Peering Policies
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 2
-  The Internet
-  Interconnections: transit and peering
-  Internet Peering Ecosyst...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 3
-  Internet Exchange point selection criteria
-  Transit VS Peering
-  Definitions
-...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 4
The Internet: is a network of networks, interconnected in peering and
transit relati...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 5
Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides
(usually sel...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 6
Internet Peering: is the business relationship whereby companies
reciprocally provid...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 7
The Global Internet Peering Ecosystem: consists of a set of Internet Regions
that op...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 8
A Regional Tier 1 ISP (Transit Free) is an ISP that has access to the entire
Interne...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 9
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 10
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 11
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 12
A Tier 2 ISP is an ISP that has to purchase Transit to access some part of the
Inte...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 13
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 14
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 15
A Content Provider focuses on content development and does not Sell access to
the I...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 16
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 17
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 18
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 19
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 20
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 21
1)  Lower transit costs
2)  Lower latency
3)  Usage-based traffic billing
4)  Marke...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 22
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 23
-  Customer traffic need to traverse a couple of Transit Providers and accross
grea...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 24
-  Some ISPs charge customers based upon metered traffic
-  Packet loss and latency...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 25
-  Peering is a mutual agreement between peers, no entity is considered
superior
- ...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 26
-  We can see the Internet as an
interconnection of networks (or AS,
Autonomous Sys...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 27
-  Wide choice of WAN fiber optics
access carriers
-  High-performance switching (L...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 28
Public Peering is Internet Peering accross a shared peering fabric
Private Peering ...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 29
-  Aggregation benefit
-  Easy of administration
-  Public peering is used as a sel...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 30
What ?
Route Servers (RS) provide support for the establishment of
peering arrangem...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 31
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 32
Country # IXPs
Russia 14
Sweden 12
germany 11
france 10
U.K. 7
Norway 7
Italy 7
Net...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 33
Total IXP
participants
Unique
ASNs
Present at
> one IXP
Europe 5.264 3.103 902
Asia...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 34
Participant ANS # of IXP EUR IXPs
Google 15169 51 21
Akamai 20940 45 20
Limelight 2...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 35
AMS-IX (Amsterdam Internet Exchange)
- Number of members: 369
- Number of sites: 7
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 36
AMS-IX infrastructure
-  AMS-IX is a distributed exchange, currently present at mul...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 37
LINX (London Internet Exchange)
- Number of members: 365
- Number of sites: 10
- Nu...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 38
LINX infrastructure
-  The LINX Network consists of two separate high-performance E...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 39
DE-CIX (German Internet Exchange)
- Number of members: 360
- Number of sites: 13
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 40
De-CIX infrastructure
1)  Access Switches
2)  160 Gbps DWDM Systems & fiber protect...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 41
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 42
-  Neutral, member-based, not-for-profit IXP based in
Rome
-  Founded in 1995, esta...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 43
-  Up to 12Gbps of exchanged traffic in the
last year
-  Member of Euro-IX associat...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 44
Double star with high capacity switching fabrics in the middle, routers around.
Sta...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 45
  Public and private peering, transit VLANs:
-  Redundant high-end switching platf...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 46
  Housing and power supply for carrier
equipments:
-  Full or partial rack housing...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 47
1) Telecommunications access issues
-  How fast can circuits be brought into the
in...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 48
2) Deployment issues
-  How do I get my equipment into the exchange?
-  Do I ship e...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 49
3) ISP Current Presences issues
-  Number of participant ?
-  Number of interesting...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 50
4) Operations issues
-  Does the exchange allow private network interconnections?
-...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 51
5) Cost issues
-  What is the cost and value of this IXP ?
-  What are the rack fee...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 52
Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides
(usually se...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 53
Internet transit billing Internet peering billing
-  Transport of the traffic into ...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 54
- Internet Transit Price Declines
- Internet traffic volumes have always grown
When...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 55
ISP goals
-  ISPs seek peering primarily to reduce transit costs and improve
perfor...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 56
A Peering Inclination is a predisposition towards or against peering as
demonstrate...
