Zoonoses

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This is a power point i did in 2010 in Gateway. It is about zoonotic diseases that animals can get. I chose to do this as i wanted to be a vet or vet nurse

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Zoonoses

  1. 1. ZOONOSES
  2. 2. Ring Worm Cause = Fungi , Microsporum and Trichophyton Disease in Animals = Asymptomatic. When clinical signs are shown they are usually lesions on head and neck . Cows lesions are usually thick and crusty. In cats there is a mild formation and broken hairs. Young animals are most susceptible. Disease in Humans = Usually occurs in children on exposed areas (hands, neck, lower arms and face). It consists of small circular areas of reddened, inflamed skin with broken grayish hairs . The main symptom is itching . Treatment = Fungicidal cream and/or oral medication . Infected animals should be isolated . Disinfection of the environment where the infected animal was ( vacuuming of furniture, floors and curtains, mopping of floors with 1:10 diluted bleach or 0.6% chloramine ). Prevention = Good personal hygiene.
  3. 3. Hydatids Cause = Larval stage of tapeworm , Echinococcus granulosus Disease in Animals = Adult tapeworms live in intestine of dogs but few ill-effects. Cysts in sheep have the same effect as in humans but sheep have shorter life span. Disease in Humans = The symptoms depend on the site of the cyst and the result of pressure on adjacent organs . 70% of patients have cysts on the liver . Rupture of cysts often result in severe and fatal anaphylactic shock . If the patients survive, several secondary cysts will spread through the body. Treatment = In humans the cysts are surgically removed , although chemotherapy will make the cysts smaller. Infected dogs can be treated with praziquantal or worm tablets ( Canex , Droncit , Drontal and Paratak ). Prevention = Education to owners about the life cycle and risks. Dogs should only be fed offal if it has been cooked for 30 minutes. Dispose of carcasses appropriately Diagnosis = Ultrasound , x-ray or CAT scan
  4. 4. Toxoplasmosis Cause = Protozoal parasite , Toxoplasma gondii Disease in Animals = Diarrhoea in kittens although most kittens are asymptomatic . Infection during pregnancy results in abortion s. This is the leading cause of abortion in sheep . Disease in Humans = infected by either ingestion of oocysts from kitten faeces or from contact with infected sheep or sheep meat . Healthy adults are usually asymptomatic . Sporadic rupture of a cyst results in hypersensitive reaction with the death of the parasite allowing the lesion to heal. Sometimes there are mild symptoms like swollen lymph glands , sore throat , muscle pain and sometimes a low grade fever . Congenital infection . Treatment = Vaccine for sheep ( Toxovax ). Drugs for humans. Prevention = Personal hygiene and covering play areas. Diagnosis = Characteristic lesions on the placenta .
  5. 5. Visceral Larval Migrans Cause = Migration of the larvae of common roundworms , Toxocara canis . Disease in Animals = Puppies become anorexic , colicky , get bowel obstruction and diarrhoea . They usually appear pot bellied . Disease in Humans = Children may have a fever , loss of appetite , cough , asthma , abdominal and muscular discomfort and neurological disturbances . If the larval enters the eye it can cause blindness . Treatment = Usually a benign self-limiting disease . Corticosteroid therapy for patients with life threatening respiratory problems . Prevention = Educating people on life cycle. Wash hands after playing with puppies. Regularly removal of faeces . Puppies treated with anthelmintics . Diagnosis = In older dogs you look for eggs in their faeces . Immunological tests otherwise ( biopsy ).
  6. 6. Leptospirosis Cause = 1 non pathogenic and 7 pathogenic species. Most common reported zoonotic disease. Disease in Animals = Cattle and pigs . Rise in temperature , anorexia , haemoglobiniuria , anemia , sometimes death . Often abortions . Colonization of the kidney tubules , which can be present in urine. Disease in Humans = Usually transmitted by contact to infected urine or kidneys . Flu like symptoms , chills , high fever , headaches , eye sensitivity , severe back and leg pain .Severe cases ( Weils Disease ) have jaundice , hemorrhagic tendencies and kidney involvement . Acute illness lasts 3-10 days with a mortality up to10% . Treatment = Pain relief , Rehydration , Antibiotic therapy , Penicillin , Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol . Prevention = Avoid contact with animal urine . Use protective clothing . Vaccination of host (animal?). Diagnosis = Usually by blood smear or blood culture .

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