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Motives, Emotion, personality

Motives, Emotion, personality






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Motives, Emotion, personality Motives, Emotion, personality Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation:
      • theories of motivation
    • Affect:
      • affect and consumer behavior
      • structure of emotions
    • Personality:
      • personality theory
      • Aaker’s brand personality
  • Model of Consumer Motivation Stimulus Actual State Desired State Need Recognition Drive State Goal- directed Behavior Incentive Objects Motivation: An activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior. *** It is the reason for behavior. Motive: An unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. Expressive & Utilitarian Needs
  • Basic Theories of Motivation (How to figure out WHY )
    • Broad Theories of Motivation:
      • Explain general behaviors (e.g., need for affiliation)
    • Mid-range Theories of Motivation:
      • Explain more specific behaviors (e.g., need for caffeine)
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 1. Assumes:
    • a) People acquire a similar set of motives via genetics & social interaction;
    • b) Some motives are more basic than others;
    • c) Basic motives must be satisfied before others are activated;
    • d) As basic motives are satisfied, higher order motives come into play.
    Broad Theory of Motivation Physiological : food, water, sleep Safety : physical safety from harm & injury; housing; job security; financial security Social : friendship; affection; group affiliation Ego : success, self-esteem; prestige Self-Actualization : self-fulfillment
  • Midrange Theories of Motivation Summary of Psychological Motives Relevant to Marketing: Opponent-Process Theory Optimum Stimulation Levels Hedonic Experiences Maintain Behavioral Freedom Risk: Seek or Avoid Attribute Causality
    • Opponent Process Theory
    • A stimulus eliciting an immediate positive or negative emotion is followed by a feeling opposite to that initial emotion
    Midrange Theories of Motivation
    • Optimum Stimulation Theory
    • Desire to maintain an optimal level of stimulation motivates action
    • Hedonic Experiences
    • Consumption of products/services designed to create fantasies, enhance sensory stimulation, or elicit emotional reactions
    • Related to optimum stimulation levels
    • Motivation to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
    • People want to maintain a sense of freedom
    • Psychological Reactance
    • negative motivational state that results when a person’s behavioral freedom has been threatened
    Midrange Theories of Motivation: Maintain Behavioral Freedom
    • Perceived Risk – consumer’s perception of the overall negativity of a course of action
    • - consists of negative outcomes and probability of these outcomes occurring
    • Risks include:
    • - financial - social
    • - physical - time
    • - performance - opportunity
    • - psychological
    Avoid or Seek Risk
    • People seek out reasons to explain why things turn out as they do
    • Negative Product or Service Experiences
    • Was the cause internal or external?
    • Your fault or the company’s?
    • BIRGing and CORFing
    Motivation to Attribute Causality
  • Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Consumers do not buy products; instead they buy motive satisfaction or problem solutions . Managers must discover the motives that their product and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these motives.
  • Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Manifest motives are motives that are known and freely admitted. Latent motives are either unknown to the consumer or are such that he/she is reluctant to admit them. Discovering Purchase Motives
    • Motivational Research Techniques:
    • Association Techniques
    • Completion Techniques
    • Construction Techniques
    Motivation and Marketing Research
    • Definition: emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behavior
    • Emotion influences :
    • 1. The experiential nature of consumption
    • 2. Attitude formation
    • 3. Information processing
    • 4. Postpurchase processes
    • 5. Communication processes
    Emotion & Consumer Behavior
  • Structure of Emotions Interpreted as emotions based on situation Physiological changes Mental imagery Environmental event Thoughts Behaviors Affect Specific feelings
    • Marketers have always used emotions to guide the following on an intuitive level:
      • product positioning
      • sales presentations, and
      • advertising
    • However, deliberate, systematic study of the relevance of emotions in marketing strategy is relatively new.
    Emotion and Marketing Strategy
  • Emotion, Product Positioning, and Advertising When should you use it? Potential Problems?
  • Emotions and Branding A great brand concept can change a companies entire future. Biggest misconception in branding is the belief that branding is about market share when it is really about “mind and emotions share” What constitutes a great brand concept today? Understanding people’s emotional needs and desires is key to success.
  • Personality
    • Definition: personality refers to a person’s consistent behavior or response to recurring situations
    • Assumptions of individual personality theories (trait theory):
    • All individuals have internal characteristics or traits
    • There are consistent and measurable differences between people on these characteristics
  • Personality
    • Approaches:
      • Trait theory – consistent set of traits or factors
        • dominated consumer behavior research
      • Psychoanalytic (Freud) – unconscious nature of personality
      • Evolutionary – certain behavioral propensities were likely to survive
      • Biological – anatomy and physiology
      • Behavioral and Social Learning Theory – personality exclusively a function of environment
    • Best Approach:
    • Study the person, situation and behavior
    • Trait theories examine personality as an individual difference, allowing marketers to segment consumers on these differences.
    • Assumptions of individual personality theories (trait theory):
    • All individuals have internal characteristics or traits
    • There are consistent and measurable differences between people on these characteristics
    • Multitrait Approach
      • The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning .
    • Single Trait Approach
      • Emphasize one personality trait relevant to consumption behaviors (e.g., compulsive buying, materialism)
  • The Five-Factor Model of Personality Personality
  • Personality Examples of Single-Trait Theories Vanity Materialism Sensation Seeking Compulsive Buying Affect Intensity Ethno-centrism Need for Cognition Need for Uniqueness
  • Brand Personality
    • Consumers readily assign human characteristics to brands
    • Brand personalities create expectations about key characteristics, performance and benefits
    • Consumers tend to purchase products that most closely match their own or products that strengthen an area where consumers feel weak