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 57
Open: entity will generally agree to peer with anyone (no prerequisites)
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 58
Selective: entity will generally peer but there are some prerequisites
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 59
Restrictive: the entity is generally not open to new peering
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 60
Finally, the peering networks reaches the plateu of the "tier 1" network
Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 61
Thanks
Flavio Luciani
E-mail: flavio.luciani@namex.it
Web: www.namex.it
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Peering Policy

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Peering Policy

  1. 1. Peering Policies
  2. 2. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 2 -  The Internet -  Interconnections: transit and peering -  Internet Peering Ecosystem -  Ecosystem members -  The Internet view -  Why peer? -  Lower transit costs -  Lower latency -  Usage-based traffic billing -  Marketing benefits -  The benefit of peering -  Internet eXchange Point -  The role of an IXP -  Common IXP features -  Public and private peering -  European IXPs: Big IXPs, participants, traffic exchanged -  Nautilus Mediterranean eXchange point
  3. 3. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 3 -  Internet Exchange point selection criteria -  Transit VS Peering -  Definitions -  Cost of traffic in a transit relationship -  Cost of traffic in a peering relationship -  Peering policies
  4. 4. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 4 The Internet: is a network of networks, interconnected in peering and transit relationships referred to as a Global Internet Peering Ecosystem -  Ases are Identified by unique AS numbers -  Ases can host IP resources on their network (web, mail, news, services) -  Ases can have customers to whom they give connectivity -  Ases interconnect with each other establishing routing paths to resources
  5. 5. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 5 Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides (usually sells) access to all destinations in its routing table -  Isp sells access to Internet, so…. -  An Isp must itself get attached to an Isp already attached to the Internet
  6. 6. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 6 Internet Peering: is the business relationship whereby companies reciprocally provide access to each others’ customers Peering is a non-transitive relationship
  7. 7. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 7 The Global Internet Peering Ecosystem: consists of a set of Internet Regions that operate an Internet Peering
  8. 8. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 8 A Regional Tier 1 ISP (Transit Free) is an ISP that has access to the entire Internet Region Routing Table solely through Peering Relationship
  9. 9. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 9
  10. 10. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 10
  11. 11. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 11
  12. 12. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 12 A Tier 2 ISP is an ISP that has to purchase Transit to access some part of the Internet Region
  13. 13. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 13
  14. 14. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 14
  15. 15. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 15 A Content Provider focuses on content development and does not Sell access to the Internet
  16. 16. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 16
  17. 17. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 17
  18. 18. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 18
  19. 19. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 19
  20. 20. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 20
  21. 21. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 21 1)  Lower transit costs 2)  Lower latency 3)  Usage-based traffic billing 4)  Marketing benefits
  22. 22. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 22
  23. 23. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 23 -  Customer traffic need to traverse a couple of Transit Providers and accross great distances (high latency) before reaching other customer -  Through direct peering interconnections ISP customers realize better performance -  Keeping local traffic local -  Processing delay -  Queuing delay -  Transmission delay -  Propagation delay
  24. 24. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 24 -  Some ISPs charge customers based upon metered traffic -  Packet loss and latency slows traffic consumption -  It is in their best interest therefore to assure that customers use as much bandwidth as possible by minimizing loss and latency through effective traffic engineering Marketing benefits -  Some ISP pointed to the benefits of a network diagram rich in interconnections as a proxy for quality as seen by customer prospects Usage-based traffic billing
  25. 25. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 25 -  Peering is a mutual agreement between peers, no entity is considered superior -  Round trip times are dramatically reduced -  Local communications are improved -  Peering is often for free -  Overall Internet reliability and robustness is highly improved Direct peering introduces some benefits over a total hyerarchically tiered organization:
  26. 26. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 26 -  We can see the Internet as an interconnection of networks (or AS, Autonomous Systems) -  Every single ISP has its own set of networks (an AS) and “buys” access to the “Big Internet” from upstream providers (larger ISPs), in a sort of tree-hierarchy -  Without IXPs traffic between two ISPs (leaf nodes) would flow up and down through the hierarchy of upstream providers (slow and expensive) -  By connecting to an IXP, ISPs can exchange inter-traffic, via BGP peering sessions, at a lower cost and better performance -  IXPs have a crucial role in making the whole network infrastructure more fast and reliable
  27. 27. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 27 -  Wide choice of WAN fiber optics access carriers -  High-performance switching (Layer-2) devices -  Hosting space for ISPs network devices (mainly routers), structured cabling, reduntant power supplies -  Additional services: monitoring and alarms, traffic and bandwidth statistics, redundant access -  human peering: meetings and events to promote human relationships between network operators (both admins and techies) -  NO REDUNDANCY !!
