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This is the file we will present with/ the bolded & underlined are the words that will be filled in in an alternate 'notes' powerpoint. ...

This is the file we will present with/ the bolded & underlined are the words that will be filled in in an alternate 'notes' powerpoint.

Doing this at 3:23 AM_10/09/11, you guys are terrible partners.

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  • 1. Group G Amisha Chudasama Danial Qureshi Kevin Cole
  • 2. Box 5-1: Cross Sections
    • If tubes in the epithelial tissue are cut at a right angle, the slice looks like a ring
    • If cut at a slant, the slice looks like an oval
    • If the tissue is folded into complex shapes, the slice will look like a zigzag line of cells
  • 3. Box 5-2: Tissues & Fitness
    • Indicator of health is body composition .
    • It can be used to figure out the percentage of tissue & fat.
    • Fat is found using calipers (they measure the thickness of skin folds) or finding the buoyancy of the body (immersing the body into water).
    • The ideal fat percentage for men is 15% to 18% & for women is 20% to 22%
    • Stored energy in fat is measured in calories .
    • Low body fat % means low energy & high body fat can lead to life-threatening conditions.
  • 4. Box 5-2: Tissues & Fitness
  • 5. Box 5-2: Question 1
    • What sort of activities can you engage in to help you muscle tissue remain in homeostasis?
  • 6. Box 5-3: The Inflammatory Response
    • Inflammation, or Inflammatory Response is the complex process in which the Human cells and tissues react to certain injuries .
    • Can be described as a series of sequenced events that occur as a result to an inflammatory stimuli .
    • There are four Cardinal Signs of pain.
      • Rubor (Redness) - Caused by increased blood flow and blood pooling following injury.
      • Calor (heat) - Caused by increased blood flow in the area.
      • Tumor (swelling) - Edema and accumulation of Inflammatory exudate and clot formation in the affected tissue.
      • Dolar (pain) - caused by chemicals such as kinins and other chemical mediators that are released following cellular death.
  • 7. Box 5-3: The Inflammatory Response
    • Heat, physical pressure, caustic chemicals, toxins released by bacteria , or any noxious stimulus initiate an inflammatory response.
    • Immediately after an injury, the blood vessels around the injured area constrict.
    • Within seconds after the blood vessels constrict, they dilate allowing increased blood flow.
    • Injured tissues release chemicals like histamine, serotonin, and a compound chemical called kinins. The release of this chemical in the muscles results in the blood vessels vasodilating and an increase of vessel permeability. In the end, letting blood flow out of the body all together.
    • After injury, blood no longer flows through a continuous stream. White blood cells stick, or marginate to the walls near said injury. This process continues until the endothelial surface is covered by adherent white blood cells.
  • 8. Box 5-3: The Inflammatory Response
    • Minutes after the injury, the interstitial spaces are filled with white blood cells. They come around and engulf bacteria in a process known as phagocytosis .
    • White blood cells die and pool under where the injury is, thus forming puss .
    • Increased permeability of blood vessels.
    • Edema , or swelling, occurs because of these events.
    • Fibrin fills in where the injury is and stops blood flow and stops the spread of bacterial infections.
  • 9. Box 5-3: Question 2
    • Which 2 body systems interact with each other to start the Inflammatory Response? How?
  • 10. Box 5-4: Health Matters
    • Pleurisy- pleuritic chest pain
    • The pleura is the membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest.
    • Pleurisy is the inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest.
    • The pain is caused when the inflamed lungs rub against the walls of the chest cavity .
    • May cause a collapsed lung (called pneumothorax ).
  • 11. Box 5-4: Health Matters
    • Pleurisy may develop when you have lung inflammation due to infections such as;
      • Asbestos-related disease
      • Certain cancers
      • Chest trauma
      • Pneumonia
      • Pulmonary embolus
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Tuberculosis
      • Lupus
    • Treatment depends on the original disease .
  • 12. Box 5-4: Health Matters
  • 13. Box 5-5: Tissues and Membranes
    • Tissues and body membranes are the “ fabric of the body ”
    • Major Tissues help keep homeostasis .
    • Fluids assist in the movement of nutrients and hormones that keep the body healthy and functioning.
    • Muscle and connective tissues work together to form to perform movement .
  • 14. Box 5-5: Tissues and Membranes
    • Epithelial tissues help body systems work together.
    • Connective tissues keep organs in place while the skeletal system protects them.
