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Peering Policy

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Presentation @Telespazio - 2010

Presentation @Telespazio - 2010

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  • 1. Peering Policies
  • 2. -  The Internet -  Interconnections: transit and peering -  Internet Peering Ecosystem -  Ecosystem members -  The Internet view -  Why peer? -  Lower transit costs -  Lower latency -  Usage-based traffic billing -  Marketing benefits -  The benefit of peering -  Internet eXchange Point -  The role of an IXP -  Common IXP features -  Public and private peering -  European IXPs: Big IXPs, participants, traffic exchanged -  Nautilus Mediterranean eXchange point Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 2
  • 3. -  Internet Exchange point selection criteria -  Transit VS Peering -  Definitions -  Cost of traffic in a transit relationship -  Cost of traffic in a peering relationship -  Peering policies Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 3
  • 4. The Internet: is a network of networks, interconnected in peering and transit relationships referred to as a Global Internet Peering Ecosystem -  Ases are Identified by unique AS numbers -  Ases can host IP resources on their network (web, mail, news, services) -  Ases can have customers to whom they give connectivity -  Ases interconnect with each other establishing routing paths to resources Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 4
  • 5. Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides (usually sells) access to all destinations in its routing table -  Isp sells access to Internet, so…. -  An Isp must itself get attached to an Isp already attached to the Internet Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 5
  • 6. Internet Peering: is the business relationship whereby companies reciprocally provide access to each others’ customers Peering is a non-transitive relationship Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 6
  • 7. The Global Internet Peering Ecosystem: consists of a set of Internet Regions that operate an Internet Peering Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 7
  • 8. A Regional Tier 1 ISP (Transit Free) is an ISP that has access to the entire Internet Region Routing Table solely through Peering Relationship Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 8
  • 9. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 9
  • 10. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 10
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  • 12. A Tier 2 ISP is an ISP that has to purchase Transit to access some part of the Internet Region Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 12
  • 13. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 13
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  • 15. A Content Provider focuses on content development and does not Sell access to the Internet Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 15
  • 16. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 16
  • 17. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 17
  • 18. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 18
  • 19. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 19
  • 20. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 20
  • 21. 1)  Lower transit costs 2)  Lower latency 3)  Usage-based traffic billing 4)  Marketing benefits Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 21
  • 22. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 22
  • 23. -  Customer traffic need to traverse a couple of Transit Providers and accross great distances (high latency) before reaching other customer -  Through direct peering interconnections ISP customers realize better performance -  Keeping local traffic local -  Processing delay -  Queuing delay -  Transmission delay -  Propagation delay Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 23
  • 24. Usage-based traffic billing -  Some ISPs charge customers based upon metered traffic -  Packet loss and latency slows traffic consumption -  It is in their best interest therefore to assure that customers use as much bandwidth as possible by minimizing loss and latency through effective traffic engineering Marketing benefits -  Some ISP pointed to the benefits of a network diagram rich in interconnections as a proxy for quality as seen by customer prospects Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 24
  • 25. Direct peering introduces some benefits over a total hyerarchically tiered organization: -  Peering is a mutual agreement between peers, no entity is considered superior -  Round trip times are dramatically reduced -  Local communications are improved -  Peering is often for free -  Overall Internet reliability and robustness is highly improved Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 25
  • 26. -  We can see the Internet as an interconnection of networks (or AS, Autonomous Systems) -  Every single ISP has its own set of networks (an AS) and “buys” access to the “Big Internet” from upstream providers (larger ISPs), in a sort of tree-hierarchy -  Without IXPs traffic between two ISPs (leaf nodes) would flow up and down through the hierarchy of upstream providers (slow and expensive) -  By connecting to an IXP, ISPs can exchange inter-traffic, via BGP peering sessions, at a lower cost and better performance -  IXPs have a crucial role in making the whole network infrastructure more fast and reliable Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 26
