The biggest self-discovery I had, was when I realized how little I really know! I am so inspired by life’s experiences. I LOVE TO LEARN!
I look forward to hearing from you. I’d also like your feedback!
Au psy492 e_portfolio template for slideshare (1)
Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Frances CarpenterBachelor of Arts in Psychology, 2011 1
Personal Statement PERSONAL STATEMENTMy name is Frances Lucy Carpenter.Frances Lucy means “free light,” and Ifeel I epitomize this definition. I havedealt with many adversities in my life,but am proud to say that I am gratefulfor the “bad times” as they have mademe the courageous, strong person that Iam today.
Personal StatementI have worked in many areas, includingsales, clerical, and Behavioral Health.Most of my experience comes fromworking with the adult population whosuffer from serious mental illness. Thishas been interesting, challenging, andfulfilling. It fulfills my desire to helppeople.
Personal StatementMy interests are many, and varied. Ilove to sing and play my baroqueinstrument, the recorder. I like to ridehorses, cook, read, and cross-stitch.
Personal StatementMy passion is to help people, as I saidpreviously. In being true to myself, I amin the process of starting a nonprofitorganization. This organization isdesigned to provide low cost BehavioralHealth services to people whootherwise would not be able to affordthem. I am very active in pursuing thisgoal, and intend to open my facility inlate 2012.
Personal StatementThe biggest challenge I face with this, isgetting funding from the community! Inpreparation for this endeavor, I amtaking courses and working in anonprofit agency for the task of learninghow to run a business – something I‟venever done before.
Personal StatementI would love to work as a ProjectManager, to prepare me further for thisposition I have created for myself. Igive all of me to a project. I do not allowdistractions from home or school toaffect me when I am at work, just aswhen I am at home or school, I amtotally focused on what I am doingthere.
Personal StatementI intend to start my Master‟s inIndustrial/Organizational Psychology inJanuary, after completing my Bachelor‟sin Psychology in Psychology. I amexcited about the challenges before me;I relish the idea of growing in bothknowledge and experience. At thesame time, I feel comfortable about thedecisions I have made, as they reflectmy passion to help the mentally ill in mycommunity.
Personal StatementIn the next six months, to prepare mefor opening the nonprofit organization,which is called Visionary RecoveryServices, I will shadow Chief ExecutiveOfficers in other behavioral healthcompanies in the area. I have foundmost of the professionals in the field tobe very accommodating and excited bymy desired projects.
Personal StatementI am passionate and committed. Mystrengths include being hard-working,honest, and dependable. I spend muchtime in self-reflection. This helps mestay on track with my goals. I have atremendous amount of compassion forpeople who are not as well of as I amwhich leads me sometimes, to care toomuch for individuals. I also have atendency to be hard on myself.
Personal StatementI am actively working to minimize myweaknesses and emphasize mystrengths. I love receiving feedback, asI feel this is how one grows. I do nothave a problem admitting that I amwrong, or that I have made a mistake. Iam quick to ask for forgiveness andslow to anger.
Resume EDUCATION: 2009-2011. Argosy University. Phoenix, AZ. Bachelor of Arts in Psychology1988-2008 Glendale Community College. Glendale, AZ. Associate of General Studies. SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENTS: AGS with High Distinction, BA „cum laude‟
ResumeOTHER TRAININGS Including; Peer Employment, Mediation, ConsumerEmpowerment, Mind over Mood, CivicLeadership, Cultural Competency, Find Your Inner Leader, and Enterpreneurship.
Resume EMPLOYMENT:2010 – Present Partners In Recovery. Peoria, AZ. Chairperson for Community Advisory Council.
Resume 2006-2011 Recovery Innovations of Arizona. Phoenix, AZ.Peer Support Crisis SpecialistDuties Included: Monitoring up to Eight People, Updating and Maintaining Progress Notes, Coordinating with Case Managers, Doctors, Nurses, and Counselors, Training New Employees, Creating & Conducting “Lunch & Learn” Sessions for Staff, Coaching coworkers.
Resume2001-2003 META Services. Phoenix, AZ.Peer Support SpecialistDuties Included:Envisioning, Creating, & Leading Wellness and Empowerment in Life and Living (WELL) and Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) classes, Reviewing & Changing Curriculum, Organizing Outside Activities.
Resume OTHER EXPERIENCE: Sales, Inventory, Ordering, Clerical, Assistant Librarian, Teacher‟s Aide, Eight years as a Group Facilitator. Keynote Speaker in San Diego. Starting nonprofit organization.ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Number 1 in Sales, Dating, & Recruiting,
ResumePROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: The American Psychological Assoc., Student Affiliate, National Assoc. for Professional Women.HOBBIES: Reading, researching, cross- stitching, horse riding, playing instruments, and teaching.
Resume REFERENCES:Michelle Bloss, MEd (602)650-1212 Recovery Services Administrator firstname.lastname@example.orgGene Johnson, MA (602)650-1212 CEO email@example.comNorm Sartor, (623)583-0232 Site Administrator firstname.lastname@example.org
ReflectionDuring my time at Argosy, Phoenix, Ihave learned much about expression ofideas. describing research andchallenging previous ideas. I havediscovered the value of accuratelyreporting information. The studies intopsychology have broadened myexperiences. I have learned theimportance of maintaining an openmind, and being nonjudgmental.
Table of ContentsCognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information LiteracyResearch SkillsCommunication Skills: Oral and WrittenEthics and Diversity AwarenessFoundations of PsychologyApplied PsychologyInterpersonal Effectiveness
Cognitive AbilitiesCognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Legalization of Active Euthanasia in Arizona “The term Euthanasia is taken from the Greek language. “Eu” means “good” and “thantos” means “death;” euthanasia means “good death” (Rebman, 2002). There are four types of euthanasia; active, passive, involuntary, and nonvoluntary. Active euthanasia , also called Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) should be legalized in Arizona. Following in the footsteps of Oregon, Linda Lopez, a Democratic Senator in Phoenix, has proposed six bills to legalize PAS since 2003 (Tucson Citizen, 2011). Before continuing, definitions of the terms being used here will be given. Euthanasia is a blanket term that covers four separate distinctions. One uses the word most often when talking of mercy killing or when putting a pet to sleep. The definition given for the blanket term is this; “the act or practice of killing or bringing about the death of a person who suffers from an incurable disease or condition, especially a painful one, for reasons of mercy. Euthanasia is sometimes regarded by the law as second-degree murder, manslaughter, or criminally negligent homicide” (Ferguson, 2007. p. 20). The four forms of euthanasia, as previously stated are passive, involuntary, nonvoluntary, and active.
