From therory to practice? "My" Italian experience


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Interoperability and standards: making it happen.
From therory to practice? "My" Italian experience

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From therory to practice? "My" Italian experience

  1. 1. Interoperability and standards: making it happen From theory to practice?From theary to practice? “my“ Italian experience Flavia Marzano flavia (dot) marzano (at) gmail (dot) com Flavia Marzano 1
  2. 2. Italian Association for Open GovernmentFrom theary to practice? • The initiative ( for the association was taken by a group of law experts, technologists, public and private managers, university professors, exponents of NGOs,... •  The aim of the association is mainly to increase the awareness of citizens, enterprises and PAs on Open Government issues and to promote the implementation of open government strategies in Italy. Flavia Marzano 2
  3. 3. Open Government?From theary to practice? “My Administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government. We will work togheter to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficienct and effectiveness in Government.” (President Obama 21/01/09) Flavia Marzano 3
  4. 4. Open Gov Manifesto: why? Notwithstanding some indifference on the Administration’sFrom theary to practice? side, a movement for open government is present also in Italy where several new grassroots initiatives are now growing. The attainable goals are: •  active participation •  2.0 government •  growth of transparency •  information as an infrastructure •  knowledge sharing •  collective intelligence (crowd wisdom) •  trust and confidence (in PA) •  permanent innovation •  extended network services Flavia Marzano 4
  5. 5. Regulations on Gov procurementFrom theary to practice? Present Italian regulations (since 1993) concern: Digital Administration, Interoperability, Reuse, Accessibility. Each norm defines some standards! Italian norms: • D.LGS. 39/1993 • L. 59/1997 • DPR 513/1997 • DPR 445/2000 • CAD (Code of Digital Administration) D.LGS. 82/2005 • New CAD D. LGS. 235/2010 … Flavia Marzano 5
  6. 6. Main sections of the new CADFrom theary to practice? •  Rights of citizens and enterprises •  Organization of Public Administrations •  Digital documents •  Electronic Signatures •  Electronic document transmission •  Public Administration Data •  Data availability •  Network services •  Development, acquisition and reuse of ICT systems in PA •  Public Connectivity System •  International network of PA Flavia Marzano 6
  7. 7. Key issues in CAD •  Comparative technical and economic evaluation of ICTFrom theary to practice? solutions must be performed verifying: •  Opportunity and convenience of ad hoc solutions •  Possibility of reuse included in the acquisition contracts •  Opportunity and convenience of acquisition of software under a proprietary licence •  Opportunity and convenience of acquisition of software under an open source licence •  PAs must inform the public agency DigitPA about the solutions adopted in order to make easy reuse possible for other PAs •  The solutions adopted by PAs must in principle be modular and must admit the possibility of representing data and documents also in open formats •  PAs owning customized software must be able to give it for free to any other PA, giving also the documentation and the source code in order to allow a customized reuse Flavia Marzano 7
  8. 8. Effects of regulations 1 •  One of the most relevant experiences related toFrom theary to practice? public procurement regulations involves CONSIP ( •  Consip, public stock company owned by Italy’s Ministry of the Economy and Finance (MEF), operates on behalf of the State, within the framework of the strategic guidelines and tasks given by its sole shareholder. •  It analyses the demand and supply markets, develops purchasing initiatives according to PA requirements and provides purchasing know- how and consultancy services to meet specific requirements Flavia Marzano 8
  9. 9. Effects of regulations 2 •  Regulations are in principle tight but not really compulsory (noFrom theary to practice? sanctions are provided by the norms). As a consequence standards are not always respected specially those concerning accessibility, usability, transparency, completeness of information. •  A limited effect of present regulations is also due to the lack of specific competences by administrators. As a consequence many activities are performed within old schemes, paying more attention to avoid possible sanctions than to improve services. Flavia Marzano 9
  10. 10. Standards? We need:From theary to practice?   maintenance and persistency of information   Interoperability   Neutrality   Suppliers indipendency   Investment protection Flavia Marzano 10
  11. 11. Constraints and Common rules Public Administrations buying software haveFrom theary to practice? to ensure the respect of many different constraints at least from the legal, technical and economical points of view. Nevertheless PAs can not forget that they are spending public money for public interest, so they also have to ensure the respect of some “common” rules… Flavia Marzano 11
  12. 12. Lessons learnt and Recommendations 1From theary to practice? The evidence coming from almost 20 years of public procurement based also on the new technologies shows that in Italy: •  It is necessary to provide a system of specific sanctions in order to increase compliance with regulations •  It is essential to organize dissemination and training (both of PA technicians and of politicians) in order to increase awareness and specific competences •  The Consip model, albeit quite centralistic, appears to be reasonably good and it may probably ensure a more systematic compliance with standards Flavia Marzano 12
  13. 13. Lessons learnt and Recommendations 2From theary to practice? On the technical side it is important to stress the advantages of openness in order to make standards-based public procurement practically feasible. In particular PAs in procurement should be aware of the need of: •  open standards •  neutrality •  open data •  business continuity •  open formats •  data persistency •  open access •  accessibility •  open g-cloud •  Transparency •  interoperability •  scalability •  software reusability •  … •  absence of lock-in Flavia Marzano 13
  14. 14. To do list for PAs 1From theary to practice? PAs in buying software must ensure: • pluralism, competition and security • Integration with the software already in use • The “continuity of data • Interoperability and cooperation • Availability of source code ate least for inspection and traceability (even in case of proprietary code) Flavia Marzano 14
  15. 15. To do list for PAs 2From theary to practice? PAs in buying software must: • Be proprietary of the “structure of data” • Be proprietary if software custom • Get better price/performance solutions and maintenance • Verify the TCO • Buy software based on Open standards • Be sure to be able to change supplier • Be sure that the software acquired will not have any backdoors Flavia Marzano 15
  16. 16. To do list for PAs 3From theary to practice? In giving information Pas must grant to citizens: • Transparency • Privacy • Accessibility (both in the sense of availability of documents and in the sense of accessiblity for disables) • Possibility to read public documents without having to buy any software (nor license) Flavia Marzano 16
  17. 17. What do we still miss? 1.  Open accessFrom theary to practice? 2.  Trust 3.  Innovation 4.  Awareness 5.  Political commitment We need to move from transparency to openness! Flavia Marzano 17
  18. 18. Thank youFrom theary to practice? for your attention flavia (dot) marzano (at) gmail (dot)com This work, in its original parts, is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Italy License. To view a copy of this license, visit Flavia Marzano 18