Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies
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Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies

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In 2006, Henry Jenkins introduced the term “transmedia storytelling”. This means ...

In 2006, Henry Jenkins introduced the term “transmedia storytelling”. This means
that a story is told through different media like television programmes, books, games,
websites, radio shows and others. For this dissertation, the story of the television
series was the macro story. Today, transmedia storytelling might be a buzz-word, but
it is almost certain that it will influence the way of creating franchising products.
Therefore, this dissertation focused on three objectives. The first objective was to
research why television broadcasting companies do (not) implement transmedia
storytelling in their marketing strategies around a television series. The second
research objective was to find out which transmedia storytelling elements (like story,
characters and storyworld) are the most important to make a successful franchising
product related to transmedia storytelling. The last research objective was to find out
if the consumption of franchising products related to transmedia storytelling has an
impact on the loyalty of the television viewer towards a certain television series.

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    Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies Document Transcript

    • Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies By Floris Lefever September 2010 The work contained within this document has been submittedby the student in partial fulfilment of the requirement of their course and award
    • Transmedia storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish television broadcasting companies Word count: 12 920 By Floris Lefever September 2010 MA Marketing Management Faculty of Business, Environment and Society The work contained within this document has been submittedby the student in partial fulfilment of the requirement of their course and award
    • DeclarationThe author of this dissertation, Floris Lefever, hereby declares that this work isoriginal, it is his own and written in his own words. Any uses made of the works ofothers (e.g. citations, tables, figures ...) are referenced clearly. A full list of referencesis included. The views expressed in this dissertation are those of Floris Lefever anddo in no way represent those of Coventry University. This dissertation was notpresented for examination to any other University than Coventry University.Signed:Date: -i-
    • AbstractIn 2006, Henry Jenkins introduced the term “transmedia storytelling”. This meansthat a story is told through different media like television programmes, books, games,websites, radio shows and others. For this dissertation, the story of the televisionseries was the macro story. Today, transmedia storytelling might be a buzz-word, butit is almost certain that it will influence the way of creating franchising products.Therefore, this dissertation focused on three objectives. The first objective was toresearch why television broadcasting companies do (not) implement transmediastorytelling in their marketing strategies around a television series. The secondresearch objective was to find out which transmedia storytelling elements (like story,characters and storyworld) are the most important to make a successful franchisingproduct related to transmedia storytelling. The last research objective was to find outif the consumption of franchising products related to transmedia storytelling has animpact on the loyalty of the television viewer towards a certain television series.The data on which the results are based was gathered by applying a mixed methodstrategy. First of all, qualitative data was gathered by semi-structured interviews withthree Flemish experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling. The quantitativedata was obtained by using an online survey. 303 respondents older than 18 yearscompleted this online survey. The collected quantitative data was analysed usingSPSS. The qualitative data was analyzed in their original narrative form. Theresearch was limited to Flanders (Belgium). Because of this, there is no guaranteethat the results can be generalized for other countries or cultures.The results of the research showed that transmedia storytelling is not yet muchapplied in the Flemish media landscape, but when it is applied, there are differentmotives to do so. Vtm, a Flemish commercial television channel, uses franchisingproducts with transmedia storytelling elements only after the producers saw that thetelevision series is successful. The creators of the television series “Thuis” (from thepublic services channel “één”) saw transmedia storytelling as an important techniquefor the future. This is why they applied it and they had ambitious plans, for example,to develop a big platform around a fictional company of the series. The income fromthis platform, they could use to finance the other (free) franchises like the websites. - ii -
    • However, a lot of the transmedia storytelling franchise around “Thuis” are about tobe shut down because of savings. It is not sure what the future will bring.This dissertation also showed that different groups of television viewers consumedifferent franchising products for different reasons. For most franchise products thestory has the most influence followed by the characters. But this dissertation alsoshowed differences in gender: men listen more to a franchise radio show becausethey want to know more about the storyworld of the television series than women do.Another aspect that was researched was the impact on the loyalty of the televisionviewers towards a television series after consuming franchising products. Tocategorize the television viewers, the categorization of McDowell and Sutherland(2000) was used. This dissertation shows that the group of “loyalists” slightly grewafter the consumption of franchising products with transmedia storytelling elements.The purpose of this dissertation was to create a document that could also be used inpractice. Nowadays, for television producers it is hard to convince their superiors andadvertisers to invest in transmedia storytelling-projects because in most cases there isno guarantee on financial return on investment. But it is clear that transmediastorytelling could have an impact on the loyalty of the television viewer because hecan experience the television series. And this loyalty could lead to more income forthe television broadcasting companies by selling more franchising products. In somecases there could also be income from selling licenses. Another growing source ofincome could be the extra investments of advertisers to cooperate in a transmediastorytelling project.But as mentioned before, transmedia storytelling is a relatively new phenomenon.However, with the growing numbers of media and the convergence between thesemedia, it is possible that stories will be told in another way as we know it today.Because of this, it could be interesting to do more research on specific televisionprogrammes and genres and the consumption of television content on other media.Related to this, the research on motivations (internal and external) for televisionviewers to consume franchising products with transmedia storytelling elementsshould be more extended. - iii -
    • AcknowledgementsWriting a dissertation is like an adventure. You have to prepare carefully and even ifeverything is prepared well, there is still Murphy’s Law to take into account.Luckily, I was surrounded by a lot of people who supported me when I needed it themost. Therefore, I especially want to thank my parents. Thanks to them I got theopportunity to study at Coventry University. I owe sincere and earnest thankfulnessto Mr. Coleman, my supervisor, for his total commitment, support and expertise.However, the person who helped me the most was my girlfriend. I would like toshow my gratitude to her because she was really my Tower of strength. She kept mealert and focussed by giving constructive feedback every time it was necessary. Andwhen I needed new inspiration, she was there for another brainstorm session. I wouldlike to thank my friends and family for everything they have done for me. Finally, Iam much obliged to every interviewee that contributed to this dissertation. - iv -
    • Table of ContentsDeclaration .................................................................................................................... iAbstract ........................................................................................................................ iiAcknowledgements ..................................................................................................... ivList of Tables............................................................................................................... ixList of Figures .............................................................................................................. xCHAPTER I: Introduction ........................................................................................ 1CHAPTER II: Literature review ............................................................................. 3 2.1. Model............................................................................................................. 4 2.2. Transmedia storytelling ................................................................................. 5 2.3. Transmedia storytelling for television broadcasting companies ................... 7 2.4. Franchise related to transmedia storytelling .................................................. 8 2.5. Television viewers loyalty........................................................................... 12 2.6. Conclusion ................................................................................................... 15CHAPTER III: Methodology ................................................................................. 16 3.1. Mixed methodology .................................................................................... 17 3.1.1. Mixed method strategy......................................................................... 17 3.1.2. Purpose ................................................................................................. 18 3.2. Qualitative data............................................................................................ 19 3.2.1. In depth-interview method ................................................................... 19 3.2.2. Respondents ......................................................................................... 19 3.2.3. Analysis ................................................................................................ 20 -v-
    • 3.3. Quantitative data.......................................................................................... 21 3.3.1. Online survey ....................................................................................... 21 3.3.2. Target population specifications .......................................................... 22 3.3.3. Analysis ................................................................................................ 22 3.4. Validity and reliability................................................................................. 23 3.4.1. Internal validity .................................................................................... 23 3.4.2. Face validity ......................................................................................... 23 3.4.3. Content validity .................................................................................... 23 3.4.4. Criterion validity .................................................................................. 23 3.4.5. External validity ................................................................................... 24 3.4.6. Internal consistency reliability ............................................................. 24 3.4.7. Efficiency, ease of use and interpretability .......................................... 24 3.5. Extra comments ........................................................................................... 25 3.5.1. No focus groups ................................................................................... 25 3.5.2. Advantages of online research ............................................................. 25 3.6. Conclusion ................................................................................................... 25CHAPTER IV: Data Collection and Analysis ....................................................... 26 4.1. Qualitative data – Research objective 1 ...................................................... 27 4.1.1. Experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders .......... 27 4.1.2. Transmedia storytelling in Flanders ..................................................... 27 4.1.3. Financial motivations ........................................................................... 28 4.1.4. Innovative motivations ......................................................................... 29 4.1.5. Loyalty ................................................................................................. 29 4.1.6. Difficulties............................................................................................ 30 4.1.7. Future ................................................................................................... 30 - vi -