Cognitive Abilities Passive euthanasia is legal. It is “the act of allowing a terminally ill patientto die, by either withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining support, such as arespirator or feeding tube” (Ferguson, 2007. p. 20). One usually connectspassive euthanasia with Do Not Resuscitate orders or “pulling the plug.”Involuntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia are similar in that they both occur witha non-consenting patient, but in the case of nonvoluntary euthanasia, the patientis also incompetent (Ferguson, 2007). “Active euthanasia is performed by afacilitator (usually a physician) who not only provides the means of death butalso carries out the final death-causing act (Ferguson, 2007. p. 20).” In thispaper, active euthanasia, in specific, Physician Assisted Suicide will beproposed as being viable in our society. Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS)requires that the physician is not present and does not perform the act(Ferguson, 2007). It is called “physician assisted” because the physician isresponsible for making the decision to prescribe life-ending medications.Certain safeguards are necessary to prevent unnecessary “killing” of innocent orincompetent people.
Cognitive Abilities The Death with Dignity Act in Oregon outlines the circumstances in whicheuthanasia can be legally used. This allows people in their last days of life todecide to end their suffering, without risking the prosecution of the doctors orpharmacists involved in providing the medications necessary. Without this act,people who are suffering are forced to continue living undignified, hopelesslives, which lead many to violently kill themselves without the prior knowledge offriends and family. This action can be devastating to those left behind,memories of the person are not as they lived, but in the horrible ways that theydie. The arguments made by opponents to this practice, will be analyzed andreasons why it should be legalized in Arizona with similar limits as in Oregon willbe explored. The Death with Dignity Act was passed in Oregon in 1997. Itstates;
Cognitive AbilitiesThe patient must be an Oregon resident, at least eighteen years old.The patient must be diagnosed with a terminal illness that will lead to death within six monthsThe patient must make two oral requests, at least fifteen days apart.The patient must give the physician a signed, written request that has been witnessed by two people, only one of whom can be a relative.A second physician must confirm the diagnosis and prognosis.Both physicians must find the patient competent and acting voluntarily.The physician must inform the patient of alternatives, including care comfort, pain control, and hospice care.If the patient is found to be mentally or emotionally disturbed, the physician must refer them for a psychological assessment.The physician must request that next-of-kin be notified.The physician must notify the patient of the ability to change their mind at any time during the process. (Rebman, 2002).This is the model that should be used in legalizing active euthanasia in Arizona.
Critics say that euthanasia should not be legalized because it “willbecome nonvoluntary” (Euthanasia.com, 2011). This argument contains manyerrors in reasoning, namely; an unwarranted assumption, an either/or outlook,overgeneralization, and an irrational appeal to emotions. An unwarrantedassumption is where one “take[s] too much for granted” (Ruggiero, 2008. p. 99).In this case, the arguer is saying that once PAS becomes legal, it will be abusedand innocent people will be “killed.” An either/or outlook is present because thearguer does not consider the compromise of legalizing euthanasia withrestrictions (Ruggiero, 2008). The arguer also overgeneralizes, by suggestingthat all Doctors are corrupt and would abuse their power to inflict death on theinnocent (Ruggiero, 2008). Finally, the arguer “uses feelings as a substitute forthought” (Ruggiero, 2008. p. 125). Instead of providing proof of abuse, thisarguer “pulls at the heartstrings” of individuals by suggesting that innocentpeople will definitely be hurt, instead of acknowledging the guidelinesproponents have agreed to (Compassion and Choices, 2011).
Cognitive Abilities Following along with this concept of abusing power, some are concernedabout “state-sponsored euthanasia involuntarily applied to the disabled orotherwise devalued members of our society” (Friedman, 2007. p. 57). There isno support for this fear since the legalization of PAS in Oregon. “According toOregon officials, between 1997, when the law permitting physician assistedsuicide took effect, and the end of 2004, 208 patients had used the act to endtheir lives” (Friedman, 2007. p. 19). There have also been no legal reports orclaims of coercion to commit suicide or of abuse of this Act to the Board ofMedical Examiners in Oregon (Friedman, 2007). “Rigorous safeguards…canprevent nonvoluntary euthanasia by ensuring that euthanasia occurs only at therequest of the suffering individual” (Balkin, 2005. p. 148). Opponents would also argue that a Doctor should not allow disturbedpatients to participate in PAS. They are right. They worry that physicians willnot recognize “disturbed patients.” “It is not difficult to determine when someonemay be depressed, and the Oregon law and others like it, require anassessment for depression whenever it is suspected. When adequatesafeguards are in place, it is very unlikely that suicidal intentions will beoverlooked.” (Friedman, 2007. p. 55).
Cognitive Abilities In this writer‟s opinion, it might even be said that more depressed peoplewill be identified, assessed, and treated, than if the law was not in effect.Moreover, if a person is denied the choice and availability of PAS, they maybecome desperate and resort to violent means to kill themselves (Friedman,2007). If we are willing to accept that elderly people are competent when theyprepare their Last Will and Testament, we must also accept that people are ableto make their own decisions and choices (Balkin, 2005). “The patient‟sjudgment of whether continued life is a benefit…must carry the greatest weightprovided always that the patient is competent” (Balkin, 2005. p. 20). This writeragrees with Friedman (2007) when she says that “individuals are…the bestjudges and guardians of their own interests” (p. 16). Another opinion that causes controversy around PAS is that “Dignity isfound in the strength to live, not the wish to die” (Freidman, 2007. p.44). Theterm “dignity” is defined by Merriam-Webster as, “the quality or state of beingworthy, honored, or esteemed “ (2011). It also has “quality” as a synonym(Merriam-Webster, 2011). Therefore, dignity is a value, and each person holdsvarious values differently. Some argue that “true dignity and autonomy areachieved when one lives one‟s life to its fullest rather than weakly opting forsuicide” (Friedman, 2007. p. 39). It is argued that if one possesses resilience,one can overcome the pain and suffering of some terminal illnesses. However,some people see resilience in a different light.
Cognitive AbilitiesThey do not believe they are weak or lacking in resilience, they believe that thedecision they are making shows that they want to maintain their beliefs andvalues about their lives. One alternative offered by opponents to PAS is hospice care. Hospicecare began as an alternative to hospitals, and resembled nursing homes. Theirgoal was to make the end of life as comfortable as possible. Nowadays, manypeople utilize hospice programs and stay in their own homes. Painmanagement is provided, but no life-lengthening procedures are done.Problems, however, exist with hospice care. In many cases, Medicare andPrivate Insurance do not cover the costs involved, medical staff in hospitals failto recognize suitable candidates for hospice, hospices struggle because of “turfand funding issues” (Kiernan, 2006), and Medicare‟s eligibility requirementsmake it difficult for Doctors to consider making hospice an option Kiernan,2006). The good news is that care for the dying has improved in Oregon, sincepassing the Death with Dignity Act (Balkin, 2005). It appears that more peopleare becoming cognizant of the problems facing terminally ill people. However,waiting to die is not the choice for everybody.
