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G325 – Critical Perspectives in Media Section A , Question B – Theoretical Evaluation of Production
Section A: Theoretical Evaluation of Production The second part to Question 1 of the exam: Question 1(b) Evaluate your coursework in relation to a media concept. In the exam 1 of the following areas will be selected for you to write about: Genre Narrative Representation Audience Media language
How to approach 1b. You need to understand all 5 concepts, including relevant theories. In pairs brainstorm what each of the 5 concepts mean. Your task is to produce a detailed evaluation of your coursework using all 5 concepts. The documents you produce will be vital revision aids for the exam next summer. You must use a variety of ICT/digital technology skills when creating your revision documents.
ICT/Digital Technology As a media student, it is expected that you are up to date with technology. Therefore you should aim to use as many ways as possible in which to create and display your work: Slideshare Prezi http://prezi.com/ Visio Flickr Tubechop Scribd Jing http://www.jingproject.com/?gclid=CN_R9K_WlaICFY-X2AodnGedEA Film and upload to YouTube Voice record / Xtranormal http://www.xtranormal.com/ Post it note film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EUUh9KROqf4
Genre Genres are categories or types of media text. Genres are recognisable through the repeated use of generic codes and conventions: Iconographies Narrative Representations Ideologies Which of the above codes/conventions does your c/w use and how?
Genre theories How would any of the following genre theorists apply to your c/w? Steve Neale (1980) - all genres are instances of repetition and difference Douglas Pye - films have to conform to audience expectations about narrative Tom Ryall – conventions = Narrative, Themes, Characters/stereotypes, Iconography
Genre and Audience Genre offers audiences a structure or framework Audiences gain enjoyment from “spotting the conventions” (repetition) and making comparisons with other films of the same genre If a text deviates from the conventions it can confuse us, but at the same time we enjoy seeing the rules broken Audiences like the anticipation of waiting for the predictable features How did you use genre to offer your audience a framework? Do you think your target audience enjoyed spotting the conventions or seeing the rules broken?
Narrative theories You should aim to apply the narrative theorists which can be applied to your c/w: Propp – 8 character roles Todorov – equilibrium – disequilibrium – new equilibrium Barthes – 5 codes (action, enigma, cultural, symbolic, semic) Levi-Strauss – binary opposites
Narrative All media texts tell stories. The structure of these stories is called the narrative. A story must have verisimilitude (appear to be real) in order to engage us – how does your c/w have verisimilitude? It might seem more obvious to apply narrative theory to a film (see next 2 slides), but if you created a magazine you need to consider the following: How is your magazine structured? How does the front cover lead the reader into the magazine? How does the contents page lead the reader into the rest of the magazine? Consider enigma codes (Barthes) used in all 3 aspects of your c/w. Analyse your dps in relation to Todorov’s theory.
Opening sequences and narrative • To introduce character (Propp) • Establish narrative structure (Todorov) • Captivate audience/interest • Establish core themes (Levi Strauss) • Introduce core iconography • Establishes audience expectation through use of generic conventions • Establish sense of enigma (Barthes)
Narrative conventions of opening sequences • Predominance of action codes (Barthes) • Significance of soundtrack – establishing mood • Use of titles as credits/ event signifiers • Pace
Representation Everything in the media is a representation - everything we see is being represented e.g. regions/locations, individuals, groups, places, nations, ideas Questions we would ask when analysing representations: WHO or WHAT is being represented? HOW is the representation created? WHO has created the representation? WHY is the representation created in that way? What is the intention? WHAT is the effect of the representation? Consider the representations in your c/w and answer the above questions in detail.
Representation To maintain a representation of reality, media language elements such as lighting, music, editing, camera work and mise en scene are used. How did you use these micro aspects to create representations? Sometimes, representations are seen to be a deliberate attempt to create associations and ideas for the audience – did you represent any characters in a certain way so as to remind your audience or someone/something else?
Representation theories You might not have studied many representation theories at AS Level, but consider how the following can be applied to your c/w: Laura Mulvey (the gaze) Marjorie Ferguson (facial expressions) Trevor Millum (facial expressions)
Audience Consider: age, gender, demographic profile, socio-economic group, existing/new, lifestyle, values, attitude Categories A, B, C1, C2, D, E Is your audience mass or niche? What would the three reactions to your c/w be: A preferred reading (your intended interpretation) An oppositional reading (someone who didn’t like it) A negotiated reading (someone who isn’t the target audience but might appreciate it for whatever reason)
Audience Every media text is made with a view to pleasing an audience in some way – how did you try to please your audience? Success is measured by the audience’s response to a media text and those that do not attract and maintain an audience do not survive. At the heart of this is the fact that all media texts are created in order to make money.
Media Language You will need to write about: Denotations Connotations Anchorage And…
Media Language You made lots of decisions regarding the following micro aspects: Camera Editing Lighting Sound Mise-en- Scene Special Effects: visual, sound and lighting Choose 1 page or scene from your c/w and analyse the above aspects in as much detail as possible. Analyse the effectiveness of each area as if you were analysing the unseen exam.
Deadline You have until the new timetable commences (w/b 5th July) – 3 weeks – to complete this task. Save all of the documents in your area ready to upload onto your new A2 blog with your new A2 teacher.