    • 4.2. Quantitative data – Overview ...................................................................... 31 4.2.1. Respondents ......................................................................................... 31 4.2.2. Viewing behaviour ............................................................................... 32 4.2.3. Margin of error ..................................................................................... 33 4.3. Quantitative data – Research objective 2 .................................................... 33 4.3.1. Books ................................................................................................... 33 4.3.2. Events ................................................................................................... 35 4.3.3. Radio .................................................................................................... 36 4.3.4. Websites fictional companies “Thuis” ................................................. 38 4.3.5. Website “Noorderzon” ......................................................................... 40 4.3.6. Blog “Ellie” .......................................................................................... 40 4.4. Quantitative data – Research objective 3 .................................................... 41 4.4.1. After ... more a favourite/I like the TV-series more............................. 42 4.4.2. After ... I watch the TV-series more/more frequent ............................. 44 4.4.3. After ... other good alternatives on TV/switch TV-channel ................. 46 4.5. Conclusions ................................................................................................. 47CHAPTER V: Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................. 48 5.1. Theoretical Contribution of this Study ........................................................ 48 5.1.1. Theory .................................................................................................. 48 5.1.2. Measurement ........................................................................................ 49 5.1.3. Analytical Methods .............................................................................. 49 5.1.4. Methodology ........................................................................................ 50 5.2. Managerial Implication ............................................................................... 50 5.2.1. Organisations ....................................................................................... 50 5.2.2. Consumers ............................................................................................ 50 - vii -
    • 5.3. Research Limitations ................................................................................... 51 5.4. Future research ............................................................................................ 51References .................................................................................................................. 52Appendices ................................................................................................................. 56 Appendix A: How often did you watch “Thuis” or “Sara” .................................... 56 Appendix B: How often did you watch “Witse”.................................................... 58 Appendix C: Crosstabulation Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1 + 2 ...................................... 59 Appendix D: Information about the translator ....................................................... 60 Appendix E: Letter of Invitation for the interviews with experts .......................... 61 Appendix F: Online survey (English) .................................................................... 62 - viii -
    • List of TablesTable 1: Referring sites .............................................................................................. 31Table 2: Gender respondents ...................................................................................... 31Table 3: Age categories .............................................................................................. 32Table 4: Chi-square test of reading the first and second book of Sara ...................... 34Table 5: Crosstab radio programmes gender/characters ............................................ 37Table 6: Chi-square test gender/characters radio programmes .................................. 38Table 7: Correlation and significance more favourite/like more ............................... 42Table 8: Correlation and significance listening to Ellie/watching more frequent ..... 44Table 9: Correlation liking/watching television series............................................... 45Table 10: Correlation good alternatives/switch TV-channel ..................................... 46 - ix -
    • List of FiguresFigure 1: Transmedia storytelling model (Pratten 2009) ............................................. 4Figure 2: Multiple media versus cross-media versus transmedia (Thompson 2010)... 6Figure 3: Readers books ............................................................................................. 34Figure 4: Visit fict. comp. out of interest in characters .............................................. 39Figure 5: Visit fict. comp. out of interest in fict. comp.............................................. 39Figure 6: After ... more favourite ............................................................................... 43Figure 7: After ... like more ....................................................................................... 43 -x-
    • CHAPTER I: IntroductionToday, television broadcasting companies all over the world, both public servicesand commercial channels, usually have to work with lower budgets than previousyears. This is inter alia due to the lower income revenues from advertising and lowerincome from the government.Because of this, television broadcasters have to look for new sources of income. Oneof the possibilities is franchising related to their television series. In 2006, HenryJenkins, Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts at theUniversity of Southern California (Jenkins n.d.), introduced the term “transmediastorytelling” (Jenkins 2006). In short this includes all the media in which a part of astory is told. Every piece of information gained from a different medium contributesto a bigger whole. This way, the television viewer can obtain new elements of thestory by consuming different products and services like books, events, radioprogrammes, comic books, websites, blog and games.If transmedia storytelling is implemented in a sensible way, it gives broadcastingcompanies the opportunity to successfully expand the product range around a certaintelevision programme. However, is it possible for television broadcasters to obtainmore than just financial income by selling these products? And which are the mostimportant factors of a transmedia storytelling franchise product for televisionviewers? After consuming a franchise product with transmedia storytelling elements,will a television viewer also be more loyal towards the parent brand which is in thiscase a television series? This research aims to discover in what way transmediastorytelling around a television programme can be interesting from a marketingperspective. Out of practical consideration, this research will focus on the Northernpart of Belgium: Flanders.In the literature review the focus will be on the description of the transmediastorytelling phenomenon and on the academic literature which has already beenpublished about this relatively young media technique. Because transmediastorytelling includes different media, I will also discuss how franchises around a -1-
    • television programme influence the consumer from a brand extensions point of view.The chapter “Methodology” explains the methodology and how the research wasconducted. Chapter four contains the data analysis of the research. The conclusionsof the research and the recommendations can be found in chapter five. To conclude,the three objectives of this dissertation are: 1. Identifying the main objectives of television broadcasting companies to (not) implement transmedia storytelling.The purpose of this objective is to find out why television broadcasting companiesimplement transmedia storytelling in their audiovisual projects. Do they do it just forthe financial income it could generate, do these television broadcasting companiesalso see these transmedia projects as prestige projects, or are there other motivations? 2. Discovering which factors determine why a franchise related to transmedia storytelling is popular.There are different factors or elements that are typical for transmedia storytellingfranchise. The franchise products contain elements which complement the story ofthe television series. Because of this, I will examine what factors are decisive for thetelevision viewer to consume franchising related to transmedia storytelling. Dopeople buy it for the story, the storyworld or the characters? Does the averageFlemish television viewer want to learn something more about those elements byconsuming transmedia storytelling products? 3. Discovering if transmedia storytelling has any (positive or negative) effect on the viewers loyalty towards a television series.Franchising related to transmedia storytelling is an example of brand extensions. Thebrand extension can benefit from the parent brand (in this case a television series) itsimage and the loyalty of the television viewers towards the television series. Thisresearch tries to find out if this also happens the other way around: does theconsumption of franchise with transmedia storytelling elements also have an impacton the consumers’ loyalty towards a certain television series or not. -2-
    • CHAPTER II: Literature reviewFranchising as a brand extension of a television programme is nothing new. Today,transmedia storytelling might be a “buzz”-word, but it is almost certain that it willinfluence the way of creating franchising products. Transmedia storytelling was in2006 described by Henry Jenkins as stories which are told across multiple mediachannels (Jenkins 2006). Up till today, research has been done on franchising as abrand extension and transmedia storytelling, but not yet on the effect that could beobtained by combining those two elements. While a good combination betweentransmedia storytelling on one hand and franchising on the other hand could create asynergetic effect. Not only financially, but also on the brand’s image, brandawareness and brand loyalty. Within this literature review there will be a focus on adescription of the transmedia storytelling phenomenon and the academic literaturewhich has already been published about this relatively young media technique.Because transmedia storytelling includes different media, I will also discuss howfranchises around a television programme influence the consumer from a brandextensions point of view. -3-
    • 2.1. ModelBecause transmedia storytelling is a relatively new phenomenon, there are not yetmuch academic theories or frameworks available. Because of this, the model ofRobert Pratten (2009), which covers the most important elements of transmediastorytelling, was used.Figure 1: Transmedia storytelling model (Pratten 2009)This model shows the steps which should be taken to turn an existing script into atransmedia storytelling project. Based on the input and considerations, like theavailable resources, audience needs and marketing needs, the producers choose atheme/genre. The story told within a certain genre depends on several factors like thestoryworld, the characters and the story plot. When these factors got shape, the nextstep would be thinking about how those factors could be translated for other medialike games, movies and events. The output will then be a structured project withattention for the script of the macro-story and the franchise based on the story. -4-
    • Most elements of the model can be placed under one of the objectives of the researchthat will be done. If we want to know which factors determine why a franchiserelated to transmedia storytelling is popular we have to take a closer look to thepremise, world to support premise, characters and the plot within a certain televisiongenre. The inputs and considerations about this should be based in the audienceneeds. The different franchising products can be placed under the implementationsegment (game, movie, television programme ...).If a broadcasting company is thinking about using transmedia storytelling around oneof its television programmes it also has to be aware of the resources that are availableand the resources that are needed and what the marketing function is. 2.2. Transmedia storytellingIn the journal article “Critics, Clones and Narrative in the Franchise Blockbuster”,Bradly Schauer calls transmedia storytelling “one of the most important shifts inHollywood narrative since the auteur experiments of the 1960s and 1970s” (Schauer2007).But what is transmedia storytelling? Transmedia storytelling was in 2006 describedby Henry Jenkins as stories which are told across multiple media channels (Jenkins2006). Carlos Alberto Scolari continues by saying that transmedia storytelling canalso be seen as “a narrative structure that expands through both different languages(verbal, iconic, etc.) and media (cinema, comics, television, video games, etc.)(Scolari 2009).It is interesting to clarify the difference between transmedia storytelling and an other,similar concept: “cross-media”. Cross-media involves a text which is created andpublished in different media channels (Dena 2004); (Bechmann Petersen 2006).Other similar concepts are “multiple platforms” (Jeffery-Poulter 2003), “transmedialworlds” (Klastrup & Tosca 2004) or “transmedial interactions” (Bardzell et al. 2007).All of these concepts are related to each other in trying to create a similar experiencewhich Bechmann Petersen in 2006 describes as “a production and interpretationpractice based on narratives expressed through a coordinated combination oflanguages and media or platforms” (Bechmann Petersen 2006, p. 95). -5-