Cognitive Abilities Many terminally ill patients end up in nursing homes. Researchers at theUniversity of California in San Francisco did a study of the quality of care innursing homes, with a national overview. Their results were disturbing. Theyfound that residents were strapped down, hungry, dirty, at risk for illness andfalls, humiliated, and in 30.5 percent of facilities in California, these peopleactually got sicker. ( Kiernan, 2006) Is this dignified? “Options such as terminal sedation or voluntarily stopping eating anddrinking may not appeal to people who wish to have a dignified departure with afinite end that allows them to achieve closure in their lives” (Friedman, 2007. p.57). It can take up to fourteen days to die without nutrition, and it is a verypainful way to end life (Humphry, 1991). Sedation and many pain managementpolicies are either not enough to ease suffering, or the medication used killspeople anyway (Treinen, personal communication, 2011). Friedman (2007)states that some people wish to preserve their meaning in life and identity, bychoosing their time to die. Freidman (2007) also says that when a pet issuffering, it is put down, and that even murderers on Death Row get a dignifieddeath (Friedman, 2007). “Why must humans suffer when there is no hope ofrecovery?” (Friedman, 2007).
Cognitive Abilities This next illustration describes, not only the undignified way in which thisterminally ill cancer patient died, but also of the horrible memory his daughterhas to live with. “I found him in his room with his head mostly blown off andblood and brain matter scattered all over his room and the hall to the bathroom”(Friedman, 2007. p.37). With the Death with Dignity Act, next-of-kin are notified,the person can say goodbye and settle differences. With suicide the people leftbehind often feel guilt about not being able to do anything to help. Because somany suicides are violent, the person is remembered “damaged” somehow. Inthe example given, this daughter does not have the freedom to remember herfather fondly instead she is left with a horrendous scene in her mind. In an article published by the Tucson Citizen in 2009, Rose Epstein of SunCity West, Arizona, claimed, “We have compassion on our dogs, but we don‟tallow people, who are more than dogs, to make such an important decision forthemselves.” Compassion and Choices, formerly known as the HemlockSociety, has a dream that people can be free to live and die with dignity, in themanner that goes along with their values (Lee, 2011). They argue that “toomany people suffer needlessly, too many people endure unrelenting pain, andtoo many people turn to violent means at the end of life (Compassion andChoices, 2011).” Kathryn Tucker, the Legislative Director of Compassion andChoices states that Compassion and Choices is leading the legal campaign tohelp families and individuals seek recourse at the end of life (Compassion andChoices, 2011).
Cognitive AbilitiesOne woman summed it up thus, “What mattered most was knowing [my mother] could die.She was calling the shots again; her death would be like her life” (Balkin, 2005. p.30). Who has the right to end life? One family “valued him and did not want him to killhimself “(Friedman, 2007. p. 29). Did he value his end days of suffering? Whose wisheswere carried out by preventing him from dying? “Anyone who values individual libertyshould agree…that person whose life it is, should be the one to decide if that life is worthcontinuing…”(Friedman, 2007. p. 18). Is it ethical for a Doctor to prescribe life-ending medications? “Do No Harm” is a partof the Hippocratic Oath that physicians swear by (Friedman, 2007). What does this mean,specifically, in this case? Does this mean, “under no circumstances, let someone die?” ordoes it mean accepting the fact that by not honoring someone‟s choices, autonomy, andunnecessary suffering, you are committing harm? (Friedman, 2007) “Doctors can showcompassion for patients…by helping make their last months as dignified and comfortable aspossible. In this way, Doctors fulfill their roles as healers by helping patients preserve themeaning of their lives” (Friedman, 2007. p. 54). As has been shown in this paper, PAS would end suffering (at the choice of thepatient) and doctors have a moral obligation to respect patients‟ choices. It has beenproven in Oregon that the PAS Act does not lead to abuse or excessive suicides. Thereforein the name of Liberty, people have the right to decide how and when they die when facedwith a terminal, and sometimes painful, illness. With the proper guidelines and follow-through of consequences on abusers, it is sensible to legalize Physician Assisted Suicide inArizona.
Cognitive Abilities ReferencesBalkin, K.F. (2005). Assisted suicide: Current controversies. Thomson Gale.Compassion and Choices. (2011). Retrieved from www.compassionandchoices.org.Euthanasia. (2011). Retrieved from www.euthanasia.com.Ferguson, J.L. (2007). The right to die. Chelsea House Publishers.Friedman, L.S. (2007). Writing the critical essay: Assisted suicide. Thomson Gale.Humphry, D. (1991). The final exit: The practicalities of self-deliverance and assisted suicide for the dying. The Hemlock Society.Kiernan, S.P. (2006). Last rights: Rescuing the end of life from the medical system. St. Martin‟s Press.Lee, B. (2011). Retrieved from www.compassionandchoices.org.Merriam-Webster. (2011). Retrieved from www.merriamwebster.com.Rebman, R.C. (2002) Euthanasia and the “right to die:” A pro/con issue. Enslow.Ruggiero, V. R. (2008) Beyond feelings: A guide to criticaltThinking. (8th ed.). McGraw Hill.
Research SkillsResearch SkillsAbstractThis literary review studies the research into maladaptive attachment styles, alsoknown as Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). There are ten studies delineatedhere show a diverse cross-section of research. The areas of study that wereexplored in order to answer the research question of whether there is a correlationbetween RAD and Psychopathy were; the effects of parental behavior on theirchildren, mental states and resulting Reactive Attachment Disorder, the possibility ofObsessive Compulsive Disorder in parents contributing to RAD, the attachmenteffects on prisoners of war, and whether RAD is a mediating factor in depression.Each study is explored and the limitations of the studies are given. Future researchopportunities have also been outlined.Keyword: Reactive Attachment Disorder, Attachment, Borderline Personality Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Disorder.
Research Skills The Relationship between Attachment Disorders and PsychopathyThere has been some research into the possibility of a correlation betweenpsychopathy and attachment styles since Bowlby (1969, 1793, & 1980)identified differences in behavior of children left at a hospital away from the careof their parents. Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall (1978) followed with theirstrange situation study and identified three different types of attachment; secure,avoidant-ambivalent, and anxious. Since then, some researchers haveidentified the disorganized type (a combination of avoidant-ambivalent andanxious) (Shorey, Snyder, 2006). This literature review looks at research overthe past ten years, to investigate the hypothesis that there is a correlationbetween childhood maladaptive attachment (or Reactive Attachment Disorder(RAD)) and psychopathy. RAD is defined by Becker-Weidman (2009) as “acomposite of internalizing and externalizing, and other types of undesirablebehavior that many interfere with the individual‟s adaptive functioning” (p.144).Further, the research question that will be explored is whether there is acorrelation between RAD and psychopathy.
Research Skills Before examining the research available, it is necessary to understand thevocabulary used. Psychopathy is defined as, “a personality disordercharacterized by a constellation of traits including interpersonal affectivefeatures and antisocial features” (Gao, Raine Chan, Venables, & Mednick,2010). RAD is more difficult to define, as there is no clear-cut construct for thisdisorder (Sheperis, et al. 2003). In adults two psychometric tests are used; theAdult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Experiences in Close RelationshipsScale (ECRS), that examine close relationships. This is not possible withchildren, which means that most of the data relies on parents‟ reports andobservations of behavior. One of the biggest challenges is that many of thebehaviors displayed by RAD children are mirrored in other disorders.
