Results of Recent         Dissertations:   Volunteer Youth Sport Coaches:A Study of Motivation, Satisfaction, and         ...
Introduction2.5 million adult volunteers on an annualbasis to support the sports activities ofapproximately 38 million chi...
IntroductionBackground of the Problem– Parallels to Classroom Educators– Volunteer Youth Coach Dilemmas   • Violence Towar...
IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Identification of the factors which motivate  volunteers to become and remain  recre...
IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Necessity of Role– Motivation   • Children in the Program   • Investment Model (Rusb...
IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Research Questions   • Does the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) differ     s...
IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Research Questions (Cont)   • Does coaching satisfaction differ significantly     be...
MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H01 (Null)   • There is no significant difference in the level of     coachin...
MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H02 (Null)   • There is no significant difference in the level of coaching   ...
MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H03 (Null)   • There is no significant difference in coaching     satisfactio...
MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H04 (Null)   • There is no significant difference in the desire to     coach ...
MethodologyDescription of Research Design– Cohort Study   • Descriptive Statistics       • Demographics       • Response R...
MethodologyOperational Definition of Variables– Competitive Youth Sport League: A league where there  is no mandate for eq...
MethodologySelection of Subjects– Gold Crown Foundation Youth Basketball      • Competitive League      • Non-Profit 501 (...
MethodologyProcedure– Questionnaire (Self Report)       • Competitive Coach Cohort Sample       • Recreational Coach Cohor...
MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Motivation to Volunteer Questionnaire (MVQ)   • 19 items with six sub-scales   ...
MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Satisfaction with Volunteering Questionnaire  (SVQ)   • 7 items   • 4-point Lik...
MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) Coaching  Confidence Questionnaire (CCQ)   • 24 i...
MethodologyMethodological Assumptions andLimitations– Self-Report   • Respondent Accuracy      • No Reward or Punishment S...
MethodologyEthical Assurances– Human Subjects   • IRB   • Informed Consent– Confidentiality
FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Quantitative Analysis   • T-test   • Oneway ANOVA   • Mann-Whitney U– Hypothe...
FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Although the rankings of recreational coaches were  consistently higher than ...
FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– The “ability to motivate athletes” (p=.03) and “ability  to build team cohesi...
FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Despite the differences noted in the descriptive data  no significant results...
FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– The recreational coaches’ top ranking of “my  children are involved in sports...
ConclusionsRecommendations– Characterizing your target recruiting population is  the first step to understanding if what y...
ConclusionsRecommendations– The number one motivation factor for recreational  coaches was found to be the fact they had c...
ConclusionsRecommendations– Competitive coaches do not espouse having a child  in the program as the most important factor...
ConclusionsRecommendations– If coaches are rewarded with the opportunity to go  to a professional coaching clinic conducte...
ConclusionsRecommendations– Parent-stakeholders should be required to sign a  statement of acceptable parental behavior wi...
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Volunteer Youth Sport Coaches Dr. Fletcher MGM Grand 25 July 2012

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Presented as part of the Results of Recent Dissertations panel at DoD Worldwide 2012.

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Volunteer Youth Sport Coaches Dr. Fletcher MGM Grand 25 July 2012