    • Multiple Media Cross-Media TransmediaFigure 2: Multiple media versus cross-media versus transmedia (Thompson 2010)In the figure of Thompson, the circles represent the different media or franchisesused for the story. For example, the circle on top is a television programme, the leftcircle is a book and the right circle is a game. The first figure shows different mediatelling stories from the same universe, but one medium contributes nothing to theother media. Multiple media are used for example when a viewer can see a short clipof an episode from a television series on this series’ website. In case of cross-mediastorytelling, the different media interact with each other in a one-way relationship. Inthis case, the television programme can drive a viewer to another medium. However,there is no two-way communication. For example, in the television programme, acharacter can refer to a website related to a fictional company from the televisionseries. When the television viewer arrives on this website, he can find some contentfrom the series, but nothing or very little extra. In the case of transmedia storytellinghowever, there is a complex relationship between the different media and each of themedia interacts with another.A good example to explain what transmedia storytelling is, is “The Matrix” (Jenkins2006). Most people know “The Matrix” as a movie directed by Andy and LanaWachowski. However, next to “The Matrix” movie trilogy, there is also a series ofanimated shorts, video games and collections of comic book stories. All these mediacan be consumed on their own even if the consumer does not have experience withthe content of the other media. Nevertheless, it will be easier for the player of thevideo game to succeed in completing the different missions when he has already seenthe movies, because he knows more about the characters and has some experiencewith the story world. But this works both ways. When someone plays the game, hegains more information about the characters, which is not given in the movies. Thisway, a person that wants to experience the entire story world needs to consume avariety of different media to be able to find all the pieces of the puzzle. -6-
    • Within this research, television series will be used as the macro-story (Scolari 2009).In this case the term TV-centred transmedia storytelling can also be used (Scolari2009). 2.3. Transmedia storytelling for television broadcasting companiesBecause of the innovations and introductions of new media technologies,broadcasting companies today have more possibilities to produce television dramascovering a wide range of media (Evans 2008).Carlos Alberto Scolari ascertains that the development of a same story in differentlanguages and media is a traditional marketing strategy (Scolari 2009). But a lot ofcompanies in the entertainment business are aware of the fact that transmediastorytelling is part of the future of entertainment. These companies now have toconsider how to improve the way they manage their resources and take control oftheir audiovisual product in different media. If a company does this well, it canobtain a clearer view and influence the stages in which a consumer enters thenarrative story, certainly within a multi-channel story (Dena 2004). Jenkins affirmsthis by saying that “the most successful transmedia franchises have emerged when asingle creator or creative unit maintains control over the franchise” (Jenkins 2003a).According to Henry Jenkins, there are five different processes of “mediaconvergence”: technological, economic, social or organic, cultural and globalconvergence (Jenkins 2001). Within this research, economic convergence can beused to define the horizontal integration of the entertainment industry. Nowadays,some broadcasting companies also have interests in books, events, games and web.This creates a synergetic effect around which cultural reproduction and theexploitation of brands in the process of transmedia have been restructured (Marinhoet al. 2008).It is clear that transmedia storytelling is interesting from both a marketing and non-marketing point of view for television broadcasting companies (Bolin 2010). Themoney gained from transmedia storytelling is in the intense loyalty that is derived.Consumers want more of it and they are willing to pay for it (ipTVe 2010). -7-
    • However, different media companies need different marketing strategies in whichthey can implement transmedia storytelling. This depends on the financial climateand their positioning in the world, the technologies they are able to work with andtheir financial backings (Toschi 2009). 2.4. Franchise related to transmedia storytellingTransmedia storytelling and branding have in common that both processes want tocreate “a symbolic universe endowed with meaning” (Scolari 2008, p. 170). Thisuniverse can be translated as “360° content” (Dena 2007). The term refers to the factthat a consumer can be involved in the whole story in different ways and by a widerange of media (oFlynn 2009). Jenkins, however, remarks that it is important thateach franchise entry is self-contained enough to enable autonomous consumption(Jenkins 2003a). Henry Jenkins argues that transmedia storytelling can be used toattract a wider audience by pitching different content to different media. By doingthis, a company is able to reach its target audience in an effective way, within acluttered media landscape. He adds that when each media brings fresh experiences, acrossover market will expand the potential gross within any individual media(Jenkins 2003a). He also states that “transmedia storytelling practices may expandthe potential market for a property by creating different points of entry for differentaudience segments” (Jenkins 2007). Thanks to transmedia storytelling, companiescan increase their number of consumers and target different segments by doing so(Scolari 2009). Jeff Gomez once said that a good transmedia product features a newexperience on another platform that utilises the strengths of that platform (ipTVe2010). Scolari argues that in transmedia storytelling, the brand is expressed bycharacters and topics of the fictional world which could be translated in differentlanguages and media (Scolari 2008).Television series can be seen as distinct brands (Drinkwater & Uncles 2007) ofwhich media franchises are a brand extension. In the context of televisionprogrammes, franchising as a brand extension is the use of the values of thetelevision programme to extend the brand to other related product categories(Liebermann 1986). However, it is important for marketers to introduce extensionsthat deliver extra benefit to the consumers. To clarify this, it might be useful to draw -8-
    • the consumer’s attention to the characteristics of the brand extension that delivers thebenefit (Bhat & Reddy 2001) and its USP (Kotler 2006). A difference has to be madebetween product benefits and brand benefits. The product benefits are based on thetechnical aspects of the product, while the brand benefits are more about theemotional advantages when consuming the product. Therefore, it is important thatthe product/brand delivers what it promises. Because of this, the companies have topay attention to all levels of the marketing mix and ask themselves the question towhom they are selling the product, which functional and emotional advantages theywant to sell, what the appropriate sales channels to use are, how they communicateabout the product and which message they want to deliver. The entire marketing mixneeds to function as a whole (Kotler 2006).For the television broadcasting companies however, it is very important to keep inmind that consumers are likely to judge the brand extension on their knowledge ofthe parent brand (Bhat & Reddy 2001). Consumers make mental associations with abrand, in different classes. One of these classes is brand attitude or affect. This classof associations is about the consumer’s overall favourable or unfavourable evaluationof the brand. Another class of associations is based on the brand’s product and non-product attributes. Another important factor is the similarity or perceptions of fitbetween the extension and the parent brand (Keller 1993). Other factors that playtheir part are the brand awareness, consists of brand recognition and brand recall, andbrand image of the parent brand (Keller 1993). The broadcasting companies have tobe aware of the fact that the consuming experience of the product within the brandextension-range could play an important role in the relationship building. This isreally important because over time, long-lasting brand experiences could affect aconsumer’s loyalty towards a brand (Reichheld & Teal 1996).According to Daniel Sheinin, an important reason for companies to use brandextensions is because it creates excitement for a mature brand. Furthermore, brandextensions represent both new and relevant information relating to the parent brandwhich is in this case a television programme (Sheinin 2000). He continues by sayingthat a strong, good experience with a brand extension could also have a positiveimpact on the consumer’s relationship with the television programme itself. This isbecause the consumer can expand his brand knowledge or in terms of transmediastorytelling: expand his knowledge of the narrative world (Aaker & Keller 1990). -9-
    • Therefore, it is important that the brand identity of the television programme is usedconsistently through multiple platforms (Chan-Olmsted & Kim 2001). Consumerswill hold strong and unique brand associations in memory which they will reflect onthe other products within the brand range. In chapter “3.5. Television viewers’loyalty” this relationship building is elaborated further.Henry Jenkins says the following about franchising: “Transmedia storytelling istrying to take an economic imperative (the need to build up franchises in an era ofmedia conglomeration) and trying to turn it into a creative opportunity. Thereremains uneasiness about what is ruling this process—art or commerce.” (Jenkins2003b). But Christy Dena simply says that transmedia storytelling is franchising(Dena 2004).Van Selm and Peeters divide the range of franchise products into three segments.First, there are the franchising products that are an exact copy of the televisionprogramme like DVDs with only the television series on it. Second, there are theimage products that are decorated with pictures of the programme or the characters.Third, there are products that extend the television programme; they are related to itscontent (Van Selm & Peeters 2007). This last range of products is the one thatfranchise related to transmedia storytelling is all about.Franchise can appear in a story or a storyworld role. In the first kind of role, thefranchise product can be used as a primary source of information about characters,settings and plots and it is designed to be an entry-point to the entire multi-channelworld. A storyworld role on the other hand has lesser impact on the storycomprehension and provides further information about characters and plots (Dena2004). Within this research, the television series plays a story role and televisionitself is a story channel. The other related franchise products can be situated in thestoryworld role or can be seen as storyworld channels. In addition to these channelsthere are also commodity channels which have a rather low-level of relevance to thestory world. These are for example action figures or clothes.Media franchises can be part of the transmedia storytelling, for example games, printand traditional media, live events, audio and video content, but also franchises likeDVDs, comic books, novels and games (Schauer 2007). Kushner even predicts thatwhen network television will immigrate to the Internet, transmedia storytelling and - 10 -
    • interaction will be applied more and more (Kushner 2008). In addition to this media,transmedia storytellers also use mobile websites and portals to tell their story bypublishing mini-episodes for mobile phones, “mobisodes”, and special ring tones(Perryman 2008) .Another example of transmedia storytelling is the BBC series Dr. Who. After thefirst series, BBC introduced a first novel about the series in corporation with a bookpublisher. This book was written based on content the fans created. In addition to thisbook, an audio CD with extra episodes was launched successfully. BBC alsointroduced a lot of web-based material like video-clips, podcasts, audio-files andpictures (Perryman 2008). Perryman concludes that the media company hadsucceeded in establishing a very successful and entertaining world for a diverseaudience, in which every member of the audience could choose for his own whichlevel of participation and interaction he felt comfortable with (Toschi 2009).SummaryThe use of franchise gives a broadcasting company the opportunity to involve aconsumer in a story in different ways, by using a wide range of media and creating360° content. Each franchise product features a new experience from the transmedialstoryworld on another platform that utilises the strengths of that platform.Franchise related to transmedia storytelling makes use of the values of the macrostory which is in this case the television programme. Not only can the story of thetelevision series continue on other media, but brand extensions can also createexcitement for a mature brand if the correct marketing mix is applied. Therefore, thebroadcasting company should be well aware of the wishes of its target audience tocreate a strong product and to deliver the right emotional benefits assigned to thebrand. Also the brand identity of the television programme should be usedconsistently through the multiple platforms. This way a strong relationship with abrand extension could also have a positive impact on the television programme itselfand have its impact on the loyalty of the customer towards the television programme. - 11 -
    • 2.5. Television viewers loyaltyIt is important to know what kind of audience is watching the television programmesand participating in the different media. The loyalty of the audience towards atelevision programme is important for a television broadcasting company because ina lot of cases, their advertisement income also depends on the number of viewers.When talking about a viewer’s loyalty towards a television programme, brand equityis also an important factor. Brand equity attracts not only new customers; it alsoreinforces consumer loyalty (McDowell & Sutherland 2000). This brand equity isconceptualised by Keller (1993) according to two kinds of overall brand knowledge:brand awareness and brand image. Brand awareness refers to the familiarity with thebrand name while brand image addresses the different meanings associated with abrand name.Barwise (1986) found out that high-rated prime time series generate greater repeatedviewing than lower rated series (Barwise 1986). Based on this research, Barwise andEhrenbergh did an effort to understand the relationship of liking and viewingtelevision series. Their research has shown that how much an individual likes aparticular series correlates with how often the viewer watches the series. Theresearch also revealed the fact that less popular series were not only viewed by fewerpeople, but they were also viewed less frequently than popular series (Barwise &Ehrenberg 1987). In their journal article McDowell and Sutherland (2000) proposefive different audience member categories: (1) Loyalists: Viewers who hold a strongconsumer-based program brand equity; (2) Passives: Viewers who do not hold anystrong consumer-based program brand equity towards any direct competitor; (3)Converts: Viewers who hold strong consumer-based program equity but when theywatch a competing channel, they are motivated to switch channels; (4) Tune-ins:“Appointment” viewers who hold very strong consumer-based program brand equity;(5) Defectors: Viewers who are about to abandon a program to watch a more suitableor preferred program. Watching a television series is also a way of experiencing abrand and the direct effect of experience on loyalty is high (McDowell & Sutherland2000). When consuming television series, hedonic dimensions such as feelings,fantasies and fun are also included (Holbrook & Hirschmann 1982). - 12 -