Research Skills In 2009. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II was used by Becker-Weidman (2009) to determine that foster and adopted children showed a loweraverage developmental age (4.4 years) than their average chronological age(9.9 years). They concluded that “disorganized attachment is associated with anumber of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms,depression, anxiety, and acting-out symptoms” (Becker-Weidman, 2009. p. 139-140) and an increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) intoadulthood (Becker-Weidman, 2009). Dissociative problems with the motherhave also been proven to be associated with disorganized attachment with theirinfants (Abrams, Rifkin, & Hesse, 2006). The authors (Abrams et al. 2006)explored frightened/frightening behavior on the part of the primary caregiver.They surmised that because an infant is frightened by this caregiver, they showsigns of its disorganized attachment, which is demonstrated by the infant‟s“approach and flee” responses toward caregivers (Abrams et al. 2009).
Research Skills Mothers with low reflective functioning (RF) also showed a correlationbetween insecure attachment and Axis I and II diagnoses (Bouchard et al.2008). RF is defined as the capacity to see and think about mental states inoneself and others (Bouchard et al. 2008). Borderline Personality Disorder(BPD), as classified by the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2010) has been seen in“maltreated individuals” (Bouchard et al. 2008). Obsessive Compulsivesymptoms have been correlated with avoidant and anxious attachment styles(Doron, Moulding, Kyrios, Nedeljkovik, & Mikulincer, 2009). This studysuggested that unrealistic beliefs may be caused by maladaptive styles (Doron,et al. 2009). It showed that “psychological functioning” (Doron et al. 2009)carries on through into adulthood (Doron et al., 2009). Psychopathy scores inadults are higher among those who experienced a lack of attachment (Gao, etal., 2010). The bonding experience is more important between the mother andinfant that between father and infant (Johnson, Lui, & Cohen, 2011), howeverthis study showed that paternal behavior was also important in healthy child-rearing and that “positive parents led to less maladaptive offspring” (Gao, et al.2010). The disorders that Johnson et al. (2011) showed were that behaviormodification in parents led to greater resiliency when the children reachedadulthood (Johnson et al. 2011).
Research Skills An adult attachment and affect regulation study explored and proved that anxiousand avoidant attachments are mediating factors in psychological difficulties (Wei, Vogel,Tsun-Yao, & Zakalik, 2005). The reason for the study about childhood maltreatment was tofind out specific maternal behaviors that lead to positive outcomes with their children (Wei,et al. 2005). It was discovered that at-risk mothers have lower self-confidence in their abilityto raise healthy children, leading to depression in the mother and consequently poorbonding with the infant or child (Wei, et al. 2005). The authors (Wei et al. 2005) also foundthat different forms of maltreatment had differing results. For example, sexual abuse ofmothers led to higher avoidant attachment than other abuse (Wei, et al. 2005). Wei &Heppner (2006) also explored the possibility of maladaptive attachment was a mediatingfactor for future psychopathy. They (Wei et al. 2006) studied students to explore whether“maladaptive perfectionism” was the cause of problematic attachment styles. Their studywas inconclusive as to whether the perfectionistic tendencies led to maladaptive attachmentor the other way round (Wei, et al. 2006). Lopez & Hsu (2002) studied the adult-parent attachment styles. They discoveredthat most of their sample population had secure styles with their mothers and fathers, butthat, largely, the strength of that attachment was different for each parent. Those identifiedas having insecure attachments also significantly showed problems in attachment with theirpeers. However, they also discovered that there was little difference between theparticipants who had attachment problems with one parent and not the other, and those whohad attachment problems with both parents (Lopea et al. 2002).
Research Skills Interestingly, a seventeen year longitudinal study (Mikulincer, Ein-Dor,Solomon, & Shaver, 2011) was done on prior prisoners of war. The controlgroup was composed of those soldiers who had not been captured. The resultsshowed that while PTSD increased linearly for the control group, attachmentdisorders and complex PTSD increased at a greater trajection in theexperimental group (Mikulincer, et al. 2011). This paper has reviewed current research in an attempt to answer theresearch question; whether there is a correlation between RAD andpsychopathy. Many problems exist with the research that has been done thusfar. Some of the studies had few participants (Becker-Weidman, 2009,Bouchard et al. 2008, Lopez et al. 2002 & Wei et al. (2006), or the participantswere chosen from those people already identified as being “at risk,” (Becker-Weidman, 2009, & Bouchard et al. 2009) which means it is difficult to generalizeto the entire population. Many of the studies were performed on students inpsychology classes and were mostly of Caucasian, middle-upper classes(Abrams et al. 2009, Bouchard et al. 2009, Doron et al. 2009, Lopez et al. 2002,Wei et al. 2005, & Wei et al. 2006). Another widespread challenge for all theresearchers was the fact that all the studies were from self-reported inventories.There needs to be an observational piece to future research. Gao et al. (2010)found that they could not distinguish genetics from attachment behavior by thecaregiver.
Research Skills The wording of Lopez et al.‟s study was such that certain people mayhave been dissuaded from participating. In both of Wei et al.‟s studies (2005, &2006) disorganized attachment was not addressed. Comprehensive research is needed in these areas. There have been nodefinitive studies into the causes and results of maladaptive attachment styles orRAD. Further research should concentrate on generalizing the results outlinedin this paper. It is also necessary to research into the disorders that are likely tobe caused by RAD, and which ones are not, as there is a risk that children willbe “pigeonholed,” by diagnosing all children who experience behavioralproblems with RAD (Sheperis et al. 2003).
Research Skills ReferencesAbrams, K.Y., Rifkin, A.,& Hesse, E. (2009). Examining the rule of parental predicting disorganized attachment within a brief observational procedure. Development and Psychopathology,18, 355-361.Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ. Erlbaum.Becker- Weidman, A. (2009). Effects of early maltreatment on development: A descriptive study using the Vineyard Adaptive Scales – II. Child Welfare League of America, 88(2) 637-161.Bouchard, M-A, Target, M., Lecours, S., Fonagy, P.,, Tremblay, L-M., Schachter, A., & Stein, H. (2008). Mentalization in adult attachment narratives: Reflective functioning, mental states, and affect elaboration compared. Psychoanalytic Psychology,25(1), 47-66.Bowlby, J., (1969). Attachment and Loss (1): Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Bowlby, J., (1973). Attachment and Loss (2): Separation. New York: Basic Books.Bowlby, J., (1980). Attachment and Loss (3): Loss, Sadness, and Depression. New York: Basic Books.