  • 27. -  Wide choice of WAN fiber optics access carriers -  High-performance switching (Layer-2) devices -  Hosting space for ISPs network devices (mainly routers), structured cabling, reduntant power supplies -  Additional services: monitoring and alarms, traffic and bandwidth statistics, redundant access -  human peering: meetings and events to promote human relationships between network operators (both admins and techies) -  NO REDUNDANCY !! Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 27
  • 28. Public Peering is Internet Peering accross a shared peering fabric Private Peering is Internet Peering accross transport with exactly two parties connected to it, usually a fiber cross connect or point to point circuit Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 28
  • 29. Public Peering Private Peering -  Aggregation benefit -  Private Peering Sessions are easy to monitor -  Easy of administration -  Private peering is very cost effective -  Public peering is used as a selection criteria by customers -  Private peering is more reliable and easy to debug -  Public peering may be the only cost effective way to peer accross multiple -  Private peering sessions are more colos Secure Hybrid Approach: public + private peering Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 29
  • 30. What ? Route Servers (RS) provide support for the establishment of peering arrangements between IXP peers: theoretically, a single peering session replaces a complex full mesh BGP interconnection How ? -  Each peer establishes a single BGP peering session with the RS, advertising its own prefixes -  RS performs per-peer RIB calculation, applying input/output filter to overall received prefixes -  RS announces each peer a set of prefixes resulting from the previous RIB calculation -  RS is not involved in packet forwarding ! Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 30
  • 31. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 31
  • 32. Country # IXPs Russia 14 Sweden 12 germany 11 france 10 U.K. 7 Norway 7 Italy 7 Netherlands 7 Ukraine 5 Finland 4 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 32
  • 33. Total IXP Unique Present at participants ASNs > one IXP Europe 5.264 3.103 902 Asia-Pac 1.112 643 213 N. America 2.045 840 306 S. America 313 186 49 Africa 201 113 3 Global 9.295 4.614 1.387 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 33
  • 34. Participant ANS # of IXP EUR IXPs Google 15169 51 21 Akamai 20940 45 20 Limelight 22822 40 10 Hurricane 6939 36 14 Yahoo! 10310 28 5 Tata 6453 25 11 BroadbandONE 19151 25 3 Mzima 25937 24 2 E4A 34695 23 19 Easynet 4589 23 15 Verisign 26415 23 12 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 34
  • 35. AMS-IX (Amsterdam Internet Exchange) -  Number of members: 369 -  Number of sites: 7 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 35
  • 36. AMS-IX infrastructure -  AMS-IX is a distributed exchange, currently present at multiple independent co-location facilities in Amsterdam -  Each site is equipped with one or more access devices to enable connections to the AMS-IX infrastructure -  The current implementation of the AMS-IX peering platform uses an MPLS/VPLS infrastructure -  Members connect with either Gigabit Ethernet (GE), 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GE) or multiples of these on the access devices Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 36
  • 37. LINX (London Internet Exchange) -  Number of members: 365 -  Number of sites: 10 -  Number of networks exchanged: 265.288 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 37
  • 38. LINX infrastructure -  The LINX Network consists of two separate high-performance Ethernet switching platforms installed across ten locations. -  Switches from different equipment vendors are deployed in two diverse networks to provide an extra level of fault-tolerance, the logic being that both systems shouldn't develop the same fault at the same time. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 38
  • 39. DE-CIX (German Internet Exchange) -  Number of members: 360 -  Number of sites: 13 Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 39
  • 40. De-CIX infrastructure 1)  Access Switches 2)  160 Gbps DWDM Systems & fiber protection devices 3)  Dark fiber backbone 4)  Backup dark fiber backbone 5)  Production and backup core switches Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 40
  • 41. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 41
  • 42. -  Neutral, member-based, not-for-profit IXP based in Rome -  Founded in 1995, established as a consortium in 2001 -  Counting 38 members -  Larrge National ISPs and carriers -  Local IDPs and content providers (Akamai) -  International carriers (TATA, Telefonica, Cogent, Interoute, GBLX, ...) -  Research network -  http://www.namex.it/en/who/members -  Two main service categories -  Peering and other IP services -  Carrier interconnection services (physical) Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 42
  • 43. -  Up to 12Gbps of exchanged traffic in the last year -  Member of Euro-IX association -  R&D partnerships with Roma 3 University and CNR -  Hosting Italian Public Administration Qualied Exchange Network (QXN) Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 43