    • However, there is a difference between loyalty towards a specific genre and loyaltytowards a specific programme. Related to this, the loyalty of specific programs islikely to depend upon the range of alternatives within a certain program genre(Jeffres 1978). In their article Brosius et al. define viewer loyalty along fourdimensions. The first dimension is the one of “general loyalty to watch television”.The second is named “channel or network loyalty”. The third is “type of programloyalty” and the fourth is the “specific program loyalty”. For this research, this lastkind of loyalty is the most important. In the study, soap operas and adventure/actionprogrammes were chosen as a research object because they appeared the mostfrequently. Their study showed that soap operas like “Home and Away” and“Neighbours” have a very loyal audience. Certainly for soap operas which werebroadcasted on daily basis. However, for adventure/action programmes the loyaltywas lower. This was the case because those programmes were just broadcasted oncea week (Brosius, Wober & Weimann 1992).Within the format of television fiction, there also have to be elements that attract apotential spectator to watch the programme. One of the most important aspectswithin a television format is the characters (Porter et al. 2002). When a personwatches a television series, his or her experience comes from a realism that issituated on the emotional level. What is recognised is a structure of feeling and notknowledge of the real world (Ang 1985). This is because of the tendency of atelevision spectator to empathize with the fictional character (Smith 1995). Whenproducing transmedia texts for television drama, it is important to keep in mind thatthe ‘delicious otherness’ of the different characters remains (Murray 2000).Characters could be used to create long term relationships by serialization of sitcomsand other television genres. The storylines change, but the character itself remainsthe same. This can have an impact on the profitability of the series, but also on theviewer-constructed meanings. Within this context one needs to distinguish betweenattitude and attachment towards a character. Attitude refers to the viewers feelingpositive or negative towards a character. Attachment on the other hand refers to theviewer’s feeling of closeness to a certain character (Russell & Stern 2006). From theprevious, one may conclude that the characters are probably the most importantfactor of a successful audiovisual production. But according to some critics in thecontemporary audiovisual landscape, an evolution is going on. Instead of ‘character- - 13 -
    • driven’, movies and probably other audiovisual productions will become more ‘plot-driven’ (Schatz 2003). The characters also become mere plot functions that play arole in a bigger narrative and with less attention for their own goals and motivations.But there is a difference between films and television series. Films have less time togive the viewer the chance to identify with the different characters.Nevertheless, the story itself has to arouse interest. Some stories have double layerswhich attract another audience segment. Good examples for this are the movies ofPixar. These animation movies are very much liked by a young audience; howeverthey are also popular with adults. A recent example is Toy Story 3. The primarytarget audience are children, but on The Internet Movie Database the movie rating is9.1/10 (IMDB.com 2010) and this rating is given by adults. There is humour in thismovies that children will not understand, but adults will and vice versa. Byconstructing such a sedimentary multilayer text, one text can be able to reach moreimplicit viewers (Scolari 2009).Carlos Alberto Scolari differentiates three kinds of multiple implicit (trans) mediaconsumers which can be classified according to their relationship with the media.First there are the “single text consumers” who only play a game or read a novel anddo not take into account the total geography of the fictional world. This can bebecause they do not know that there are other texts with which they can extent theirknowledge about the fictional world. These single units of a fictional world can beconsidered as an open entrance to a narrative universe, but they are independent; alltexts may be understood without consuming other texts. This group only knows onestory-line which they found on a specific medium. A second group are the “singlemedia consumers”. These consumers experience the world by watching the narrativeworld on TV each week or by watching DVDs. The third group is that of“transmedia consumers”. These consumers participate in the narrative world indifferent media and languages (Scolari 2009). - 14 -
    • 2.6. ConclusionTransmedia Storytelling, introduced for the first time in 2006 by Henry Jenkins, is arelatively new phenomenon. It was already applied by some entertainmentcompanies without them knowing what it was called. However, nowadays academicslike Jenkins, Scolari and Dena are paying more attention to the implementation.Most of the time, it is the creative aspect of transmedia storytelling that is highlightedand not how it can be used as a marketing tool. And if there is information about thetopic it is mostly related to movies as the macro story and not to televisionprogrammes. For the literature review, a distinction was made between three topics:transmedia storytelling in general, how it can be used by television broadcastingcompanies and why they do or do not use it.The information that was acquired by reviewing the existing literature about thediscussed topics was used to develop a coherent and efficient research methodologywhich will be talked about in chapter three. - 15 -
    • CHAPTER III: MethodologyIn the Flemish part of Belgium, in a normal week the two biggest television stations“vtm” (Flemish commercial TV station, owned by VMMa) and “één” (Flemishpublic TV station, owned by VRT) have a market share of respectively 21% and 33%(VRT-studiedienst 2010). In this research, the programmes of two television stationswill be used because they reach the majority of Flemish viewers, but also becausemulti-platform productions are mostly introduced by large broadcasting companies(Bolin 2010).Most television viewers are only attracted to a small range of genres. For televisionviewers, genres are categories which bring information on content and form about atelevision programme (Van Selm & Peeters 2007). The focus will lay on thesegment of fiction or drama because of the transmedia storytelling elements (SKO,Dutch Audience Research Foundation n.d.). In selecting the TV-programmes that areinvolved in the research, it was important not only to look at the quantity of viewers,but also at the elements of transmedia storytelling that apply (Bolin 2010).Because of the different nature of the research objectives there was a need to usedifferent research methods. Mixed research methods (Creswell 2002) were used inthis research, which will be discussed first.The first part of these mixed research methods is the qualitative research. This gavethe opportunity to get information of certain specific cases in the Flemish televisionlandscape. A television series on which this research will focus is “Thuis”. This is aFlemish soap opera which has around one million spectators and a daily market shareof 44,20% every week day (CIM 2010). “Thuis” is a television series around whichthere is a lot of franchising related to transmedia storytelling like different websites,a blog, a book and events. This television series was chosen after a short previewabout the storyworld of “Thuis” from Hilde Roeland (Producer Events for VRT LineExtensions). However, the qualitative and quantitative went further than just onetelevision show. Other television series were also addressed. - 16 -
    • The second and biggest part of the research was based on quantitative research. Thisquantitative research was done by using online surveys with the intent to generalise asample of the Flemish television viewers. The research for this dissertation was donewith knowledge claims on pragmatic assumptions because for this dissertation theproblem was more important than the used methods. Knowledge claims arose out ofsituations and actions rather than antecedent conditions. This pragmatic approachwas also reflected in the way the data was collected. Different ways to collect thedata were used (quantitative and qualitative) instead of choosing only one way(Creswell 2002). 3.1. Mixed methodologyThis chapter explains the choice for a combination of quantitative data on one handand qualitative data on the other hand. 3.1.1. Mixed method strategyThe implementation of the research was based on a Concurrent Nested Strategy(Creswell 2002). This strategy was chosen because it gave the researcher theopportunity to gain a broader perspective than what would be achieved by using justone dominant method. It also provided the opportunity to address different questionsto different groups and to get information from different groups. The insights ofexperts with knowledge of transmedia in Flanders were used to compose the onlinesurvey. Because transmedia storytelling is quite a new concept, it could beinteresting to see if the producers and academics’ point of view about transmedialprojects corresponds with the point of view of the Flemish television viewers.Another reason to choose this strategy was because this way the different queriescould be done simultaneously. The advantages of the different methods that wereused could provide a benefit in the research. On the other hand, one of the - 17 -
    • disadvantages of this strategy was that the data needed to be transformed before theycould be integrated (Creswell 2002).This study opted for an explanatory approach. By using explanatory research, it waspossible to explain the relationship between the variables which were obtained. Asurvey strategy is chosen because it gave the opportunity to collect quantitative datawhich could be analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics (Saunders,Lewis & Thornill 2009). 3.1.2. PurposeAs mentioned before, qualitative and quantitative data were used to get a morecomplete view of the use and the impact of transmedia storytelling in Flanders. Itwas also necessary because different phases in the research needed differentmethods. To be complete, this research needed a customer point of view and thetelevision broadcaster’s point of view. Because there were not enough experts withknowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders, it was not possible to let them fillin a survey. This is why three semi-structured interviews based on a stableinterviewing guide, was opted for. To research the television viewer’s point of view,an online questionnaire was sent out. - 18 -
    • 3.2. Qualitative dataAs mentioned before, qualitative data was also used. This data was obtained fromexperts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling related franchise. They wererequested to participate in a semi-structured interview. 3.2.1. In depth-interview methodThese in-depth interviews took approximately one hour each and were conducted ina non-public space (like a meeting room). They were used to find out what theunderlying reasons and motivations are for television broadcasting companies toimplement transmedia storytelling into their television series. The purpose was tounderstand the visions of the experts. These interviews were based on aninterviewing guide. This was an enumeration of different topics that had to bediscussed. A semi-structured interview was used because it provided the opportunityto ask standardised questions and to allow the experts to explain their own thoughtsand ideas. This way, insights that have not been thought of previously could beobtained. The function of the researcher was to encourage the respondents to givemore information and to “probe” continuously.The experts were asked to grant the audio recording of the interview. This allowedthe possibility of writing a transcript afterwards and gave the possibility to listen tothe interview a number of times. 3.2.2. RespondentsFor this research it was important to learn more about the academic point of viewabout transmedia storytelling and its implementation in Flanders. By interviewing anacademic, the researcher could obtain objective information about the contemporarysituation in Flanders. The academic in this case was Nele Simons. She is a teachingassistant and PhD Candidate in Communication Studies at the University of Antwerpand one of her research interests is transmedia storytelling.One of the objectives of the research was to get to know why television broadcastingcompanies implement transmedia storytelling in their audiovisual productions. Two - 19 -