Research SkillsDoron, G., Moulding, R., Kyrios, M., Nedeljkovik, M., & Mikulincer, M. (2009). Adult Attachment insecurities are related to obsessive compulsive phenomena. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(8), 1022.Gao, Y., Raine, A., Chan, F., Venables, R.H., & Mednick, S.A. (2010). Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality. Psychological Medicine 40, 1007-1016.Johnson, J., Lui, L., & Cohen, P., (2011). Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,56(8). 447-455.Lopez, F., Hsu, P-C. (2002). Further validation of a measure of parent-adult attachment style. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34(4), 223-237 Mikulincer, M, Ein-Dor, T., Solomon, Z., Shaver, P., (2011). Trajectories of attachment insecurities over a 17-year period: A latent growth curve analysis of the impact of war captivity and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(9), 960-984Sheperis, C.J., Doggett, R.A., Hoda, N.E., Blanchard, T., Renfro-Michel, E.L., Holdeness, S.H., & Schlagheck, R. (2003). The development of an assessment protocol for reactive attachment disorder. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 291-310.
Research SkillsShorey, H..S., & Snyder, C.R. (2006). The role of adult attachment styles in psychopathology outcomes. Review of General Psychology, 10(1), 1-20.Wei, M., Vogel, D., Tsun-Yao, K.,& Zakalik, R., (2005). Adult attachment, affect regulation, negative mood, and interpersonal problems: The mediating roles of emotional reactivity and emotional cutoff. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 14-24.Wei, M., Heppner, P.P., Russell, D.W., & Young, S.K. (2006). Maladaptive perfectionism and ineffective coping as mediators between attachment and future depression: A prospective analysis. Journal of Counseling, 53(1), 67-79.
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills: Oral and Written Self-Actualization Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow had similar views about personality development, but they also had important differences. This paper will introduce both Rogers‟ and Maslow‟s theories of self-actualization, noticing their similarities and their differences. Two examples of their various approaches will also be given. Firstly, this writer is going to explore Rogers‟ and Maslow‟s similarities. They were both humanists, believing, “the will toward actualization is an innate and natural process” (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 177) and that a therapist, “facilitate[s] movement toward higher levels of experience and control and abandoning our driven and goal-directed ways” (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p 382). They both “focused on the positive” (Argosy, 2011) and believed in “peak experiences” (Argosy, 2011). According to Jean Hardy (1987) those who reach self-actualization; may be more prone to a kind of cosmic sadness….over the stupidity of people, their self-defeat, their blindness, their cruelty to each other, their short- sightedness. Perhaps this comes from the contrast between what actualization is and the ideal world, transcenders [self-actualizers] can so see so easily and so vividly, and which is in principle so easily attainable (p. 31).
Communication Skills Both Rogers and Maslow believed this. They also said, about life, “theymaster it, lead it, use it for good purposes, as (healthy) politicians or practicalpeople do. That is, these people tend to be „doers‟ rather than mediators orcontemplators” (Hardy, 1987. p. 60). They are “in touch with the centre, “I” andallowing oneself to be in touch with the Higher Self” (Hardy, 1987. p. 60).Rogers‟ and Maslow‟s theories stated that individuals have a “built in motivationto fulfill potential” (Argosy, 2011) “as a means of survival” (Argosy, 2011). Theybelieved that “some events are experienced below the threshold of awarenessand are either ignored or denied” (Feist, & Feist, 2009. p. 316), ” and that theseare the “processes necessary to become a person” (Feist, & Feist, 2009. p.316).” According to Rogers and Maslow, an “individual must make contact withanother person” (Feist, & Feist, 2009. p. 317). In self-actualized people, “theessence of a person can be seen to be his or her whole being” (Hardy, 1987. p.175). Both Rogers and Maslow ”held that fundamentally people are good,though clearly that goodness can become highly distorted and lead to soberingevents we see in our lives daily” (Hardy, 1987. p. 175). They also believed in aphenomenological approach.
Communication Skills Rogers differed from Maslow, in that he believed in “intrinsic strife”(Argosy, 2011). He felt that “self-actualization [could be] blocked by feelings oflow self-worth” (Argosy, 2011). He believed that “clients react to thephenomenal field as they experience and prevent it. For instance, if they seethe world as distrustful, they will choose superficial interactions with people andthis will strengthen their beliefs” (Argosy, Counseling Theories, 2011). “Rogersviewed incongruence, or not being your true self, as the cause of anxiety,adjustment problems, and the need to seek to therapy” (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 148). He believed that, “significant positive change doesnot occur except in a relationship” (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 152). Maslow disagreed with Rogers‟ view of the path to self-actualization.While Rogers believed growth occurred only through personal relationships, asshown earlier, Maslow believed in a “hierarchy of needs” (Argosy, 2011) and iswell known for this hierarchy. He claimed that a person must develop in acertain order, or according to the fulfilling of certain needs. These needs, in theorder that they need to be fulfilled are, physiological, safety, love and belonging,and esteem needs. Only then can a person move into the final level of thehierarchy; self-actualization.
Communication Skills Physiological needs are those that we all need to survive, such as food,water and air. Safety needs cover not only the obvious need to be away fromdanger, but also the feelings of security about one‟s job, one‟s home, and one‟sfamily. Love and belonging needs are those that Rogers referred to; the need tohave meaningful, loving relationships. Esteem needs are those of not onlyvaluing yourself, but also of being valued by others. Self-actualization is thefinal step. However, “if people immerse themselves in the transpersonal domainbefore having a well-developed ego, psychopathology results” (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 380). When discussing the difference between people who work through all thestages of the hierarchy and do not achieve self-actualization, and those that do,Maslow said, “Self-actualized people are motivated by the „eternal verities‟”(Feist, Feist, 2009. p. 289). ”These are also known as „B-values‟” (Feist, & Feist,2009. p. 289) or ”metamotivation” (Feist, & Feist, 2009), and include such thingsas “truth, goodness, beauty, wholeness, uniqueness, perfection, completion,justice and order, simplicity, richness or totality, effortlessness, playfulness orhumor, and self-sufficiency or autonomy” (Feist, &Feist, 2009. p. 290). Theother reason Maslow theorized that people do not reach self-actualization is dueto what he called, “The Jonah Complex” (Feist, & Feist, 2009. p.299). He calledit this after Jonah, who in the Bible story “tried to escape from his fate” (Feist, &Feist, 2009. p. 299). This complex describes people who are afraid of achievingtheir destiny because of a “fear of being one‟s best” (Feist, & Feist, 2009).
Communication Skills Coming up with examples of these theories was difficult, but after muchthought, this writer decided to use her own experiences. Without wanting toseem boastful in any way, this writer truly believes she is self-actualized,because she has fulfilled her destiny, as she sees it. She always believed thather “calling” was to help other people. She has done so. She meets thecriterion set forth by both Rogers and Maslow. She has experienced much“intrinsic strife, ” as required by Rogers and also worked through the hierarchy ofneeds proposed by Maslow. The problem exists because she cannot separatethe two theories; they both hold validity in her eyes. In a Discussion Question inModule 3 of Counseling Theories about identifying self-actualized people, it wasthis writer‟s impression that none of the perceived self-actualized people hadachieved it without the intrinsic strife. It seemed to be a pre-requisite for theexperience of self-actualization.