    • Nervous tissues work with glandular body systems to send out hormones through the blood stream to other parts of the body.
  • 15. Box 5-5: Tissues and Membranes
  • 16. Case Study
    • Antonio Garza, age 64 years, is brought to the rural health clinic by his granddaughter. Mr. Garza has had non–insulin-dependent diabetes for the past 10 years. He is currently taking hypoglycemic medication, glyburide (Micronase), 5 mg twice a day, and following a diabetic diet to help control his disease process. Additionally, Mr. Garza is taking benazepril (Lotensin), 10 mg daily, for hypertension. Forty-eight hours ago, Mr. Garza sustained a burn on his right foot from burning trash. The area is blistered, swollen, hot, and tender to the touch. The area surrounding the burn has an increased redness. Vital signs reflect a low-grade fever of 100.4° F (38° C), with other vital signs and blood sugar level being within normal limits.
  • 17. Case Study: Question 1
    • Based on the structure and function of types of tissue, what type of injury do you suspect Mr. Garza has sustained?
        • a. Epithelial 
        • b. Connective 
        • c. Muscle tissue
        • d. Nervous tissue
        • (p. 150) Mr. Garza has sustained a burn; this is an injury to the epithelial tissue because this tissue covers and protects the body surface.
  • 18. Case Study: Question 2
    • Which one of the functions of this tissue type is most affected by this injury?
        • a. Secretion and absorption
        • b. Protection and sensory  
        • c. Protection and secretion
        • d. Digestion and absorption
        • (p. 150) Since the burn is of the skin on the foot, the sensory and protection functions are most important. Skin epithelial tissue protects against invading bacteria and from chemical and mechanical injury. Sensory functions include touch sensations.
  • 19. Case Study: Question 3
    • Which one of the following might you expect to be elevated in Mr. Garza's blood cell count?
        • a. Erythrocytes
        • b. Platelets 
        • c. Thrombocytes
        • d. Leukocytes 
        • (p. 167-168) Since an injury has occurred with a subsequent infection developing, white cells will move into this area and elevate the leukocytes in the blood.
  • 20. Case Study: Question 4
    • Because the basement membrane was not completely destroyed in Mr. Garza's injury, what type of tissue repair would you expect to occur?
        • a. Nonregeneration of scar tissue
        • b. Keloid formation
        • c. Replacement by fibrous connective tissue
        • d. Regeneration 
        • (p. 178) If the basement membrane is present, regeneration of epithelial tissue will occur.
  • 21. Case Study: Question 5
    • Immediately after Mr. Garza's injury, an inflammatory reaction occurred in response to the injury. Which of the following is the correct description of this expected response?
        • a. Constriction of blood vessels surrounding the injury, increase in red blood cell production, vasodilation, and resulting phagocytosis by red blood cells
        • b. Short-term immediate vasoconstriction, quickly followed by blood vessel dilation, and release of chemicals by injured tissues to cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
  • 22. Case Study: Question 5
    • Immediately after Mr. Garza's injury, an inflammatory reaction occurred in response to the injury. Which of the following is the correct description of this expected response?
        • c. Chemical release of histamine, serotonin, and kinins to assist in vasoconstriction and maintenance of intracellular fluids
        • d. Axial flow, or increased blood flow, through the small vessels toward the central two thirds of the lumen to maintain equal osmotic pressures 
  • 23. Case Study: Question 5
    • Immediately after Mr. Garza's injury, an inflammatory reaction occurred in response to the injury. Which of the following is the correct description of this expected response?
        • a. Constriction of blood vessels surrounding the injury, increase in red blood cell production, vasodilation, and resulting phagocytosis by red blood cells
        • b. Short-term immediate vasoconstriction, quickly followed by blood vessel dilation, and release of chemicals by injured tissues to cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
  • 24. Case Study: Question 5
        • b. Short-term immediate vasoconstriction, quickly followed by blood vessel dilation, and release of chemicals by injured tissues to cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
        • (p. 167) Immediately after an injury occurs, a brief constriction of surrounding blood vessels occurs, followed immediately by the blood vessels dilating. This is accompanied by injured tissues releasing chemicals such as histamine, serotonin, and kinins into the blood. These substances increase permeability of blood vessels so that normally retained elements in the blood leak out into surrounding tissues.
  • 25. CHAPTER 5 is OVER!