  1. 1. Results of Recent Dissertations: Volunteer Youth Sport Coaches:A Study of Motivation, Satisfaction, and Efficacy Dr. Louis L. Fletcher 25 July 2012
  2. 2. Introduction2.5 million adult volunteers on an annualbasis to support the sports activities ofapproximately 38 million children– Parental Expectations • Future Star Struck • Gate keeper Syndrome– Volunteer Youth Coach Stress • Motivation • Satisfaction • Efficacy (Confidence)
  3. 3. IntroductionBackground of the Problem– Parallels to Classroom Educators– Volunteer Youth Coach Dilemmas • Violence Towards Young Athletes • Efficacy
  4. 4. IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Identification of the factors which motivate volunteers to become and remain recreational or competitive youth coaches, their level of satisfaction while volunteering, and the associated coaching confidence; which is a predictor of youth coach efficacy, is the purpose of the present study
  5. 5. IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Necessity of Role– Motivation • Children in the Program • Investment Model (Rusbult 1998)– Sports Encomia • Coaches Perceived as Gate Keepers • Litigation • Violence (Stress Manifested)– Education and Certification Movement • National Standards • Volunteer’s Time Constraints
  6. 6. IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Research Questions • Does the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) differ significantly between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches? • Does the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) differ significantly between volunteer youth coaches with less than 5 years of experience and volunteer youth coaches with more than 5 year of experience?
  7. 7. IntroductionStatement of the Problem– Research Questions (Cont) • Does coaching satisfaction differ significantly between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches? • Does the desire to coach because they have a young athlete on the team differ significantly between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches?
  8. 8. MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H01 (Null) • There is no significant difference in the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches– Hypothesis HA1 (Alternative) • There is a significant difference in the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches
  9. 9. MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H02 (Null) • There is no significant difference in the level of coaching confidence between volunteer youth coaches w/ less than 5 yrs of experience and volunteer youth coaches w/ more than 5 yrs of experience– Hypothesis HA2 (Alternative) • There is a significant difference in the level of coaching confidence between volunteer youth coaches w/ less than 5 yrs of experience and volunteer youth coaches w/ more than 5 yrs of experience
  10. 10. MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H03 (Null) • There is no significant difference in coaching satisfaction between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches– Hypothesis HA3 (Alternative) • There is a significant difference in coaching satisfaction between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches
  11. 11. MethodologyResearch Expectations– Hypothesis H04 (Null) • There is no significant difference in the desire to coach because they have a young athlete on the team between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches– Hypothesis HA4 (Alternative) • There is a significant difference in the desire to coach because they have a young athlete on the team between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches
  12. 12. MethodologyDescription of Research Design– Cohort Study • Descriptive Statistics • Demographics • Response Rankings • Inferential Statistics • T-test • Oneway ANOVA • Mann-Whitney U
  13. 13. MethodologyOperational Definition of Variables– Competitive Youth Sport League: A league where there is no mandate for equal playing time and participants must try out (audition) for a team and are subject to roster cuts (skill based) to be selected for team membership.– Recreational Youth Sport League: A league where there is a mandate for equal playing time and participants do not try out (audition) for a team and are not subject to roster cuts (skill based) to be selected for team membership.
  14. 14. MethodologySelection of Subjects– Gold Crown Foundation Youth Basketball • Competitive League • Non-Profit 501 (c) 3 • Volunteer Coaches– YMCA Youth Basketball • Recreational League • Faith Based • Volunteer Coaches
  15. 15. MethodologyProcedure– Questionnaire (Self Report) • Competitive Coach Cohort Sample • Recreational Coach Cohort Sample– Statistical Package for the Social Sciences • Data Input • Data Analysis
  16. 16. MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Motivation to Volunteer Questionnaire (MVQ) • 19 items with six sub-scales • Purposive Factors (PF) • Solidary Factors (SF) • External Factors (EF) • Commitments (CM) • Children in Program (CP) • Teach and Become Involved with Youth (TIY) • 4-point Likert scale
  17. 17. MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Satisfaction with Volunteering Questionnaire (SVQ) • 7 items • 4-point Likert scale
  18. 18. MethodologyDescription of Instrumentation– Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) Coaching Confidence Questionnaire (CCQ) • 24 items with four sub-scales • Game Strategy Efficacy (GSE) • Motivation Efficacy (ME) • Technique Efficacy (TE) • Character Building Efficacy (CBE) • 10-point Likert scale
  19. 19. MethodologyMethodological Assumptions andLimitations– Self-Report • Respondent Accuracy • No Reward or Punishment System • Temporal Affect • Sample Size • Random Sample • Representative Sample
  20. 20. MethodologyEthical Assurances– Human Subjects • IRB • Informed Consent– Confidentiality
  21. 21. FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Quantitative Analysis • T-test • Oneway ANOVA • Mann-Whitney U– Hypothesis Testing • Null • Alternative
  22. 22. FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Although the rankings of recreational coaches were consistently higher than competitive coaches for multiple items and the second order factors no significant results were found using an Independent Samples T-test, Oneway ANOVA, or Mann-Whitney U. Therefore; the Hypothesis HO1 (null): There is no significant difference in the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches is not rejected.
  23. 23. FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– The “ability to motivate athletes” (p=.03) and “ability to build team cohesion” (p=.055) were found to be significant using the Independent Samples T-test and Oneway ANOVA. Therefore; Hypothesis HA2 (alternative): There is a significant difference in the level of coaching confidence (efficacy) between volunteer youth coaches with less than 5 years of experience and volunteer youth coaches with more than 5 years of experience is accepted for both items.
  24. 24. FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– Despite the differences noted in the descriptive data no significant results were found using an Independent Samples T-test, Oneway ANOVA, or Mann-Whitney U. Therefore; Hypothesis HO3 (null): There is no significant difference in coaching satisfaction between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches is not rejected.
  25. 25. FindingsAnalysis and Evaluation of Findings– The recreational coaches’ top ranking of “my children are involved in sports program” is significantly different than the competitive coaches’ ninth place ranking. This item was found significant (p=.003) using the Independent Samples T-test and an Oneway ANOVA. Therefore; Hypothesis HA4 (alternative): There is a significant difference in the desire to coach because they have a young athlete on the team between volunteer recreational youth coaches and volunteer competitive youth coaches is accepted.
  26. 26. ConclusionsRecommendations– Characterizing your target recruiting population is the first step to understanding if what you have to offer is what the potential workforce wants. Motivation is the root of desire but it must be sustained for the desire to coach to remain strong. Satisfaction is the fuel which feeds the engine of motivation; therefore, it is a necessary component for retention. Coaching confidence (efficacy) is the vehicle which carries motivation and satisfaction to coaching success.
  27. 27. ConclusionsRecommendations– The number one motivation factor for recreational coaches was found to be the fact they had children in the program. This factor ensures a subset of the workforce will continue to enter coaching as long as they have young athletes who are interested in playing.– It is recommended that this group be cultivated to inspire selected coaches to coach beyond their child’s tenure.
  28. 28. ConclusionsRecommendations– Competitive coaches do not espouse having a child in the program as the most important factor. The latter group is also a recommended target for cultivation because they have faced a higher level of competition and usually more technically proficient in teaching young athletes.– One factor that could deter the consistent recruiting of competitive coaches is the desire to “coach at a higher level” that was informally reported to the investigator by many competitive coaches.
  29. 29. ConclusionsRecommendations– If coaches are rewarded with the opportunity to go to a professional coaching clinic conducted by prominent high school, college, or professional coaches this could make education a reward.– It is recommended that a recognition program for coaches would both satisfy egoistic desires and build coaching competence.
  30. 30. ConclusionsRecommendations– Parent-stakeholders should be required to sign a statement of acceptable parental behavior with respect to coaches as condition of their child being in the league. If the aforementioned contract is breached, then sanctions such suspensions and expulsions should be levied and refunds for fees should not be entertained.– It is recommended that all stakeholders be exposed to the accountability processes of the league.
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