Communication Skills Oprah Winfrey was chosen by a few people in the Discussion Questionjust mentioned, as being self-actualized. She herself went through a verydifficult upbringing, before settling each step in the hierarchy of needs. Whethereach person had to “build” on the previous need, or whether they “bouncedaround” until they achieved self-actualization is impossible for us to know. Forthis writer, it seemed to be a process of ”climbing” each level in order, thenfalling back to the beginning again, and again! One day she realized that shefelt different. She was calm, confident, peaceful, and she started receiving whatother people said about her, both past and present. She acknowledged that shehad been a great help to others, and would be missed. She felt she had fulfilledher destiny, and that if she were to die that day (and any day since), she wouldhave accomplished her life‟s dream. That is not to say that she will stop there,she will continue to always do her best, no matter what, until she does leave thisearth. She is also very aware that pride comes before a fall! What this writer istrying to express does not come from a feeling of pride, but of self-satisfaction. Both Rogers and Maslow attempted to explain why people grow andproposed that therapy was “to help people change, grow, develop, live moresatisfying and better lives” (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 143). In thispaper, this writer has shown how similar these two men were in their theories,but also how each approached the idea of self-actualization from differentavenues. In the examples given in this paper, this writer explores the theoriesmore closely and comes to the conclusion that each has its merits
Communication Skills ReferencesArgosy Online. (2011). Counseling theories: Module 3. Page 3. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com.Argosy Online. (2011). Personality theories. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com.Feist, J., & Feist, G.J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed.). McGraw HillHardy, J. (1987). A Psychology with a soul: Psychosynthesis in evolutionary context. Arkana.Seligman, L., & Reichenberg, L. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies, and skills. (3rd ed.). Pearson.
EthicsEthics and Diversity Awareness Ethics: LASA This scenario involves James, a counselor-in-training, with a narrow world viewpoint, and Lisa, a 21 year old abuse survivor, who has admitted to adding a prescription drug to her abuser‟s alcoholic drink that resulted in his death. There are a few ethical concerns within this situation, namely; competence, regarding James‟ lack of experience in the world and his treating a Latino woman; confidentiality, and whether it should be broken or not; and whether James is legally bound to report the crime that Lisa has confessed to. There are two types of ethics at play here, principle ethics, where the question, “Is this situation unethical?” is posed; and value ethics, where the counselor is required to act in the best interests of his client. It should also be noted that there are several reasons why we have ethical codes; the regulation of professionals in power roles, ensuring the welfare of the client, and the provision of guidelines for professionals when faced with ethical dilemmas, are three of the most prominent reasons.
Ethics As a counselor-in-training, James will have to seek supervision in thismatter. This step should be revisited with Lisa, reminding her of her agreementto confidentiality being breached when she participated in the informed consentpart of her treatment. With his limited experience, James may not have anyidea how to proceed and would need the help of a supervisor. There areseveral steps that James and his supervisor would follow in coming to a decisionabout what should be done, if anything, in this situation. The first of these wouldbe to define the problem. Here the major problem is whether Lisa should bereported to authorities for having committed such a serious crime. Such actionwould destroy her dream of becoming a lawyer. Having identified the problem,all possible issues need to be considered. Therefore James would have to havea discussion with his supervisor, as to whether he is able to handle a case thatgoes beyond his cultural experience and upbringing. The ethical codes,standard 4 of the APA Ethical Codes of Conduct, confidentiality and standard 2,competence should be referred to (APA, 2010).
Ethics As the problem here contains a legal issue, the ramifications of notsharing the information with authorities should also be considered. At the veryleast, Lisa needs to be informed that if called upon, James would be required toreveal Lisa‟s secret, in a court of law. Next James needs to consider all coursesof action including, breaking confidentiality and referring Lisa to someone morequalified. Having considered these courses of action, he would then have toevaluate all possible decisions relating to this case, and then decide what he isgoing to do. This final step has to include Lisa, finding a solution that would suither. The process of what is going to happen next needs to be explored withLisa, with further problem solving techniques discussed as the need arises. Two things James must keep in mind are nonmalfecience andbeneficence. His decisions in this case will have profound effects on Lisa, soany decisions made must have Lisa‟s best interests at heart. “Therapeuticineffectiveness” on James‟ part would occur when he is not legally able to treatLisa because of his own issues. These issues are not insurmountable, though.It is possible that with the right supervision, James can be effective in treatingLisa. If the supervisor is unsure as to whether to break confidentiality in theform of reporting the crime to the authorities, legal advice would also have to besought.
Ethics This case is complicated. It is this writer‟s opinion that breakingconfidentiality with anyone except the supervisor would be unethical, as thelegal requirements for doing so have not been met. There is no danger of harmto anyone else in the future, so there is no duty to warn. The crime alsohappened at a time in Lisa‟s life where she did not have the cognitivecapabilities to foresee what the consequences of her actions might be.Reporting the crime at this stage would do nothing but cause needless troublefor Lisa. She needs to be counseled to overcome her guilt and shame over theevent, and given the opportunity to forgive herself. Closure is necessary to thiscase, as if she were to become a lawyer, she might not be able to act ethicallywhen faced with someone else who killed their abuser. As far as competence is concerned, this writer feels that James will needfurther training in how to deal with Lisa‟s cultural background, perhaps thereason that her claims of abuse went unheard, and the seriousness of her crimethat James may not be able to understand, due to his sheltered background. Itis felt that with the proper training and supervision, there is no reason whyJames cannot continue treating Lisa.
Ethics As stated above, confidentiality does not need to be breached. It couldhave a very damaging effect on Lisa, and without a living witness to her abuse,she could be prosecuted for murder. Had the deed been reported at the time, itis unlikely that Lisa would have been sent to prison. She probably would havebeen removed from the home and given counseling. (Harris, personalcommunication, 2011). James is the only person who can decide, with guidancefrom his supervisor, whether he feels competent to continue treating Lisa. If hefeels uncomfortable enough that he is not competent, he should refer Lisa tosomeone with more experience.
Ethics ReferencesThe American Psychological Association (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org.
Foundations of PsychologyFoundations of Psychology Counseling In Action Abstract In this paper, this writer will demonstrate the parts of this course that have been particularly helpful. She will explain why she believes that an integrated approach is preferable for all therapists to follow, and gives two examples. Characteristics of a successful counselor will be examined, and then a discussion on how these characteristics can be developed or strengthened will follow. A detailed list of this writer‟s strengths and weaknesses as a counselor is given. Then, the advantages and disadvantages of having both a singular theory as one‟s focus and having an integrated approach will be explored. Lastly, this writer will choose three theories she would integrate and techniques she would use in therapy, then two techniques will be chosen and demonstrated.