    • persons from the television industries that had already experience with transmediastorytelling were interviewed. To select these people, an informal and exploratoryconversation with Hilde Roeland (Producer Events by VRT Line Extensions) wasconducted. She recommended Stef Wouters (Independent media professional withexperience in developing transmedia drama series) and Wim Janssen (Producer“Thuis” – VRT). To contact these experts, the networks of both the researcher andHilde Roeland were used (See Appendix E on page 61 for the Letter of Invitation).If desired, the anonymity of the interviewees was guaranteed. 3.2.3. AnalysisBecause of the fact that the interviews were audio recorded, it was possible totranscribe them. This was done as soon as possible after the interview. It was alsoimportant to protect the privacy/confidentiality of the respondents. The respondents’right to withdraw was also assured. The participants were thoroughly informed aboutthe purposes of the interview. This information was provided in an e-mail as well asright before the interview started. Afterwards they were also asked if they had extraquestions or comments. The participants were given the opportunity to reread thetranscript if they wanted to (Saunders, Lewis & Thornill 2009).The data was analysed by using narrative. This method of data structuring was usedbecause the method of data collecting was through in-depth interviews (Saunders,Lewis & Thornill 2009). This is why the data were analysed in their originally toldform. A lot of the interviews included examples of cases in which transmediaprojects were developed, what the contemporary situation was and how theparticipants saw the future. Most of these elements were based on the ownexperiences and know-how of the participants. - 20 -
    • 3.3. Quantitative dataThis quantitative data gave the opportunity to collect attitude data (Creswell 2002).This was also important to answer the objective question if consumers would bemore loyal towards a television series after consuming franchise related totransmedia storytelling. 3.3.1. Online surveyThe internet mediated or online questionnaire (which can be found in Appendix D onpage 60 and Appendix F on page 62) consisted of list questions, category questions,ranking questions, rating questions, quantity questions and one open question. Thislast kind of question was avoided as much as possible because the answers may behard to decode and analyse. The questionnaire was hosted on the websiteenquetemaken.be. A previous study of 2009 showed that 77% of the Flemishpopulation has Internet and 96,5% has a television set (IBBT 2009). Because of thisit was appropriate to acquire the quantitative data by sending out onlinequestionnaires to potential respondents.The questionnaire started with a little introduction about the study. It containedquestions to get specific personal data from the respondents although it wasparamount to bear in mind that privacy, anonymity and confidentiality needed to berespected. Next, there were questions to get more information about the televisionviewing behaviour of the respondents and their visions and opinions about thetransmedia storytelling related franchise they consumed.A distinction was made between tangible products like books and intangible serviceslike websites, events and radio shows. At the end the respondents were thanked andgiven the opportunity to receive the results of the research by providing theresearcher with his or her e-mail address. - 21 -
    • 3.3.2. Target population specificationsThe target population for the quantitative research were all Flemings over 18 yearsold who watch television. Because of this, the sampling frame contained more than4.801.300 people (Belgian Federal Government 2009) from which 96.5% watchesTV (IBBT 2009). Because of this non-probability sampling was applied by using amethod of self-selection. The objective for the online questionnaire was to have atleast 384 respondents in two weeks (Saunders, Lewis & Thornill 2009). This amountof 384 respondents was based on a margin of error of 5% and a confidence level of95%. After one week the respondents received an e-mail to remember to fill in theonline survey. The potential respondents were reached by asking several televisionand media related websites to put a link on their website or in their newsletter. Socialmedia tools like Twitter and Facebook were also used. The use of these social mediawebsite could create a snowball effect to get new respondents. A limit to this self-selection sampling was that the socio-demographics of the responds were not knownin advance. If there was a remarkable difference between sub-groups (based on age,sex and province), quota sampling would be utilised to make sure that the collecteddata represented the population correctly. These quotas were based on the statisticsof the Belgian National Institute of Statistics (NIS).When people watch television, there are differences between the genders and ages.Based on previous research in television viewer behaviour (Simons 2009), thevariable age of the respondents were divided into four age categories: 18-24 years,25-34 years, 35-44 years and 45-54 years. The respondents were also categorized bypossession of or experience with franchise related to transmedia storytelling. This ledto 16 different categories (gender, age and possession/experience). 3.3.3. AnalysisThe data received from the online surveys was analysed with SPSS. This was theeasiest and most efficient way to analyse the data because thesistools.com offers thepossibility to easily export the achieved data to statistical software like SPSS. - 22 -
    • 3.4. Validity and reliability 3.4.1. Internal validityWhile composing the online survey and the interviewing guide for the interviews,attention was paid to ensure that the measuring tools quantified the right subject. 3.4.2. Face validityThis kind of validity was applied by pretesting the online survey by non-experts toreveal if all possible answers on a close-ended question were available. This wastested by observing respondents while they were filling in the online survey andafterwards the online survey could be adjusted. 3.4.3. Content validityAnother step was pretesting the online survey (and interviewing guide for the semistructured interview) with experts. Therefore the survey and interviewing guide forthe in-depth interviews were sent to the supervisor of this research (Darren Coleman)and a friend who is a marketer. 3.4.4. Criterion validityA distinction needs to be made between predictive and concurrent validity. For thisresearch, the concurrent validity was the most important. While doing the research itwas, for example, important to classify the respondents in the right segment with acertain typology. These criteria were based on other research. In this case, therespondents were subdivided in different segments which were also used in a journalarticle from McDowell and Sutherland: loyalists, passives, converts, tune-ins anddefectors (McDowell & Sutherland 2000). - 23 -
    • 3.4.5. External validityThe research focused on Flanders and the Flemish population. This is a relativelysmall market (express.be 2010). Because of this, it was likely that the resultsgathered using the online survey and the in-depth interviews, could be only limitedlygeneralized. The results could differ from results that were obtained earlier.Therefore, it is possible that the results of this research could not be applicable inother countries in the rest of the world. 3.4.6. Internal consistency reliabilityThis type of reliability was certainly important for the online survey. In this survey,methods like semantic differential scales and Likert scales were used. Therefore, itwas important to test if the different elements in the scale measured the sameconstruct. This was tested by using the Cronbach’s alpha. 3.4.7. Efficiency, ease of use and interpretabilityIt was important for the online survey to be set up in an efficient way. This is whydifferent questions were inserted about certain aspects of the customer’s loyaltytowards television series. This way the questionnaire became more reliable.However, too many questions would have made the questionnaire too long andbecause of this, the respondents would lose their concentration while completing thesurvey. It was also important to ensure that the online survey did not become toodifficult to complete and that the answers on the questions resulted in data that waseasy to interpret. - 24 -
    • 3.5. Extra commentsIn addition to the information given in the previous chapters, it could be interestingto discuss why there are no focus groups in the research and the advantages anddisadvantages of working with online surveys. 3.5.1. No focus groupsThis methodology was preceded by several brainstorm sessions. At first, some focusgroups were integrated in the research plan because of the possibility to obtain moreinformation about the motivations of customers to consume franchise related totransmedia storytelling. They could also give an indication about the change inloyalty towards a television series after consuming franchising related to transmediastorytelling. However, organising focus groups is not easy, neither is being a goodand efficient moderator if you are not trained to do this. The obtained results wouldalso not represent the real thoughts of the participants because of social pressure.This is why was opted to rather put some extra open questions in the online surveyinstead of organising focus groups. 3.5.2. Advantages of online researchThere were several reasons to choose online surveys over offline surveys. The firstreason was because of the high response rate of online surveys and the fact that theywere less time consuming. Also the fact that the data could easily be imported intoSPSS was an important element. Another very important factor was that theinterviewee could not be influenced by the interviewer. 3.6. ConclusionA mixed method strategy was chosen for the research. By collecting qualitative data,by using semi structured in-depth interviews, and quantitative data, by using anonline survey, it was possible to get more information about the point of view of theexperts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling and about the point of view of theFlemish television viewers about transmedia storytelling franchise. - 25 -
    • CHAPTER IV: Data Collection and AnalysisThe previous chapter provided an overview of how the qualitative and quantitativedata were gathered. In this chapter, the data obtained from the qualitative and thequantitative research will be analysed. Up till now, a total of 303 respondents filledin the online survey and there were three semi-structured interviews with expertswith knowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders. With this analysis, thepurpose is to answer the question: Who buys transmedia franchise for which reasonand what is the impact on the loyalty towards a certain television series?First the qualitative data will be analysed to answer the first research objective. Thesecond research objective will be answered by analysing the data from the onlinesurveys. The chapter finishes by answering the third research objective and byconcluding the data analysis. - 26 -
    • 4.1. Qualitative data – Research objective 1 4.1.1. Experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling in FlandersThree experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders wereinterviewed about their knowledge and experience with transmedia storytelling. Thepurpose of these interviews was to answer the first research objective:Identifying the main objectives of television broadcasting companies to (not)implement transmedia storytelling. 4.1.2. Transmedia storytelling in FlandersThe term “transmedia” was not even invented yet when VRT produced projects withtransmedia storytelling elements. This was because VRT realized for example thatthe Internet could be used to expand the television story. For most of these projects,VRT did not analyse international cases because if so, the company risked makingthe same mistakes they made in other countries.“Thuis” is the only television series in Flanders that has a real working transmediacomponent. The character Ellie is completely transmedial with her blog, her radioshow and her appearances in the television series. The creators have really beenthinking about how to create a transmedial experience. ‘Thuis” is a series in whichtelevision viewers accede in a universe. – (Nele Simons)There are also cases in which the transmedia storytelling franchise survives thetelevision series. Stef Wouters gave the example of the comic books of the children’stelevision series “W817” (Ketnet). These comic books are still published while theairing of the television series already stopped in 2003. One can expect that this isalso about to happen with the comic books of “F.C. De Kampioenen” (één).For the moment, transmedia storytelling in Flanders still seems to be in atransitional phase in which we could remain for the next ten years or two years.Nobody knows for sure. – (Stef Wouters) - 27 -
    • 4.1.3. Financial motivationsFor “vtm”, the application of transmedia storytelling served only financial purposes(as in the “Sara”-case). Their internal production company Line Extensions onlyproduces franchising products if they experience that the television series is asuccess. If the television series is not popular, they do not produce franchisingproducts.- (Nele Simons)Stef Wouters explained that transmedia could very well deliver new opportunities foradvertisers to promote their products. Because of transmedia storytelling, advertiserscould target a certain niche and because of this, their advertisements could be moreeffective.However with “Thuis”, like Wim Janssen (producer of “Thuis”) explained, theinvestments in transmedia storytelling are not likely to generate profit in the nearfuture. However, Wim Janssen and Hilde Roeland (VRT Line Productions) wereworking on a project based on the travel cafe “Noorderzon”. There are plans to set updeals with travelling agencies who could sell travels on the website of “Noorderzon”.This could create a win-win situation for the creators of “Thuis” and the travellingagencies. The agencies would deliver content for the website and answer thequestions of the visitors on the forum as one of the characters of the series. This waypeople could experience the universe of “Thuis” more and for the producers of“Thuis” this could generate income (by for example selling licenses of the brand“Thuis”, product placement ...). This extra money could be used to finance the othertransmedial elements of “Thuis” and to create more content. Henry Jenkins says thefollowing about this kind of projects: “Transmedia storytelling is trying to take aneconomic imperative (the need to build up franchises in an era of mediaconglomeration) and trying to turn it into a creative opportunity” (Dena 2004). - 28 -