  28. 28. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 28 Public Peering is Internet Peering accross a shared peering fabric Private Peering is Internet Peering accross transport with exactly two parties connected to it, usually a fiber cross connect or point to point circuit
  29. 29. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 29 -  Aggregation benefit -  Easy of administration -  Public peering is used as a selection criteria by customers -  Public peering may be the only cost effective way to peer accross multiple colos -  Private Peering Sessions are easy to monitor -  Private peering is very cost effective -  Private peering is more reliable and easy to debug -  Private peering sessions are more Secure Public Peering Private Peering Hybrid Approach: public + private peering
  30. 30. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 30 What ? Route Servers (RS) provide support for the establishment of peering arrangements between IXP peers: theoretically, a single peering session replaces a complex full mesh BGP interconnection How ? -  Each peer establishes a single BGP peering session with the RS, advertising its own prefixes -  RS performs per-peer RIB calculation, applying input/output filter to overall received prefixes -  RS announces each peer a set of prefixes resulting from the previous RIB calculation -  RS is not involved in packet forwarding !
  31. 31. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 31
  32. 32. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 32 Country # IXPs Russia 14 Sweden 12 germany 11 france 10 U.K. 7 Norway 7 Italy 7 Netherlands 7 Ukraine 5 Finland 4
  33. 33. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 33 Total IXP participants Unique ASNs Present at > one IXP Europe 5.264 3.103 902 Asia-Pac 1.112 643 213 N. America 2.045 840 306 S. America 313 186 49 Africa 201 113 3 Global 9.295 4.614 1.387
  34. 34. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 34 Participant ANS # of IXP EUR IXPs Google 15169 51 21 Akamai 20940 45 20 Limelight 22822 40 10 Hurricane 6939 36 14 Yahoo! 10310 28 5 Tata 6453 25 11 BroadbandONE 19151 25 3 Mzima 25937 24 2 E4A 34695 23 19 Easynet 4589 23 15 Verisign 26415 23 12
  35. 35. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 35 AMS-IX (Amsterdam Internet Exchange) - Number of members: 369 - Number of sites: 7
  36. 36. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 36 AMS-IX infrastructure -  AMS-IX is a distributed exchange, currently present at multiple independent co-location facilities in Amsterdam -  Each site is equipped with one or more access devices to enable connections to the AMS-IX infrastructure -  The current implementation of the AMS-IX peering platform uses an MPLS/VPLS infrastructure -  Members connect with either Gigabit Ethernet (GE), 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GE) or multiples of these on the access devices
  37. 37. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 37 LINX (London Internet Exchange) - Number of members: 365 - Number of sites: 10 - Number of networks exchanged: 265.288
  38. 38. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 38 LINX infrastructure -  The LINX Network consists of two separate high-performance Ethernet switching platforms installed across ten locations. -  Switches from different equipment vendors are deployed in two diverse networks to provide an extra level of fault-tolerance, the logic being that both systems shouldn't develop the same fault at the same time.