Foundations of Psychology A deeper discussion about the deficits and benefits of an integratedtheory will be covered later in this paper. She chose an integrated theory for alltherapists to use, and will show why in the next two examples. This writer cameto this understanding more clearly after this course, when she realized she hadreceived several kinds of therapy, but had to change therapists often, in order tochange the focus of treatment. To start with, she underwent Psychoanalysis(Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 37-54), which worked for a while until shenoticed that she was still in denial about her present behaviors. Eventually, she“went through” a few therapists, before finding one who practiced CognitiveBehavioral Therapy (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 310-332). Sheattended a course called, “Mind Over Matter,” a course that would have madeno sense had she not experienced abreaction (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010.p. 50) and self-exploration. This still did not last. Her problems seemedinsurmountable. No matter how many times she was told it, she just did notbelieve that she was loveable, capable or worthwhile. It was not until she didsome Reality Therapy (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 338-353) that shewas able to “put the pieces together, let go of her baggage” and move on. Nowshe is confident that she can handle her challenges, and has resources to findanswers to any questions she may have.
Foundations of Psychology Another example is a client named Jane. She presented with severetrauma history, anger issues and had been diagnosed with BorderlinePersonality Disorder. She was, therefore, referred to Dialectical BehavioralTherapy (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 387). This caused her muchturmoil, because she had intellectualized her past, and spent the entire programarguing about semantics. She then went through Eye MovementDesensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p.311), but she still was not able to shake her depression, anxiety, anger andnightmares. At this time she is experiencing Psychoanalysis (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 41-48), in order to release her past memories, and finallyunderstand why she behaves the way she does. Throughout this course we have been bombarded with characteristicsdifferent theorists claim are irreplaceable in therapy. From our lessons (Argosy,2011), discussions (Argosy, 2011), and our readings (Seligman, & Reichenberg,2010), this writer has established the following characteristics, which she willmerely list here. They are; excellent communication and writing skills, good self-knowledge and boundaries, empathy, competence, mutuality, sensitivity,comforting, honesty, patience, calmness, hopefulness, trustworthiness, and notbe judgmental. They also need to possess the following abilities; to de-escalatevolatile situations and/or clients, to confront gently and tactfully, to identify withclients, and lastly, to acknowledge and recognize mistakes and limitations.
Foundations of Psychology A question often asked is whether these skills must be inherent in acounselor, or can they be learned. This writer believes that someone who isreally committed to helping others through psychology can do so, but they mustfirst address their own difficulties, perhaps through therapy. Too often, peopleenter the profession in order to fulfill an unresolved need, which means that theclient is not the primary focus of therapy, as it should be. There are alsotrainings a person can explore to maximize skills, such as assertivenesstraining, and learning and using relaxation techniques. Volunteer work can givean individual an impression of what working with mentally ill people is like, andjournal keeping is an excellent way to practice record keeping. These areespecially useful if the person uses this opportunity to delve into his or her ownpsyche. The best thing one can do to improve their skills, is to practice them.For example, building a strong therapeutic rapport is a vital skill that can bepracticed by establishing strong, healthy interpersonal relationships, usingunconditional positive regard and empathetic listening with people one chooses.
Foundations of Psychology As far as this writer is concerned she was able to identify severalcharacteristics she already has that will aid her greatly in her goal of becoming apsychologist. These are: empathy, unconditional positive regard (for mostpeople!), excellent communication and writing skills, reflective listening, self-motivation, her own experiences, professionalism, critical thinking, problemsolving, thinking “outside the box,” good time management skills, non-judgmental (on the outside, anyway!). She also has some useful abilities: todiscern people‟s problem areas, moods, to handle large groups and allow othersto participate, to give clear directions and explanations, and lastly, the ability toadmit where she is wrong, Obviously, there are areas this writer needs to work on. Her boundariesare not as strong as they need to be – she cares too much sometimes and hasdifficulty confronting others. She also has a tendency to take on too much anddoes not handle stress well. Without much experience, it is difficult to tellwhether she could motivate others as easily as she motivates herself and shetends to share too much about herself. One very important hindrance sherecognizes is that she is very gullible, but through constant trial and error, isgetting better at this failing.
Foundations of Psychology There are advantages and disadvantages to operating within theframework of one theory. One advantage is that the therapist will know thetheory well, and be comfortable using it., Therapy is simpler, as there are fewerchoices as to which techniques to use, and issues can be covered more deeplylooked at from only one angle. Patient screening is easier, as it will be clearerwhich clients are suited to that therapist‟s approach. The disadvantages are thatit is inflexible, and if a therapist is only looking at a client from one viewpoint,they might “miss” symptoms. The advantages of integrated theories are flexibility, the ability to choosetechniques that “fit” the client better, and there are more options of techniques tochoose from. The disadvantages include; confusing the client with too manydifferent approaches, risking confusing the therapist as to which approach touse, and lastly, the possibility of moving too quickly through challenges, andtherefore losing the client‟s attention, confidence, and trust.Assuming this writer is the therapist, she would integrate Psychoanalysis(Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 37-54), to explore repressed memories andfeelings and defense mechanisms, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 310-332), to target distorted cognitions, modify behavior,and strive toward self-actualization, and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy(Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p. 359-372), to address and solve currentchallenges, and train someone to handle their own recovery process.
Foundations of Psychology The techniques this writer would use, in no particular order, include;abreaction, identifying focal concerns, homework assignments, emphasizingstrengths and minimizing weaknesses, goal setting, promoting awareness andinsight, conflict resolution, problem solving, and skill development. The two techniques chosen to be demonstrated are promoting awarenessand insight, and goal setting. In promoting awareness, this writer would use alot of open-ended, thought provoking questions using the Socratic Method,including the Miracle Question (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010) suggested bySolution-Focused Brief Therapy, that asks, “If you were to experience a miracleand your issue did not exist when you woke up tomorrow morning, what wouldthat look like for you? What would your Significant Other notice? Describe thatto me.” This gets the client to think about an issue being resolved, and theawareness of the intricacies of the problem. Another insight this writer wouldstrive to clarify with the client, is the fact that the problem is not who they are; itis outside of them. She would also spend time describing the therapeuticprocess, its strengths and weaknesses, and what can be gained. Confrontingand teaching clients how to confront cognitive distortions, and thought stoppingare other ideas on how to promote awareness and insight. In order to achievethese, the client has to pay attention to his or her own thoughts and will gaininsight into why they do things the way they do. An important part of teachingawareness and insight is psychoeducation.
Foundations of Psychology Things like side effects of medications and the types of medicationsavailable, stages of change, different sorts of behavior and options to changethem, patterns of thought and behavior, and positive self-talk with affirmationscan be imparted to the client. Goal setting, at first, is a little more complicated and needs practice tounderstand that they need to be simple, clear, meaningful, measurable,achievable and realistic. Rather than saying, ”I want to be self-actualized,” arather lofty, vague, immeasurable goal, a client might say, “I want to spendthree nights a week with my husband and children without shouting at them orfighting with them.” This is a clear, simple goal, written in specifics that can bemeasured. It is meaningful to the client, and the aim is not to achieve it all atonce, but to break it down into smaller, workable steps. The first one might beto spend one hour with the family, and resist the temptation to shout or fight.Coping mechanisms to be able to “resist” would also be taught. Goals ”facilitatepeople‟s trust and their ability to be in the present moment (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 150).” Seligman & Reichenberg (2010) suggest usingeight steps in goal setting; (1) Describe the problem, (2) Set baselines, (3)Determine goals, (4) Develop strategies to facilitate change, (5) Implement plan,(6) Assess progress and change tactics if need be, (7) Reinforce changes andnew behaviors, and (8) Continue the process.
