will not be made without some discomfort This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
  • 43. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. End of Presentation To view the full list of training presentations, please visit us at: Operational Excellence Consulting http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg This document is a partial preview. Full document download can be found on Flevy: http://flevy.com/browse/document/kaizen-153
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