  39. 39. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 39 DE-CIX (German Internet Exchange) - Number of members: 360 - Number of sites: 13
  40. 40. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 40 De-CIX infrastructure 1)  Access Switches 2)  160 Gbps DWDM Systems & fiber protection devices 3)  Dark fiber backbone 4)  Backup dark fiber backbone 5)  Production and backup core switches
  41. 41. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 41
  42. 42. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 42 -  Neutral, member-based, not-for-profit IXP based in Rome -  Founded in 1995, established as a consortium in 2001 -  Counting 38 members -  Larrge National ISPs and carriers -  Local IDPs and content providers (Akamai) -  International carriers (TATA, Telefonica, Cogent, Interoute, GBLX, ...) -  Research network -  http://www.namex.it/en/who/members -  Two main service categories -  Peering and other IP services -  Carrier interconnection services (physical)
  43. 43. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 43 -  Up to 12Gbps of exchanged traffic in the last year -  Member of Euro-IX association -  R&D partnerships with Roma 3 University and CNR -  Hosting Italian Public Administration Qualied Exchange Network (QXN)
  44. 44. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 44 Double star with high capacity switching fabrics in the middle, routers around. Stars are physically and logically separated for redundancy and robustness. -  Primary LAN: Enterasys -  Secondary LAN: Cisco 6509-E -  Vendor differentiation to enhance robustness against bugs and specific attack -  Core business is mostly at Level 2 of ISO/OSI model
  45. 45. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 45   Public and private peering, transit VLANs: -  Redundant high-end switching platform -  Members peering on public VLANs via BGPv4 -  Private peerings and transit on dedicated VLANs -  IPv4/IPv6 support -  ~12 Gbps aggregated traffic -  Info: http://www.namex.it/en/services/publicpeering   Additional services: -  Global DNS: F-root and J-root name servers anycast replicas -  AS112 -  Route Servers -  iBGPlay: monitoring of BGP paths and reachability in real time -  Meeting/Workshop -  Info: http://www.namex.it/en/services/additional
  46. 46. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 46   Housing and power supply for carrier equipments: -  Full or partial rack housing -  Redundant AC power -  Cooling, monitoring, 24x7 access   Meet-me-room for cross-connection   Highest carrier and fiber density in town!   The “grey” Internet: -  Transits, transports, geographic links, dark fibers -  Multiple layers: both physical and logical -  Only physical demarcation is evident -  Traffic volumes much higher than peering
  47. 47. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 47 1) Telecommunications access issues -  How fast can circuits be brought into the interconnection environment? -  How many carriers compete for business for circuits back to my local Point of Presence (POP)? -  Are there nearby fiber providers? -  How fast can my peer and I get connectivity into the exchange?
  48. 48. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 48 2) Deployment issues -  How do I get my equipment into the exchange? -  Do I ship equipment in or do I have to bring it with me as I fly in? -  Will someone act as remote hands and eyes to get the equipment into the racks or do I do the installation myself? -  what are the costs associated with deployment (travel, staff time, etc.) into this exchange? -  Does the exchange have sufficient space, power, air conditioning, etc.
  49. 49. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 49 3) ISP Current Presences issues -  Number of participant ? -  Number of interesting participant ? -  ........
  50. 50. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 50 4) Operations issues -  Does the exchange allow private network interconnections? -  Are there requirements to connect to a central switch? -  How is access and security handled at the facility ? -  Is there sufficient power, HVAC, capacity at the switch, space for additional racks, real time staff support ? -  Is it easy to upgrade my presence over time?
  51. 51. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 51 5) Cost issues -  What is the cost and value of this IXP ? -  What are the rack fees, cross connect fees, port fees, installation fees? -  What are the future operating fees going to be? -  What are the motivations and parameters surrounding these fees?
  52. 52. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 52 Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides (usually sells) access to all destinations in its routing table Internet Peering: is the business relationship whereby companies reciprocally provide access to each others’ customers Transit is simple: Internet this way Peering is a non-transitive relationship
  53. 53. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 53 Internet transit billing Internet peering billing -  Transport of the traffic into the exchange point -  Colocation space -  Equipment -  A port on the exchange point shared fabric
  54. 54. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 54 - Internet Transit Price Declines - Internet traffic volumes have always grown When does it make sense to Peer?
  55. 55. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 55 ISP goals -  ISPs seek peering primarily to reduce transit costs and improve performance (lower latency) -  get peering set up as soon as possible -  minimize the cost of the interconnection and their transit costs -  maximize the benefits of a systematic approach to peering -  selection of exchange environment -  identification of potential peers -  identification (ideally) of traffic eXchanged
  56. 56. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 56 A Peering Inclination is a predisposition towards or against peering as demonstrated by Peering behavior in a Peering Ecosystem A Peering Policy is an articulation of the Peering Inclination; There are three general classes of Peering Inclinations seen in the Peering Ecosystem
  57. 57. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 57 Open: entity will generally agree to peer with anyone (no prerequisites)
  58. 58. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 58 Selective: entity will generally peer but there are some prerequisites
  59. 59. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 59 Restrictive: the entity is generally not open to new peering
  60. 60. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 60 Finally, the peering networks reaches the plateu of the "tier 1" network
  61. 61. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 61 Thanks Flavio Luciani E-mail: flavio.luciani@namex.it Web: www.namex.it
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