Foundations of Psychology “Success in reaching goals is reinforcing and encourages people to tacklemore challenging goals (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2010. p.301),” which is whyit is so important to make the first few steps toward a larger goal very simple andachievable to guarantee success. A goal of a therapist could be “helping peoplefind value, meaning and purpose in their [clients‟] lives (Seligman, &Reichenberg, 2010. p. 178). As this is an unspecific, vague goal, each therapistneeds to identify their own qualities, characteristics, and techniques that will helpthis process and what that statement “really” means to them. Once they haveidentified these, they can come up with a specific, measurable goal that will helpguide them as they treat clients. This paper has covered much material. First, integrated therapy waschosen as the preferred therapy for psychologists. Then characteristics of aneffective counselor and how these can be developed and strengthened werecovered. This writer‟s strengths and weaknesses with regards to becoming atherapist were examined. A discussion about the advantages anddisadvantages of first following a single theory, and then an integrated one,followed. Lastly, we looked at what this writer would choose as an integratedviewpoint, techniques she was comfortable with using, and then we looked athow she would demonstrate two of these techniques; promoting awareness andinsight, and goal setting.
Foundations of Psychology ReferencesArgosy Online (2011). Class Discussions. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com.Argosy Online (2011). Lectures Modules 1-8. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com.Seligman, L., & Reichenberg, L. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies, and skills. (3rd ed.). Pearson.
Applied PsychologyApplied Psychology Morale in the WorkplaceINFORMATION The problem is one of low morale and high turnover rate within the company. The company‟s name is Recovery Innovations of Arizona, also known as RIAZ. I work in the Mental Hospital, a crisis center. The average stay is 2-3 days. As Peer Support Crisis Specialist, I am expected to share my personal story and how I have overcome a myriad of struggles, so that clients can see that they do not always have to have all the answers. We encourage people to talk about their problems, and sometimes that can be triggering to workers, who all have psychiatric diagnoses as well. There is a 70% turnover rate between the two units. One, the secure unit, has Behavioral Health Technicians (BHTs) who deal with the more severely ill clients. The other is known as the Living Room, run 99% of the time by Peers. Occasionally due to lack of staff a BHT steps in to help. Right now I am concentrating on just the Living Room as this is where we are losing the most personnel. There are two peers per shift of 8 hours. The facility runs 24 hours a day. This is an open unit, whereas the secure unit is locked. To avoid labeling the clients, we call them guests.
Applied Psychology We do “buddy to buddy” sessions, where we communicate with one person at a time. We also run groups five times a day. We have patio breaks, where we provide one cigarette per person per break, every two hours. Burnout is a constant problem for the unit. My research will show how morale connects with quitting the job, and how by increasing a low morale (shown by complaints amongst peers) we should be able to improve the work environment for the better. This will include a survey passed out to all peers, and overseen by myself.ISOLATION I have isolated the problem to only include matters directly dealing with morale and the rate at which people quit. I will be trying some new techniques to overcome this problem. I will not be targeting the actual daily problems, rather the trend in which we find ourselves. Once I have completed the project the responses will be shared with the Management Team, to see if we can make a significant difference in the peers‟ lives.
Applied PsychologySOLUTION The solution that I have come up with to improve morale on the job is to offer an employee of the month opportunity along with a slight incentive of $50. It is a lot for the company to take from an already suffering budget crunch, but in the light of not losing as many employees, I feel that it is a cost they cannot afford to pass up. There will also be a parking space left just for the employee of the month, which will be useful in an area where parking is difficult.PREDICTION I predict that once workers are given the chance to have their voices heard, there will be an increase in bonding and mentoring, measured by the rate at which people reach burnout. I hope to show that the more attention is given to this challenge, the less burnout will be seen. I am also considering the Hawthorne effect, in that improvements will be made, just because attention is being given. I do realize that the situation is one of several challenges that the company faces, but cannot afford to fail. As I do more continuous research, I am hoping that I can alleviate the conversation between peers and managers.
Interpersonal EffectivenessInterpersonal Effectiveness Interview in the Living Room The interview takes place in the Living Room, an unlocked unit in an inpatient crisis center. As the interviewer, this writer will ascertain how the client is doing, what they hope to achieve during their stay, and make the client comfortable in the strange setting. The purpose of the interview is to orient the client to the Living Room. The goal of the interview is to ascertain the challenges the client is facing, what brought them to the Living Room, and what the staff can do to help. The setting is a private office with the client sitting on a couch, surrounded by stuffed toys and pillows. The interviewer is sitting in a chair at a right angle to the client. The office is softly lighted with light blue walls and dark blue carpet. The sequencing will be largely topical (Argosy, 2011). The interviewer is interested in helping the client with present problems, but she may need to use a time sequence to ascertain the basis of challenges (Argosy, 2011). The importance of the opening is to make the client feel as comfortable as possible under difficult circumstances (Stewart, Cash, 2008). As the interviewer, this writer would communicate optimism and comfort. She would then introduce the client to the topics that will be covered in the interview.
Interpersonal Effectiveness In the body of the interview, the following topics will be covered:Status of the client (i.e. what are they feeling/thinking?)Status of the client‟s familyConcerns the client hasAvailability of staffScheduleWhat is expected of the client.The questions this writer would ask are:How are you doing right now?Do you have any children/pets? Who is looking after them for you?Do you have support at home?Is this your first time in this kind of setting?What can we do to make your stay more comfortable?What do you hope to achieve while you are here?Do you have any questions or concerns?
Interpersonal Effectiveness The opening techniques that will build rapport with the client are; shakinghands, introducing herself, and asking how the client wants to be addressed.This interviewer would also communicate interest through verbals andnonverbals. This interviewer would follow her introduction with a statement ofher intent to be of help. Before closing, the interviewer will ensure that the client is comfortablewith the situation in the center and that all their questions and concerns havebeen addressed. The interviewer will then signal the end of the interview bysaying, “I‟ll show you your room now. If you think of anything else, please don‟thesitate to come to one of us.” The interview discussed here takes place in a crisis setting between apeer counselor and client. The counselor leads the interview and tries to makethe client as comfortable as possible in an uncertain environment.
Interpersonal Effectiveness ReferencesArgosy Online (2011). Retrieved from Module 4 at www.myeclassonline.com (10/2/2011).Stewart, C.J., Cash, W.B.Jr., (2008). Interviewing: Principles and Practices. (12th ed.). Boston. McGraw Hill
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