  • 44. Double star with high capacity switching fabrics in the middle, routers around. Stars are physically and logically separated for redundancy and robustness. -  Primary LAN: Enterasys -  Secondary LAN: Cisco 6509-E -  Vendor differentiation to enhance robustness against bugs and specific attack -  Core business is mostly at Level 2 of ISO/OSI model Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 44
  • 45.   Public and private peering, transit VLANs:   Redundant high-end switching platform   Members peering on public VLANs via BGPv4   Private peerings and transit on dedicated VLANs   IPv4/IPv6 support   ~12 Gbps aggregated traffic   Info: http://www.namex.it/en/services/publicpeering   Additional services:   Global DNS: F-root and J-root name servers anycast replicas   AS112   Route Servers   iBGPlay: monitoring of BGP paths and reachability in real time   Meeting/Workshop   Info: http://www.namex.it/en/services/additional Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 45
  • 46.   Housing and power supply for carrier equipments:   Full or partial rack housing   Redundant AC power   Cooling, monitoring, 24x7 access   Meet-me-room for cross-connection   Highest carrier and fiber density in town!   The “grey” Internet:   Transits, transports, geographic links, dark fibers   Multiple layers: both physical and logical   Only physical demarcation is evident   Traffic volumes much higher than peering Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 46
  • 47. 1) Telecommunications access issues -  How fast can circuits be brought into the interconnection environment? -  How many carriers compete for business for circuits back to my local Point of Presence (POP)? -  Are there nearby fiber providers? -  How fast can my peer and I get connectivity into the exchange? Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 47
  • 48. 2) Deployment issues -  How do I get my equipment into the exchange? -  Do I ship equipment in or do I have to bring it with me as I fly in? -  Will someone act as remote hands and eyes to get the equipment into the racks or do I do the installation myself? -  what are the costs associated with deployment (travel, staff time, etc.) into this exchange? -  Does the exchange have sufficient space, power, air conditioning, etc. Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 48
  • 49. 3) ISP Current Presences issues -  Number of participant ? -  Number of interesting participant ? -  ........ Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 49
  • 50. 4) Operations issues -  Does the exchange allow private network interconnections? -  Are there requirements to connect to a central switch? -  How is access and security handled at the facility ? -  Is there sufficient power, HVAC, capacity at the switch, space for additional racks, real time staff support ? -  Is it easy to upgrade my presence over time? Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 50
  • 51. 5) Cost issues -  What is the cost and value of this IXP ? -  What are the rack fees, cross connect fees, port fees, installation fees? -  What are the future operating fees going to be? -  What are the motivations and parameters surrounding these fees? Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 51
  • 52. Internet Transit: is the business relationship whereby one ISP provides (usually sells) access to all destinations in its routing table Transit is simple: Internet this way Internet Peering: is the business relationship whereby companies reciprocally provide access to each others’ customers Peering is a non-transitive relationship Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 52
  • 53. Internet transit billing Internet peering billing -  Transport of the traffic into the exchange point -  Colocation space -  Equipment -  A port on the exchange point shared fabric Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 53
  • 54. -  Internet Transit Price Declines -  Internet traffic volumes have always grown When does it make sense to Peer? Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 54
  • 55. ISP goals -  ISPs seek peering primarily to reduce transit costs and improve performance (lower latency) -  get peering set up as soon as possible -  minimize the cost of the interconnection and their transit costs -  maximize the benefits of a systematic approach to peering -  selection of exchange environment -  identification of potential peers -  identification (ideally) of traffic eXchanged Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 55
  • 56. A Peering Inclination is a predisposition towards or against peering as demonstrated by Peering behavior in a Peering Ecosystem A Peering Policy is an articulation of the Peering Inclination; There are three general classes of Peering Inclinations seen in the Peering Ecosystem Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 56
  • 57. Open: entity will generally agree to peer with anyone (no prerequisites) Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 57
  • 58. Selective: entity will generally peer but there are some prerequisites Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 58
  • 59. Restrictive: the entity is generally not open to new peering Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 59
  • 60. Finally, the peering networks reaches the plateu of the "tier 1" network Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 60
  • 61. Thanks Flavio Luciani E-mail: flavio.luciani@namex.it Web: www.namex.it Politiche di peering - 2010 NaMeX - 61