    • 4.1.4. Innovative motivationsDuring the interview Nele Simons mentioned that “Thuis” is an odd case. In theliterature studies that she conducted, she learned that developing a transmedialconcept asks for a big financial investment and that there has to be sufficient ROI.However for VRT, transmedia storytelling was something new and the creators of“Thuis” believed that it was something that had to grow and the financial part wasless important. This was the same case with Emma.The telenovella “Emma” (VRT) gave the creators the opportunity to reach anaudience which was otherwise very hard to interact with. Most of the players of theonline reality game of “Emma” were between 14 and 25 years old. This is anaudience that is hard to reach with TV. – (Stef Wouters)This is also what o’Flynn referred to (2009). Because of the wide range of media, aconsumer can be involved in the whole story in different ways that can be attractivefor different age groups. 4.1.5. Loyalty“The financial aspect might be important, but I think you can also find return oninvestment in the loyalty that you create with the audience. It has to be like that,because a lot of the content is free”, says Nele Simons. Wim Janssen argues that it ishard to measure whether the transmedia storytelling franchise motivates people towatch the series “Thuis”. However, he is convinced that the yearly fan day of“Thuis” and the blog of Ellie resulted in more and more loyal “Thuis” viewersbecause of the community-element.Transmedia storytelling can also help producers to keep their viewers watching theseries. This is necessary because the competition is murderous. – (Wim Janssen)This is what Bhat and Reddy (2001) meant by saying that consumers have to beaware of the benefit that the brand extension delivers. If transmedia storytelling isimplemented well, it can be a USP for the television programme compared to itscompetitors (Kotler & Kettler 2006). - 29 -
    • 4.1.6. DifficultiesIn the Flemish industries, people are still very sceptical towards transmediastorytelling. Until now I have met only a few people who are enthusiastic about itand see more than a financial aspect in it. – (Nele Simons)Stef Wouters explained that book publishers also still believe the old philosophy thatthey have to sell books by telling people that “there will be a television series aboutthe books”, even if the book is an introduction to the television series. This is thecase for “Wolven”.However Wim Janssen explains that the biggest part of the transmedial project of“Thuis” will be shut down. The websites of the fictional companies will disappearand only the radio show and the blog of Ellie will remain. The ROI turned out to beinsufficient. 4.1.7. FutureThe future of transmedia storytelling really depends on the turning point on whichadvertisers will start to really invest in those projects.- (Stef Wouters)VRT decided to shut down a lot of transmedial elements from “Thuis” and I regretthis because transmedia is and will be very important. However the macro-story willstill be, certainly in the case of “Thuis”, the story on television. – (Wim Janssen)I believe that the transmedial stories will have more success if they come from othercountries. I think, in the future, the Flemish television viewers will participate morein transmedial stories, but they will be in English.- (Nele Simons) - 30 -
    • 4.2. Quantitative data – Overview 4.2.1. RespondentsIn total, 303 people completed the online survey which was created withenquetemaken.be. The short url service Bit.ly was used because it is also interestingto know which sources generated which amount of traffic.Table 1: Referring sitesEmail Clients, IM, AIR Apps, and Direct 133www.facebook.com 62www.9lives.be 42www.showbizzsite.be 42www.femistyle.be 39www.digitalcafe.be 35www.tv-visie.be 16www.vrtfansite.be 13www.seniorennet.be 11www.tik.be 11This resulted in 140 male (46.2%) participants and 163 female (53,8%) participantswhich is a good reflection of the ratios in Flanders (Belgian Federal Government2010).Table 2: Gender respondents Gender Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent PercentValid M 140 46,2 46,2 46,2 F 163 53,8 53,8 100,0 Total 303 100,0 100,0 - 31 -
    • The majority of respondents were between 18 and 24 years old (50.6%). The nextlargest group were the respondents between 25 and 34 years old (25.8%).Table 3: Age categories Age Category Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent PercentValid <18 years 10 3,3 3,3 3,3 18-24 years 99 32,7 32,8 36,1 25-34 years 92 30,4 30,5 66,6 35-44 years 34 11,2 11,3 77,8 45-54 years 27 8,9 8,9 86,8 >55 years 40 13,2 13,2 100,0 Total 302 99,7 100,0Missing System 1 ,3Total 303 100,0 4.2.2. Viewing behaviourIn the first questions of the survey, the respondents were asked how many times amonth/week they watch/watched a certain television programme. 24.9% of therespondents (9.6% male and 15.3% female) watched at least three episodes of“Thuis” a week and 27% (10.6% male and 16.4% female) of the respondentswatched at least three episodes of “Sara” a week. These two television series got thehighest viewer rate in the genre soap/telenovella. Details about these percentages canbe found in Appendix A on page 56.In the drama fiction genre, “Witse” got the best score with 51.8% (20.9% male and30.9% female) who watch the series at least twice a month. For more details seeAppendix B on page 58. - 32 -
    • 4.2.3. Margin of errorIn the research proposal, the goal was to have 384 respondents. This way there wouldbe a margin of error of 5% and it was a size of population at a 95 confidence levelassuming that the data are collected from all cases in the sample. Because only 303respondents filled in the survey on time, there is a margin of error of 5,59%. 4.3. Quantitative data – Research objective 2This data is used to answer the second research objective:Discovering which factors determine why a franchise related to transmediastorytelling is popular.One of the purposes of this dissertation is to create a document which is useful inpractice. Therefore the motivations will be discussed in general first. If there are bigdifferences between males and females, and between the different age groups, thosedifferences will be highlighted. 4.3.1. BooksThe series of books of “Sara” were read by a lot of people. The first book was readby 22 respondents (7,3% of the total of respondents), while the second book had 16readers (5,3%). There were 13 respondents who read the third book (4%). The fourth,fifth and sixth book were read by 10 respondents (3,3%).The relationship between the respondents who read the first book of “Sara” and therespondents who read the second book of “Sara” is significant with p = 0.00. Thevalue of the correlation coefficient is +,964. This means that there is a strong,positive correlation between those two variables. The crosstab can be found inAppendix C on page 59. - 33 -
    • Table 4: Chi-square test of reading the first and second book of Sara Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) aPearson Chi-Square 513,884 4 ,000Likelihood Ratio 410,107 4 ,000Linear-by-Linear Association 278,608 1 ,000N of Valid Cases 301a. 3 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expectedcount is 1,17.The books of “Witse” were a lot less popular. The three books of “Witse” were allread by just around three respondents (1.0%).De most popular books were the comic books of “F.C. De Kampioenen”. Thesebooks were read by 81 respondents or 26,7%. 50 40 30 20 10 m 0 f 22 16 13 10 10 81 Sara 1 Sara 2 Sara 3 Sara 4 Sara 5 F.C. De KampioenenFigure 3: Readers booksMotivational factorsThere were in each statement around 208 respondents (68,6%) who said that thestatements were not applicable to their situation. However, 64.8% of the respondentswho read a book answered that they agreed with the statement that they read thebooks out of interest in the story. The second important motivation was the interestfor the characters (58.7%). 42.9% of the respondents who read a book agreed on thequestion if they read the book out of interest in the storyworld. - 34 -
    • 4.3.2. EventsThe events the respondents visit the most were “Flikken”-day (25 respondents =8,3%) and “Thuis”-day (17 respondents = 5,6%).The reason why these events could have had more visitors than the other events isbecause there have already been 10 editions of “Flikken”-day and more than 5editions of “Thuis”-day.Motivational factorsThe reason why the 54 respondents visited the events was in the first place out ofinterest in the storyworld (53.8%). And they also visited the events to knowsomething more about the storyworld (51.9%). It is notable that just 36.5% agreedthat they visited the events to experience the storyworld on their own, because eventsare the way to experience the storyworld of a television series. - 35 -
    • 4.3.3. RadioThe two radio shows had a high response rate. 19.9% of the respondents (n=60) hadalready listened to “Dams and Van Deun” on Radio 2, while 14% had alreadylistened to “Thuis with Ellie” on Radio 2 (n=42).Motivational factorsIn general, the respondents who listened to the radio shows did this in first instanceout of interest in the story (52.2%). But they also wanted to know something moreabout the story (47.1%). Certainly in the case of “Thuis with Ellie” this could be adecisive factor because in the radio show Ellie gives some extra information aboutthe story on TV. Only 41.9% listened to the show out of interest in the characters.In 2003, Schatz said that, in the future, characters would become more plot functionsthat play a role in a bigger narrative in the television series and there will be givenless attention to the character’s own goals and motivations. In the findings for theradio programmes, it is reflected that people listen to the shows mainly for the storyand less for the characters. a. Differences male/femaleThere is a strong difference between males and females and their motivations tolisten to the radio shows. Male respondents agreed more strongly on the question ifthey listen to the radio shows for the characters than females. Because p = .001,which is smaller than .005, the relationship between the two variables, gender andthe characters as a motivation to listen to the radio shows, is significant. The interestin the storyworld is an important factor, more males (48.8%) agree to this thanfemales (18.5%) and males also want to know more about the storyworld (41.9% ofthe males vs. 15.8% of the female respondents). Females (47.5%) however, listen tothe show more to learn more about the story than men do (37.7%). - 36 -
    • Table 5: Crosstab radio programmes gender/characters I listened to the show(s) out of interest in the characters. * Gender Crosstabulation Gender M F TotalI listened to the show(s) out of interest in Strongly Agree Count 7 1 8the characters. % within 21,9% 2,4% 10,8% Gender Moderately Agree Count 8 6 14 % within 25,0% 14,3% 18,9% Gender Slightly Agree Count 0 9 9 % within ,0% 21,4% 12,2% Gender Neither agree nor Count 7 5 12 disagree % within 21,9% 11,9% 16,2% Gender Slightly Disagree Count 0 7 7 % within ,0% 16,7% 9,5% Gender Moderately Disagree Count 5 10 15 % within 15,6% 23,8% 20,3% Gender Strongly Disagree Count 5 4 9 % within 15,6% 9,5% 12,2% GenderTotal Count 32 42 74 % within 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% Gender - 37 -
    • Table 6: Chi-square test gender/characters radio programmes Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) aPearson Chi-Square 21,946 6 ,001Likelihood Ratio 28,319 6 ,000Linear-by-Linear Association 2,495 1 ,114N of Valid Cases 74a. 6 cells (42,9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimumexpected count is 3,03. 4.3.4. Websites fictional companies “Thuis”One of the questions in the survey was if the respondents had already visited one ofthe websites of the fictional companies in the soap series “Thuis”: Praktijk Dedecker,Noorderzon, Sanitechniek, Taxi Tersmissen and Hof Tersmissen. 32 respondents or10.7% of the respondents answered that they already visited one of these websites.MotivationsThe respondents who visited the websites said they have done this mainly out ofinterest in the characters and the fictional companies (41.9% agreed strongly forboth). The story and storyworld were about equally important (38.7% and 35,5%). - 38 -
    • Figure 4: Visit fict. comp. out of interest in charactersFigure 5: Visit fict. comp. out of interest in fict. comp. - 39 -
    • 4.3.5. Website “Noorderzon”The people who watch Thuis were asked to visit the website of the fictional company“Noorderzon”. In total 110 respondents visited the website. The factors on thiswebsite that attracted the visitors the most were information about the fictionalcompany “Noorderzon”. 30% of the visitors agreed on this statement. But the mostpopular factor was the information about travelling, 41.8% of the respondentsagreed. About 25% of the visitors agreed that they were attracted by the informationabout the story, storyworld and characters. 4.3.6. Blog “Ellie”While comparing the results for the website of Noorderzon and the blog of “Ellie”,one could see that there are different factors on the websites that attract visitors. Onthe blog of Ellie, the visitors (also 110) were the most attracted by the pictures thatwere posted by Ellie. 42.6% agreed that they were attracted by these pictures. Thesecond important factor was information about the characters. The third importantfactor was information about the story. However, it is noteworthy that the sound files(the radio podcasts from “Thuis with Ellie”) are less popular. Only 17.4% agreed thatthey found the sound files attracted them. - 40 -
    • 4.4. Quantitative data – Research objective 3This data is used to answer the third research objective:Discovering if transmedia storytelling has any (positive or negative) effect on theviewers loyalty towards a television series.For this part of the research, the focus will be on the television series Thuis, Sara andWitse, because a lot of respondents answered that they had consumed at least one ofthe franchise products related to one of these television series.These results are based on 292 respondents because 11 respondents did not fill in thematrix in the survey.In the questions, were there is “...” in the sentences:- Reading a book / comic book related to a television series- Visiting a website of a fictional company from a television series- Listening to a radio programme based on a television series- Visiting an event related to a television series - 41 -
    • 4.4.1. After ... more a favourite/I like the TV-series moreThe relationship between the variables “after ... the TV-series became more afavourite” and “after ... I liked the TV-series more” is significant with p = 0.00 andthere is a strong correlation (+,824) between the variables.Table 7: Correlation and significance more favourite/like more Symmetric Measures Asymp. Std. a b Value Error Approx. T Approx. Sig. cInterval by Interval Pearsons R ,824 ,035 24,768 ,000 cOrdinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation ,833 ,033 25,636 ,000N of Valid Cases 293a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.c. Based on normal approximation.On these questions, the majority of the respondents strongly disagree or neither agreeor disagree. However, 7.5% moderately agreed and 10.9% slightly agreed on thestatement that a certain television series became more a favourite after consumingtransmedial franchise. About the same percentages are derivable on the statementthat they like the television series even more. - 42 -
    • Figure 6: After ... more favouriteFigure 7: After ... like more - 43 -
    • The people for whom the television series became more a favourite could be placedunder the category of “Loyalists” in the categorization of McDowell and Sutherland(2000). These people will watch the television series more out of brand commitmentand hold stronger brand program equity which is the result of the consumption oftransmedial franchise. 4.4.2. After ... I watch the TV-series more/more frequentAbout 20% of the respondents agreed on these statements. However, respondentswho listened to “Thuis with Ellie” say that they watch the television series more(40% = 16 respondents). There might be a significant relationship between thesevariable (p = ,000), but the correlation is rather weak (r = 0,204).Table 8: Correlation and significance listening to Ellie/watching more frequent Symmetric Measures Asymp. Std. a b Value Error Approx. T Approx. Sig. cInterval by Interval Pearsons R ,204 ,059 3,561 ,000 cOrdinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation ,204 ,058 3,552 ,000N of Valid Cases 293a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.c. Based on normal approximation. - 44 -
    • Table 9: Correlation liking/watching television series Correlations After ... I like the After ... I watch television series the television even more series even more **After ... I like the television Pearson Correlation 1 ,887series even more Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 293 293 **After ... I watch the television Pearson Correlation ,887 1series even more Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 N 293 295**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).The value of the correlation coefficient is +,887. This means that there is a strong,positive correlation between those two variables. The significance value is ,000. Thismeans that the relationship is significant. This was also shown in the research ofBarwise and Ehrenberg (1987). Their study has shown that how much a televisionviewer likes a television series correlates with how often the viewer watches theseries.In this case, the respondents who watch the television series more could be classifiedin the category “Loyalists” because they watch them more out of brand commitmentwhich is the result of consuming a brand extension. - 45 -
    • 4.4.3. After ... other good alternatives on TV/switch TV-channelOnly about 17% answered positively on the statement “I watch the television serieseven more even if there are good alternatives on TV” (17.4%) or “I am going toswitch the television channel to watch the television series” (16.8%).These statements were put under one title because there is a strong correlationbetween these two statements with r = ,837 > ,70.Table 10: Correlation good alternatives/switch TV-channel Correlations After ... I change channel After ... I am more even more certainly to watch motivated to watch the the program even if I was series, even if there are watching another program on other good alternatives on another channel TV **After ... I change channel even Pearson 1 ,837more certainly to watch the Correlationprogram even if I was watching Sig. (2- ,000another program on another tailed)channel N 292 290 **After ... I am more motivated to Pearson ,837 1watch the series, even if there Correlationare other good alternatives on Sig. (2- ,000TV tailed) N 290 293**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).The respondents who agreed on this statement belong to the category “Converts”.McDowell and Sutherland (2000) say that these viewers hold strong consumer-basedbrand equity. Maybe before consuming the transmedial product, they watched moreprogrammes on other channels. Because of the consumption of transmedial products,they are motivated to watch the TV-series as a more suitable programme option. - 46 -
    • 4.5. ConclusionsIn these chapters, the qualitative and quantitative data were analysed and the findingswere compared with the theories from the literature review.From this research one can conclude that, while transmedia storytelling is a relativelynew phenomenon, it is already slightly part of the Flemish media landscape.However, for the believers in Flanders, it is a continuous struggle to convince thetelevision broadcasting companies and even the production crews of the added valueof creating transmedia projects. This is because for the moment, a lot of commercialcompanies and partners do not understand the power of transmedia storytelling andare not willing to invest in it. On the other hand it seems that the Flemish televisionviewer is a rather passive television viewer (Simons 2009). For the moment, most ofthe Flemish television viewers are happy with the content they receive from thetelevision series and they are not inclined to look for extra content on extra media.However, this study showed that the consumption of franchise related to transmediastorytelling can have a positive impact on the loyalty of the television viewer towardsa certain television series. Of course the impact is related to the kind of franchiseproducts the television viewer consumes. There is also a difference in the factors thatmake a franchise product related to transmedia storytelling successful. For mostfranchise products the story is the most important, followed by the characters.In the next chapter, conclusions and recommendations will be formulated. In thechapter, the theoretical contributions will be discussed and the managerialimplications of this research, the limitations of this research and recommendationsfor future research will be formulated. - 47 -
    • CHAPTER V: Conclusions and RecommendationsThe development of a same story in different languages and media was named“transmedia storytelling” by Henry Jenkins. By implementing transmedia storytellingin an audiovisual project, a television programme and the franchising around thistelevision programme can create a whole new experience for a television viewer.Transmedia storytelling is interesting from a marketing point of view for televisionbroadcasting companies (Bolin 2010). The money gained from transmediastorytelling is in the selling of the franchising products, but also in the intense loyaltythat is derived (ipTVe 2010). 5.1. Theoretical Contribution of this Study 5.1.1. TheoryThis dissertation showed evidence for certain theories and extended the knowledgeabout some theories. First of all, the research showed evidence that franchisingproducts related to transmedia storytelling could create extra excitement for themature brand (the television programme) because these products represent both newen relevant information relating to the parent brand (Sheinin 2000). This gives theconsumer the possibility to expand his knowledge of the narrative world (Aaker &Keller 1990). Toschi said that different companies need different marketingstrategies in which they can implement transmedia storytelling depending on thefinancial climate, with technologies they can work with and their financial backings(Toschi 2009). This research has shown a clear difference between the motivations ofa commercial television broadcaster and a public service broadcaster. Barwise andEhrenbergh’s research showed that how much an individual likes a particular seriescorrelates with how often a viewer watches the series (Barwise & Ehrenberg 1987).The findings of this research were the same. However, the difference is that thisresearch showed that there is a correlation between an individual liking a televisionseries more after consuming transmedia storytelling franchise products and the factthat he watches the series more after consuming transmedia storytelling franchise - 48 -
    • products. Next, this dissertation used the five different audience members categoriesof McDowell and Sutherland. The group that grows the most after consumingfranchise products with transmedia elements is the group of loyalists who watch thetelevision series more out of brand commitment. But also the group of converts, whothink that after consuming franchise products with transmedia storytelling elements,a certain television series became a more suitable option than other televisionprogrammes (McDowell & Sutherland 2000). Next, this research learned thatdifferent factors make television viewers consume different categories of franchisingproducts. In some cases, the story is the most important motivator while in othercases the characters are the most important. Schatz claimed in 2003 that audiovisualproducts would be more “plot-driven” and less “character-driven” (Schatz 2003). Inthis research, it was clear that the interests of the Flemish television viewers are alsomore “plot-driven”. 5.1.2. MeasurementFor the quantitative research, the majority of the questions of the online survey werelinked to a seven point scale. There were questions to verify if the respondents hadalready had experience with certain franchise products with transmedia storytellingelements. The qualitative research was based on three semi-structured interviewswith Flemish experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders. 5.1.3. Analytical MethodsThe answers to the questions of the online survey were analysed by using SPSS.Tables were created as output and described. The interviews with experts withknowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders were transcribed and analysed byusing narrative. This means that they were analysed in their originally told form. - 49 -
    • 5.1.4. Methodology303 respondents, over 18 years of age, participated by completing the online surveythat was published on enquetemaken.be. There were three semi-structured in-depthinterviews with experts with knowledge of transmedia storytelling in Flanders. Thequestions for the online survey and the semi-structured interviews were based onprevious research done by Jenkins, Scolari, Aaker, Keller, Barwise, Ehrenberg andothers. 5.2. Managerial Implication 5.2.1. OrganisationsThis dissertation had as a purpose to create a document that could be useful inpractice. Because transmedia storytelling is a relatively new phenomenon in theFlemish media landscape, this document could be used by television producers toconvince their superiors or potential advertisers to invest in a transmedia storytelling-project. This dissertation also features in short which factors are the most importantfor certain franchising products related to transmedia storytelling and showed that theconsumption of franchise related to transmedia storytelling can have a positiveimpact on the loyalty of the consumers towards the parent brand (television series)(Aaker & Keller 1990). However, to create successful franchising, the televisionbroadcasting company needs to take into account its objectives (Toschi 2009) and thetarget audience (age groups and gender) (Jenkins 2003a). 5.2.2. ConsumersNowadays, the Flemish television viewer is not yet really motivated to consumetransmedia storytelling franchise and because of this the average Fleming could becalled a “single media consumer” (Scolari 2009). The reasons why consumers wantto consume franchise products with transmedia storytelling elements are different.Usually the story is the most important factor, followed by the characters. But somepeople also consume these products especially to learn more about these elements. - 50 -
    • This study showed that some consumers will watch a certain television series moreand will like it more after they consumed transmedial franchise related to thetelevision series. 5.3. Research LimitationsThis research was limited to the franchising products of television series of the twobiggest Flemish television channels. Because the phenomenon “transmediastorytelling” is relatively new, there were not many studies to compare these resultswith. Another limitation of this research could be the effect of “Social desirabilitybias”. For a lot of people, television is still an inferior medium for entertainment.Because of this it could be possible that the respondents gave the answers theythought they ought to give. This research has shown that transmedia storytellingfranchise products have an effect on the loyalty, however a limitation could be thatthis research did not show which product group has the biggest impact on the loyaltyand which external and internal social factors influence television viewers toconsume these products. Because this data was gathered in Flanders, it is not surethat it will be useful in other countries (Aaker & Keller 1993). 5.4. Future researchIt could be interesting to test the same research objectives on specific audiencesegments and to focus more on one certain program or franchise. In that research itcould be interesting to find out more about the internal and external factors, andwhich of the four marketing P’s are important for television viewers to consumetransmedia franchise. However, because “transmedia storytelling” is a rather youngphenomenon, it is possible that the implications of it will depend on technologicalinnovations. Therefore it could be useful to research which transmedia storytellingelements have the most impact on the loyalty towards the television series. Iftransmedia storytelling gets applied more, it might also be useful to research if thedifferences of motivations between different age-groups or genders of consumersbecome more significant and if the average Flemish television viewer would becomea “transmedia consumer” instead of a “single media consumer” (Scolari 2009). - 51 -
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    • AppendicesAppendix A: How often did you watch “Thuis” or “Sara” How often do you watch/did you watch Thuis * Gender Crosstabulation Gender M F TotalHow often do you watch/did you Each episode Count 20 31 51watch Thuis % within 14,5% 19,0% 16,9% Gender 3-4 ep./week Count 9 15 24 % within 6,5% 9,2% 8,0% Gender 1-2 ep./week Count 5 15 20 % within 3,6% 9,2% 6,6% Gender <1 ep./week Count 15 16 31 % within 10,9% 9,8% 10,3% Gender Never/Dont know the Count 89 86 175 series % within 64,5% 52,8% 58,1% GenderTotal Count 138 163 301 % within 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% Gender - 56 -
    • How often do you watch/did you watch Sara * Gender Crosstabulation Gender M F TotalHow often do you watch/did you Each episode Count 22 32 54watch Sara % within 15,9% 19,8% 18,0% Gender 3-4 ep./week Count 10 17 27 % within 7,2% 10,5% 9,0% Gender 1-2 ep./week Count 6 15 21 % within 4,3% 9,3% 7,0% Gender <1 ep./week Count 10 23 33 % within 7,2% 14,2% 11,0% Gender Never/Dont know the Count 90 75 165 series % within 65,2% 46,3% 55,0% GenderTotal Count 138 162 300 % within 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% Gender - 57 -
    • Appendix B: How often did you watch “Witse” How often do you watch/did you watch Witse * Gender Crosstabulation Gender M F TotalHow often do you watch/did you Each episode (4 ep./month) Count 32 39 71watch Witse % within 23,0% 24,1% 23,6% Gender Almost every episode (3 Count 15 32 47 ep./month) % within 10,8% 19,8% 15,6% Gender Occasionally (2 ep./month) Count 16 22 38 % within 11,5% 13,6% 12,6% Gender Rarely (1 ep./month) Count 10 9 19 % within 7,2% 5,6% 6,3% Gender Barely (<1 ep./month) Count 26 18 44 % within 18,7% 11,1% 14,6% Gender Never/Dont know the series Count 40 42 82 % within 28,8% 25,9% 27,2% GenderTotal Count 139 162 301 % within 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% Gender - 58 -
    • Appendix C: Crosstabulation Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1 + 2 Do you own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1? * Do you own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 2? Crosstabulation Do you own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 2? Dont have Dont know Have it/Havent it/Dont it/Read it read it know TotalDo you own/have Have it/Read Count 16 6 0 22you read Sara, Mijn it Expected Count 1,2 15,9 4,9 22,0Dagboek 1? % within Do you 72,7% 27,3% ,0% 100,0% own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1? Dont have Count 0 212 0 212 it/Havent Expected Count 11,3 153,5 47,2 212,0 read it % within Do you ,0% 100,0% ,0% 100,0% own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1? Dont know Count 0 0 67 67 it/Dont know Expected Count 3,6 48,5 14,9 67,0 % within Do you ,0% ,0% 100,0% 100,0% own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1?Total Count 16 218 67 301 Expected Count 16,0 218,0 67,0 301,0 % within Do you 5,3% 72,4% 22,3% 100,0% own/have you read Sara, Mijn Dagboek 1? - 59 -
    • Appendix D: Information about the translatorI hereby state that I have read the translations of the survey, as well as the dataacquired through in-depth interviews and a survey, provided by Floris Lefever, andthat I have found no actual differences in meaning or content between thetranslations from English to Dutch, and from Dutch to English.Kind Regards,Leen LefeverSworn translatorLetra TranslationsA. Roelandtsstraat ½3010 Kessel-LoBelgiumhttp://www.letraleuven.be - 60 -
    • Appendix E: Letter of Invitation for the interviews with expertsDear,For the moment I am following a Master of Arts in Marketing Management atCoventry University. For these studies, I am working on a dissertation which iscalled: “Transmedia Storytelling as a marketing tool for Flemish televisionbroadcasting companies”.The objectives of this dissertation are: 1. Identifying the main objectives of television broadcasting companies to (not) implement transmedia storytelling. 2. Discovering which factors determine why a franchise related to transmedia storytelling is popular. 3. Discovering if transmedia storytelling has any (positive or negative) effect on the viewers loyalty towards a television series.When I talked with ... and ... about my dissertation, both said that I really had tocontact you about these subjects. Because of this, I would like to have a conversationwith you about transmedia storytelling and the application of this phenomenon inFlanders to know what the motives of media companies are to implement transmediastorytelling around there television programmes and in which phase it is in theFlemish media landscape. The interview will have a duration of approximately onehour. I am really looking forward to learn more about you vision and expertise aboutthese subjects.Thank you in advance,Best,Floris Lefever - 61 -
    • Appendix F: Online survey (English)This questionnaire was translated in Dutch for the respondents to fill it in.Appendix F Online SurveyAppendix F Online Survey.docx - 62 -
    • Dear,Thank you very much for participating in this online questionnaire. Completingthis survey will take around 5 or 10 minutes of your time. With this research, Iwant to learn from you how you experience a certain kind of franchising ofcertain fictional television series. The results will be used for my dissertation.Your privacy is my first priority. Therefore, your answers will be treatedcarefully and anonymously. They will not be shared with other parties.If you have other questions, do not hesitate to contact me onlefever.floris@gmail.com1) How often do/did you watch: Each 3-4 1-2 <1 Never/I don’t episode ep./week ep./week ep./week know the seriesThuisSaraDavidFamilieF.C. DeKampioenen2) How often do/did you watch these television series? Never/I Almost Every don’t every Occasionally Rarely (1 Barely (< 1 episode (4 know episode (3 (2 ep./month) ep./month) ep./month) ep./month) the ep./month) seriesWitseGoestingLos ZandHotelEburonZoneStad - 63 -
    • Code 37KataraktDeSmaakvan DeKeyser3) Which of the books mentioned below do you own/have you read? I have it/I have I don’t have it/I I don’t read it haven’t read it know itDe Smaak van De KeyserDe Smaak van De Keyser, andersbekekenF.C. De Kampioenen - Comic(s)Flikken, anders bekekenGoesting, anders bekekenLos ZandThuis - Zomerlieven. Thuis, hoehet vroeger wasWitse - Eeuwige LiefdeWitse - Duivels GenotWitse, anders bekekenWolven4) Which of the books mentioned below do you own/have you read? I have it/I have I don’t have it/I haven’t I don’t know read it read it itCode 37 - In Gods naamDavid, Deel 1David, Deel 2Hotel Eburon - Dag enNachtSara - Mijn Dagboek 1 - 64 -
    • Sara - Mijn Dagboek 2Sara - Mijn Dagboek 3Sara - Mijn Dagboek 4Sara - Mijn Dagboek 5Sara - Mijn Dagboek 6Zone Stad - Schizo5) In the previous two questions you were asked which books/comics related to afiction-series you own/have read.Please indicate to what extent the following statements apply to you. Neither Strongl Strongl Slightl Agree Slightly Moderatel Not Moderatel y y y nor Disagre y applicabl y Agree Disagre Agree Agree Disagre e Disagree e e eI boughtit out ofinterestin thecharactersI boughtit out ofinterestin thestoryI boughtit out ofinterestin thestoryworldI boughtitbecausetheauthorappealedto meI bought - 65 -
    • itbecause Iwantedtoexperience thestoryworld on myownI boughtitbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thecharactersI boughtitbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryI boughtitbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryworldI boughtitbecause Iwantedto enjoythe seriesagainI did notknow theseriesI got it asa present - 66 -
    • 6) Which of the events mentioned below did you attend? I have already attended this I have not attended this yet Don’t know itDavid-daySara-dayFlikken-dayThuis-dayWitse-day7) In the previous question you were asked which events related to a fiction-series you already attended.Please indicate to what extent the following statements apply to you. Neither Strongl Strongl Slightl Agree Slightly Moderatel Not Moderatel y y y nor Disagre y applicabl y Agree Disagre Agree Agree Disagre e Disagree e e eIattendedthis outofinterestin thecharactersIattendedthis outofinterestin thestoryIattendedthis outofinterestin the - 67 -
    • storyworldIattendedthisbecause Iwantedtoexperience theseries bymy ownIattendedthisbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thecharactersIattendedthisbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryIattendedthisbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryworldI did notknow theseriesI got thevisit as apresent - 68 -
    • 8) Which of the radio-programmes mentioned below have you already listened to? I have already I have not I don’t listened to it listened to it yet know itDams en Van Deun in DeMadammen on Radio 2 Thuis met Ellie in Avondpost on Radio 29) In the previous question you were asked which fiction series-related radio-programmes you have already listened to.Please indicate to what extent the following statements apply to you. Neither Strongl Strongl Slightl Agree Slightly Moderatel Not Moderatel y y y nor Disagre y applicabl y Agree Disagre Agree Agree Disagre e Disagree e e eI listenedout ofinterestin thecharactersI listenedout ofinterestin thestoryI listenedout ofinterestin thestoryworl - 69 -
    • dI listenedbecause Iwantedtoexperience thestoryworld on myownI listenedbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thecharactersI listenedbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryI listenedbecause Iwantedto knowmoreabout thestoryworld - 70 -
    • 10) Did you ever visit the website of one of the fictional companies mentionedbelow from the television series Thuis?Hof Ter SmissenTaxi Ter SmissenSani-techniekPraktijk De Decker Yes No I dont watch "Thuis"11) On the website(s) I was the most interested in ... Neither Strongly Moderately Slightly Slightly Moderately Agree nor Agree Agree Agree Disagree Disagree DisagreeInformationabout thecharactersInformationabout thetelevision series(ex. broadcastinghours, actors)Informationabout thestorylinesInformationabout thestoryworld ofThuis Informationabout thefictionalcompanyThe guestbookThe links - 71 -
    • 12) If you have not visited the website of "de Noorderzon" yet, you can click thisurl (http://www.noorderzon.be).MEANWHILE, DO NOT CLOSE THIS SURVEY PLEASE!What do you feel is the most attractive on this website? Neither Strongly Moderately Slightly Agree Slightly Moderately Strongly Agree Agree Agree nor Disagree Disagree Disagree DisagreeInformationabout thecharactersInformationabout thetelevisionseries (ex.broadcasthours,actors)Informationabout thestorylinesInformationabout thestoryworldof Thuis Informationabout thefictionalcompanyTheguestbookThe links - 72 -
    • 13) If you have not visited the blog of "Ellie" yet, you can click thisurl (http://blog.ellievranken.be)MEANWHILE, DO NOT CLOSE THIS SURVEY PLEASE!What do you feel is the most attractive on this website? Neither Strongly Moderately Slightly Agree Slightly Moderately Strongly Agree Agree Agree nor Disagree Disagree Disagree DisagreeInformationabout thecharactersInformationabout thetelevisionseries (ex.broadcasthours,actors)Informationabout thestorylinesInformationabout thestoryworldof Thuis Informationabout thefictionalcompanyInformationabouttravellingTheguestbookThe links tothe otherwebsites - 73 -
    • 14) In the statements mentioned below you have to fill in these sentences whereyou see "...":- Reading a book / comic book related to a fiction series- Visiting a website of a company from a fictional character or series- Listening to a radio broadcast based on fictional characters from a series- Visiting an event related to a fiction seriesThese expressions relate to your situation after ... of a certain television series: Neither Strongl Slightl Agree Slightly Strongl Moderatel Moderatel y y nor Disagre y Agree y Agree y Disagree Disagre Agree Disagre e e eAfter ... Ibuy/boughtother productsof this TV-seriesAfter ... thisTV-seriesbecome/became even more afavouriteAfter ... Iwatch thetelevisionseries morefrequentAfter ... I ammoremotivated towatch theseries, even ifthere are othergoodalternatives onTVAfter ... I likethe televisionseries evenmoreAfter ... I - 74 -
    • encourageother people towatch theseries moreAfter ... I turnon the TVmore to watchespecially thistelevisionseriesAfter ... I willrecord theseries evenmoreAfter ... Ichange TV-channel evenmore certainlyto watch theprogram evenif I waswatchinganotherprogram onanotherchannelAfter ... Iwatch the TV-series moreAfter ... I willrecord the TV-series more,while I amwatchinganotherprogramme - 75 -
    • 15) What is your year of birth?16) What is your gender? M F17) Which province do you live in? Antwerpen Limburg Oost-Vlaanderen Vlaams-Brabant West-Vlaanderen Waals-Brabant Henegouwen Luik Luxemburg Namen18) What is your household composition like? Single with no children Single with children Cohabiting/married with no children Cohabiting/married with children Living with (grand)parents/family Other - 76 -
    • 19) What is your highest educational level? Without diploma and primary school Lower secondary education Higher secondary education Higher non-university diploma (Bachelor) Higher non-university diploma (Master) University diploma PhD20) What is your current employment status? Labourer Employee Retired Independent Incapacitation Unemployed Student Housewife/man Other21) If you have other questions or comments you can post them here: - 77 -